CAS Number: 8001-29-4
Cottonseed oil is cooking oil from the seeds of cotton plants of various species, mainly Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium herbaceum, that are grown for cotton fiber, animal feed, and oil.
Cotton seed has a similar structure to other oilseeds such as sunflower seed, having an oil-bearing kernel surrounded by a hard outer hull; in processing, the oil is extracted from the kernel.
Cottonseed oil is used for salad oil, mayonnaise, salad dressing, and similar products because of Cottonseed oils flavor stability.
Cottonseed oils fatty acid profile generally consists of 70% unsaturated fatty acids (18% monounsaturated, and 52% polyunsaturated), 26% saturated fatty acids.
When Cottonseed oil is fully hydrogenated, Cottonseed oils profile is 94% saturated fat and 2% unsaturated fatty acids (1.5% monounsaturated, and 0.5% polyunsaturated).
According to the cottonseed oil industry, cottonseed oil does not need to be hydrogenated as much as other polyunsaturated oils to achieve similar results.
Gossypol is a toxic, yellow, polyphenolic compound produced by cotton and other members of the order Malvaceae, such as okra.
This naturally occurring coloured compound is found in tiny glands in the seed, leaf, stem, tap root bark, and root of the cotton plant.
The adaptive function of the compound facilitates natural insect resistance.
The three key steps of refining, bleaching, and deodorization in producing finished oil act to eliminate the gossypol level.
Ferric chloride is often used to decolorize cotton seed oil.
Cottonseed oil is extracted from cottonseeds which are by-products of cotton fibre production.
Cottonseeds are rich in oil and proteins and are therefore used for cottonseed oil production and as a feed supplement for cattle and sheep.
According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, cottonseed oil is a type of vegetable oil used mainly as food.
China is the world's largest cottonseed oil producer, followed by India, Pakistan, the USA and Uzbekistan.
Cottonseed oil can be used to make salad oil (mayonnaise, salad dressings, sauces and marinades), cooking oil for frying in both commercial and home cooking, and margarine or shortening for baked goods and cake icings.
Besides, limited quantities may be used for producing industrial products such as soaps and cosmetics.
Although cottonseed oil is not commonly sold as cooking oil in retail stores in Hong Kong, Cottonseed oil is present in some foods such as bakery products and fried snacks.
Cottonseed oil is a cooking oil made from the seeds of the cotton plant.
Cottonseed oil belongs in the same category as canola oil, soybean oil and safflower oil, as Cottonseed oils really an inflammatory “vegetable” oil that’s processed and can easily oxidize when exposed to high heat, light and air.
Cottonseed oil is refined in order to remove gossypol, a naturally occurring toxin in the seed’s oil that works to protect the plant from insects.
If consumed, this natural pesticide may be toxic, so Cottonseed oils always removed from the seeds that are used to make cooking oil or flour.
You’ll find hydrogenated cottonseed oil on the ingredient list in many processed and packaged foods.
Cottonseed oils used in salad dressings, baked goods, cereals and more.
Cottonseed oil is the oil extracted from cotton seeds including Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium herbaceum.
This inexpensive oil can be used for home cooking, but Cottonseed oil is also used by food manufacturers in the production of foods like cookies and potato chips.
So is cottonseed oil bad for you? The answer depends, in part, on how you use Cottonseed oil.
This oil is healthier than some, but less healthy than others.
Cottonseed oil, America's original vegetable oil, dominated the United States vegetable oil market for almost 100 years.
Cottonseed is a by-product of cotton and difficult to process and refine due to Cottonseed oils unique seed structure and high content of natural pigment.
Through research and experimentation, chemists have developed a clear, odorless, bland flavored cottonseed oil and a creamy, white shortening that set the standards for edible fats and oils worldwide.
The scientific and technical advances developed to process cottonseed and cottonseed oil became the cornerstones of the edible fats and oils industry as Cottonseed oil is known today.
Numerous processes were developed or perfected especially for cottonseed oil and cottonseed which later found application for other oils and oilseeds.
These processes include screw press extraction, pre-press solvent extraction, and direct and expander-solvent extraction for the crude oil; caustic and miscella refining; fractionaton via winterization; deodorization; bleaching; hydrogenated basestock system; blending and formulating with various basestocks to achieve the desired performance and characteristics, etc.
Today, vegetable oil processors worldwide have a wide range of raw materials to choose from, but cottonseed pioneered the American vegetable oil industry.
Cottonseed oil is a vegetable oil extracted from the seeds of the cotton plant after the cotton lint has been removed.
Cottonseed oil must be refined to remove gossypol, a naturally occurring toxin that protects the cotton plant from insect damage.
Cottonseed oil has no cholesterol and is very low in trans fatty acids.
Cottonseed oil is commonly used in manufacturing potato chips and other snack foods.
Along with soybean oil, cottonseed oil is very often partially or fully hydrogenated.
The growing consensus is that in hydrogenated (trans fat) form these oils are very unhealthy.
Cottonseed oil was the first oil to be hydrogenated, originally intended for candle production, not food.
Proctor & Gamble created and patented this technique, and the marketed name of the product was Crisco.
Since cotton crops are under far less chemical regulation that other other crops used specifically for food, many pesticides or chemicals can be used on cotton crops that are illegal for use on food crops, yet the cottonseed can find Cottonseed oils way into the food chain because of this major legal loophole in the regulation of food and chemicals by the FDA.
Some serious pesticides or chemicals could resist processing and find their way into the food chain because of this.
Cottonseed oil comes from the same plant you're familiar with—the used worldwide for Cottonseed oils fluffy white fibers.
But the cotton clouds you know are actually grouped around thirty or so of the plant’s seeds, which are used to produce cottonseed oil.
Once the fibers and seeds are separated, the former go on to make fabric, while the seeds are pressed for their precious oil.
Cottonseed oil is pressed from the seeds of cotton.
After pressing, the oil goes through an extensive refining process.
This process removes, among other compounds, gossypol — a potent toxin shown to suppress spermatogenesis (sperm production) in mice and men.
The refining process also removes vitamin E — a potent antioxidant and free radical scavenger — from the oil.
Refined cottonseed oil has the following fatty acid profile:
27% saturated fat, mostly palmitic acid
18% monounsaturated fat, mostly oleic acid
55% polyunsaturated fat, mostly linoleic acid
This oil from the seeds of cotton is mostly PUFAs, which is highly unstable.
That means the fat oxidizes when exposed to light and heat.
This means that most of the oil goes rancid before you even buy Cottonseed oil.
Decades ago, to make the product more heat stable, manufacturers used to hydrogenate the PUFA in cottonseed oil.
Hydrogenation is a chemical process where manufacturers add hydrogen to make oil more solid at room temperature.
The only problem is that hydrogenated or partially hydrogenated oils contain trans fatty acids.
Not only are trans fatty acids linked to many chronic diseases including coronary heart disease, they’re also the only type of fatty acid in food that you don’t find in nature.
Trans fats are so bad that the World Health Organization requested that governments remove them from the international food supply.
The United States was a slow adopter, but in 2015 the FDA recognized that partially hydrogenated oils were no longer “generally recognized as safe” for human consumption.
There are a variety of cooking oils, and Cottonseed oil is one of them.
Cottonseed oil is referred to as anti-inflammatory vegetable oil, and Cottonseed oil gets oxidised easily when exposed to light, air and high heat.
Prepared from the cotton seeds, Cottonseed oil must be refined to eliminate a toxin named Gossypol.
This naturally occurring toxin protects the cotton plant from insects, but can be harmful to the human body.
High concentrations of Gossypol may result in acute clinical signs of gossypol poisoning, including weakness, apathy, and maybe even death.
Cottonseed oil contains three types of fat: saturated fat (3.5 grams), Polyunsaturated fat (7 grams), and monounsaturated fat.
Out of them, polyunsaturated fat helps you fulfil the recommended daily intake of healthy fats like Omega-3 fatty acids and omega-6 fatty acids.
As far as monounsaturated fat is concerned, Cottonseed oil is believed to enhance the HDL cholesterol that is also known as Good cholesterol.
Cottonseed oil is considered to be healthy.
Refined cottonseed oil is considered suitable for cooking.
Refined cottonseed oil also acts as a home remedy for diversified skin conditions such as dry skin, redness, irritated skin and more.
Due to the presence of Vitamin E, antioxidants, and fatty acids, Cottonseed oil helps moisturise skin and slows down the skin ageing process.
High in Polyunsaturated fat, Cottonseed oil helps lower bad cholesterol (LDL) while increasing good cholesterol (HDL).
Equipped with anti-inflammatory properties, Cottonseed oil enhances the permeability of the skin.
Cotton oil is enriched with a vital micronutrient called Vitamin E that possesses antioxidant effects.
One tablespoon of this oil contains 5 milligrams of Vitamin E.
This important vitamin helps protect against an array of life-threatening diseases like cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and much more.
In short, Cottonseed oils a vegetable oil derived from the cotton plant.
“Cottonseed oils fatty-acid profile — saturated fat, monounsaturated fat and polyunsaturated fat — is most similar to soybean oil and sunflower oil,” explains Dana Hunnes, PhD, RD, a senior dietitian at Ronald Reagan-UCLA Medical Center in Los Angeles.
“Cottonseed oil is higher in saturated fat and polyunsaturated fats than olive oil and is much lower than olive oil in monounsaturated fat.”
In part, those polyunsaturated fats could be playing a role in the aforementioned study results.
Polyunsaturated fats, including omega-3’s, are anti-inflammatory, explains Hunnes.
“Moreover, these fats are liquid at room temperature and are highly malleable, meaning they more easily flow through our digestive system and veins.
” These anti-inflammatory components could remove some of the unhealthy LDL fats from our bodies, she says.
Fats in Cottonseed Oil:
There are three different types of fat in cottonseed oil.
This oil contains saturated fat.
Saturated fats are considered to be less healthy fats as they may contribute to heart disease.
The American Heart Association recommends choosing oils with less than four grams of saturated fat per tablespoon.
Cottonseed oil provides just 3.5 grams of saturated fat per tablespoon.
You'll also get 7 grams of polyunsaturated fat when you consume a tablespoon of cottonseed oil.
Polyunsaturated fat is liquid at room temperature and may boost heart health when you use Cottonseed oil to replace less healthy fat (like saturated fat) in your diet.
There are two different kinds of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and cottonseed oil contains both of them.
According to USDA data, you'll get 2 percent of your daily recommended intake of α-linolenic acid (ALA) omega-3 fatty acids and you'll get 58 percent (7 grams) of your recommended daily intake of linoleic acid or omega-6 fatty acids.
There is also a small amount of monounsaturated fat in cottonseed oil.
Monounsaturated fats come primarily from plant sources, like avocado, nuts, or seeds.
Monounsaturated fatty acids, also called MUFAs, are believed to increase your HDL cholesterol or "good" cholesterol.
Health experts recommend that you replace less healthy fats (such as saturated fats and trans fats) with monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fat.
The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics recommends that 15 to 20 percent of your caloric intake come from monounsaturated fatty acids.
Carbs in Cottonseed Oil:
There are no carbohydrates in cottonseed oil.
The estimated glycemic load of cottonseed oil is zero.
Protein in Cottonseed Oil
There is no protein in cottonseed oil.
Micronutrients in Cottonseed Oil
Cottonseed oil contributes vitamin E to your diet.
You'll get a little less than 5 milligrams or about 32% of your recommended daily intake when you consume one tablespoon of cottonseed oil.
Vitamin E, or alpha-tocopherol, plays an important role in cell membranes as an antioxidant2 and has immune, antioxidant, cell signaling, and metabolic process functions.
This important vitamin may also help to protect against certain diseases including cancer, cardiovascular disease, cataracts, and diabetes.
You will also get a small amount (just 3 micrograms, or 4 percent of your daily target) of vitamin K in a tablespoon of cottonseed oil.
Vitamin K is essential for blood clotting functions.
Cotton is one of the most important commercial crops of Turkey and is the single largest natural source of fibre.
Cottonseed oil plays a dominant role in industrial economy as the backbone of textile industry.
65% of country’s textile products are exported, and 80% of these products consist of cotton weaving.
However cottonseeds contain oil significant amount.
Oil content of cottonseeds changes between 12-25%.
Oil is obtained from cottonseeds as by products that meet an important part of Turkey oil consumption.
Cottonseed oil is the second most common oil being used today besides sunflower oil.
As the most important vegetable oil source in Turkey, sunflower is first ranked with 1.38 million tons, followed by cottonseed with 1.28 million tons, soybean 180,000 ton, peanut 141,000 tons and rapeseed 101,000 tons.
Cottonseed oil is usually used in vegetable oil mixtures, cooking and salad oil, in the preparation of margarine, shortening, mayonnaise and sauces, also to less extend in canned fish and smoked meat.
Crude cottonseed oil, which has an aroma resembling peanut and walnut, has a blurry appearance.
Color of crude cottonseed oil can vary from brunette yellow to dark red due to significant amount of color pigment passing to oil during extraction.
In addition triglycerides, nonglyceride components such as gossypol, phospholipids, sterols, pigments, tocopherols and carbohydrates are found in this oil with the amount of about 2%.
Cottonseed oil also has a rich source of minerals, Cottonseed oil includes vitamin B and oil soluble vitamins such as A, D, E, K.
The important component of cottonseed oil is tocopherols, natural antioxidants.
However, amount of tocopherols that present in oil declines significantly during the refining process.
Therefore crude cottonseed oil when compared to refined cottonseed oil and soybean oil is rich in terms of amount of tocopherol and, more resistant to oxidation.
Fatty acid composition of cottonseed oil is the one of important properties.
Cottonseed oil has a 2:1 ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acid.
Cottonseed oil is described as naturally hydrogenated because Cottonseed oils fatty acid profile generally consists of 70% unsaturated fatty acids, including 18% mono-unsaturated (oleic) and 52% poly-unsaturated (linoleic), and 26% saturated (primarily palmitic and stearic) acids.
These make the oil stable for frying without the need for additional processing or the formation of trans-fatty acids.
As with other vegetable oils quality of cottonseed oil usually comes from fatty acid composition and unsaponifiable matters mentioned.
Their amount and oil yield varies depending on genotype, ecological conditions of region process and storage conditions.
The objective of this study was to determine crude seed oil yield, fatty acid composition and typical characteristic properties in the seed oil of three different cotton genotypes grown in Cukurova region.
Cottonseed oil is extracted from the seeds of Gossypium sp.
Cottonseed oil is used to impart a roasted or nutty aroma to fried food products.
Cottonseed oil is used as a component to formulate shortenings and margarines.
Cottonseed oil has a long shelf life and is healthy for the heart.
Cottonseed oil is extracted from the kernel, a part of the cotton seed.
This oil contains linoleic acid, oleic acid, linolenic acid and myristic acid.
Cottonseed oil is used as non-edible oil and is used in the preparation of polymeric resins.
Cottonseed oil, as the name implies, is made from the seeds of cotton plants, which are produced in huge quantities in various countries, including the United States.
Similar to other seed oils, the cotton seeds must be husked, revealing an oil-rich kernel, which can then be pressed to extract the valuable oil.
This oil, which is praised for being low in trans fats, is often used as cooking oil because Cottonseed oil can help bring out the flavor of foods rather than masking them.
Cottonseed oil is also popularly used as a form of biofuel.
However, not all cottonseed oils are made equally.
Unprocessed oil may contain more than 70% unsaturated fats, but hydrogenated cottonseed oil is extremely high in saturated fats, which have negative side effects on the body.
The benefits of the organic, unprocessed version of this oil are due to the presence of polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats, as well as various other antioxidants.
Usage Areas of Cottonseed oil:
In the production of margarine,
Due to Cottonseed oil is more crunchy and delicious, Cottonseed oil is suitable for frying, making desserts,
Due to Cottonseed oils long life, in the fast food industry,
Cream and cake making in the pastry industry,
Cottonseed oil is used in pastries due to Cottonseed oils consistency enhancer.
Safety Profile of Cottonseed oil:
Questionable carcinogen with experimental tumorigenic data.
Experimental teratogenic effects.
Combustible liquid when exposed to heat or flame.
However, if allowed to impregnate rags or oily waste, Cottonseed oil can become a dangerous hazard due to spontaneous heating.
To fight fire, use COa, dry chemical.
Safety of Cottonseed oil:
Cottonseed oil emulsions have in the past been used in long-term intravenous nutrition regimens.
A complex of adverse reactions,called the ‘overloading syndrome’has been seen with chronic administration of cottonseed oil emulsion.
This consisted of anorexia,nausea,abdominal pain,headache,fever,and sorethroat.
Signs of impaired liver function, anemia, hepatosplenomegaly, thrombocytopenia, and spontaneous hemorrhage due to delayed blood clotting have been reported.
For parenteral nutrition purposes, cottonseed oil has been replaced by soybean oil,especially in pregnant women, where the use of cottonseed lipid emulsion has been associated with adverse effects.
A notable difference between the cottonseed oil emulsion and the soybean oil emulsion is the particle size.
The cottonseed oil emulsion has much larger particles than the soybean oil emulsion.
These larger particles may have been handled differently by the body, thus perhaps accounting for some of the toxic reactions.
Application of Cottonseed oil:
Cottonseed oil has been used as an nutritional supplement for alveolar septal wall thickness in mice.
Cottonseed oil has been used to study Cottonseed oils effects on indirect gestational and lactational exposure in rats.
Cottonseed oil has been used to dissolve testosterone propionate employed in preparation of prenatal testosterone -treated Suffolk ewes.
Cottonseed oil can be used in several baking systems such as cakes, cookies, muffins and breads.
Margarines and shortening made with this can be used in the manufacturing of baked goods.
One advantage of using cottonseed oil is Cottonseed oils crystalline structure (beta-prime crystals), essential for smoothness, creaming ability, and good aeration.
Pharmaceutical Applications of Cottonseed oil:
Cottonseed oil is used in pharmaceutical formulations primarily as a solvent for intramuscular injections.
Cottonseed oil has been used in intravenous emulsions as a fat source in parenteral nutrition regimens, although Cottonseed oils use for this purpose has been superseded by soybean oil emulsions.
Cottonseed oil has also been used as an adjuvant in cholecystography and as a pediculicide and acaricide.
Cottonseed oil has the nutritive and emollient properties of fixed vegetable oils.
By virtue of Cottonseed oils high content of unsaturated acid glycerides (especially linoleic acid), Cottonseed oil is used for dietary control of blood cholesterol levels in the prophylaxis and treatment of atherosclerosis.
Cottonseed oil is used as a solvent and vehicle for injections; as an emollient vehicle for other medications; and orally as a mild cathartic (in a dose of 30mL or more).
Cottonseed oil can also retard gastric secretion and motility, and increase caloric intake.
Cottonseed oil has been used in the manufacture of soaps, oleomargarine, lard substitutes, glycerin, lubricants, and cosmetics.
Cottonseed oil has been used as a tablet binder for acetaminophen; for characterization of the hot-melt fluid bed coating process; in the manufacturing of stable oral pharmaceutical powders; in encapsulation of enzymes; and as an aqueous dispersion in pharmaceutical coating.
Physical properties of Cottonseed oil:
Once processed, cottonseed oil has a mild taste and appears generally clear with a light golden color, the amount of color depending on the amount of refining.
Cottonseed oil has a relatively high smoke point as a frying medium.
Density ranges from 0.917 to 0.933 g/cm3 (7.65 to 7.79 lb/US gal).
Like other long-chain fatty acid oils, cottonseed oil has a smoke point of about 450 °F (232 °C), and is high in tocopherols, which also contribute Cottonseed oils stability, giving products that contain Cottonseed oil a long shelf life, hence manufacturers' proclivity to use Cottonseed oil in packaged goods.
History Of Cottonseed Oil:
Until the late 1800s, nobody cared much for cotton seeds.
Cotton fiber was in demand, and the useless seeds were thrown away.
But near the turn of the century, Proctor and Gamble sensed a business opportunity and started incorporating cheap cottonseed oil into their products.
This effort culminated with the 1911 launch of Crisco — a vegetable shortening now synonymous with the term trans fat.
Over the next 30 years, cottonseed oil replaced lard in many recipes and became the king of vegetable oils.
However, by World War II, this oil was on the way out and soybean oil was on Cottonseed oils way in.
Why? Simple economics.
Soybean oil was cheaper.
By the 1950s, vegetable oils were somewhat popular — but thanks to a doctor named Ancel Keys, they were about to get much more popular.
That’s because, in 1955, Keys unveiled his thesis that saturated fat caused heart disease.
Cottonseed oil wasn’t based on good science, but Cottonseed oil still gained traction.
And so, in the name of a healthy heart, the AHA began recommending that people replace saturated fats with polyunsaturated fats.
Soon, vegetable oils were known as being heart healthy, while saturated fats such as lard, coconut oil, palm oil, and eggs became synonymous with heart disease.
Economic history of Cottonseed oil:
The by-product of cotton processing, cottonseed was considered virtually worthless before the late 19th century.
While cotton production expanded throughout the 17th, 18th, and mid-19th centuries, a largely worthless stock of cottonseed grew.
Although some of the seed was used for planting, fertilizer, and animal feed, the majority was left to rot or was illegally dumped into rivers.
In the 1820s and 1830s Europe experienced fats and oils shortages due to rapid population expansion during the Industrial Revolution and the after-effects of the British blockade during the Napoleonic Wars.
The increased demand for fats and oils, coupled with a decreasing supply caused prices to rise sharply.
Consequently, many Europeans could not afford to buy the fats and oils they had used for cooking and for lighting.
Many United States entrepreneurs tried to take advantage of the increasing European demand for oils and America's increasingly large supply of cottonseed by crushing the seed for oil.
But separating the seed hull from the seed meat proved difficult and most of these ventures failed within a few years.
This problem was resolved in 1857, when William Fee invented a huller, which effectively separated the tough hulls from the meats of cottonseed.
With this new invention, cottonseed oil began to be used for illumination purposes in lamps to supplement increasingly expensive whale oil and lard.
But by 1859, this use came to end as the petroleum industry emerged.
Cottonseed oil then began to be used illegally to fortify animal fats and lards.
Initially, meat packers secretly added cottonseed oil to the pure fats, but this practice was uncovered in 1884.
Armour and Company, an American meatpacking and food processing company, sought to corner the lard market and realized that Cottonseed oil had purchased more lard than the existing hog population could have produced.
A congressional investigation followed, and legislation was passed that required products fortified with cottonseed oil to be labeled as ‘‘lard compound.”
Similarly, cottonseed oil was often blended with olive oil.
Once the practice was exposed, many countries put import tariffs on American olive oil and Italy banned the product completely in 1883.
Both of these regulatory schemes depressed cottonseed oil sales and exports, once again creating an oversupply of cottonseed oil, which decreased Cottonseed oils value.
Cottonseed oil was cottonseed's depressed value that led a newly formed Procter & Gamble to utilize Cottonseed oils oil.
The Panic of 1837 caused the two brothers-in-law to merge their candlestick and soap manufacturing businesses in an effort to minimize costs and weather the bear market.
Looking for a replacement for expensive animal fats in production, the brothers finally settled on cottonseed oil.
Procter & Gamble cornered the cottonseed oil market to circumvent the meat packer's monopoly on the price.
But as electricity emerged, the demand for candles decreased.
Procter and Gamble then found an edible use for cottonseed oil.
Through patented technology, the brothers were able to hydrogenate cottonseed oil and develop a substance that closely resembled lard.
In 1911, Procter & Gamble launched an aggressive marketing campaign to publicize Cottonseed oils new product, Crisco, a vegetable shortening that could be used in place of lard.
Crisco placed ads in major newspapers advertising that the product was "easier on digestion a healthier alternative to cooking with animal fats and more economical than butter.”
The company also gave away free cookbooks, with every recipe calling for Crisco.
By the 1920s the company developed cookbooks for specific ethnicities in their native tongues.
Additionally, Crisco started airing radio cooking programs.
Similarly, in 1899 David Wesson, a food chemist, developed deodorized cottonseed oil, Wesson cooking oil.
Wesson Oil also was marketed heavily and became quite popular too.
Over the next 30 years cottonseed oil became the pre-eminent oil in the United States.
Crisco and Wesson oil became direct substitutes for lard and other more expensive oils in baking, frying, sautéing, and salad dressings.
But by World War Two cottonseed oil shortages forced the utilization of another direct substitute, soybean oil.
By 1944, soybean oil production outranked cottonseed oil production due to cottonseed shortages and soybean oil costs falling below that of cottonseed oil.
By 1950, soybean oil replaced cottonseed oil in the use of shortenings like Crisco due to soybeans comparatively low price.
Prices for cottonseed were also increased by the replacement of cotton acreage by corn and soybeans, a trend fueled in large part by the boom in demand for corn syrup and ethanol.
Cottonseed oil and production continued to decline throughout the mid and late 20th century.
In the mid to late 2000s, the consumer trend of avoiding trans fats, and mandatory labeling of trans fats in some jurisdictions, sparked an increase in the consumption of cottonseed oil, with some health experts: 220 and public health agencies recommending Cottonseed oil as a healthy oil.
Crisco and other producers have been able to reformulate cottonseed oil so Cottonseed oil contains little to no trans fats.
Still, some health experts claim that cottonseed oil's high ratio of polyunsaturated fats to monounsaturated fats and processed nature make Cottonseed oil unhealthy.
Regulation of Cottonseed oil:
Cottonseed oil in Canada must be pressed from the seed of the Gossypium plant.
As a single source vegetable oil, 100% cottonseed oil must appear as “cottonseed oil” on the labels of any products sold.
Cottonseed oil sold as an edible product must be processed and refined to eliminate specific components that could present as a food safety hazard.
In particular gossypol, a natural pigment present in the cotton seeds that acts as a natural defense mechanism to insects and other predators, can also act as a toxin to humans, and can lead to infertility in men.
Production of Cottonseed oil:
Cottonseed oil, like other vegetable oils, is extracted from the seed of the plant, through either mechanical processes such as crushing or pressing, or by chemical processes such as solvent extraction.
Cottonseed oil however, is most commonly extracted commercially via solvent extraction.
Refining of Cottonseed oil:
Plant oils are esters, usually triglyceride esters, of fatty acids.
Once the crude oil is extracted, Cottonseed oil must be processed and refined before Cottonseed oil can be used for consumption, in order to remove impurities, including free fatty acids (FFA), phospholipids, pigments and volatile compounds.
Degumming of Cottonseed oil:
Degumming is the first step in the refining process to remove phospholipids, gums, waxes and other impurities from the crude oil.
The oil is treated with water or dilute acids such as phosphoric acid, which exploits the fact that the phospholipids are attracted to water because of their amphipathic nature, and turns the lipids into hydrated gums.
These gums are insoluble in oil and are then separated from the oil using centrifuges.
The separated gums are then dried and manufactured into emulsifying agents such as lecithin.
Neutralization of Cottonseed oil:
The second step in the refining process is the separation of the free fatty acids (FFA) from the oil through alkaline neutralization.
Depending on the type of oil being processed, there can be either two or three stages during neutralization, where three stages are done to produce a higher quality oil.
Cottonseed oil goes through all three stages of neutralization.
The first stage of neutralization occurs when caustic soda sodium hydroxide is added to the oil after being pumped through a strainer and heated to 133 °C (271 °F).
Both neutralisation and some Saponification occur when the crude oil and the aqueous caustic soda mixture is blended.
Generally, not all FFA get neutralized in this process.
During neutralization, free fatty acids (FFA) react with sodium hydroxide (caustic soda) to form the sodium salt of the fatty acid ("soap").
The aqueous lipid emulsion containing triglycerol, acylglycerols together with the fatty acid salt and other components form the so-called soapstock.
The soapstock will be separated from the oil.
Some of the triglycerides esters (the desired oils) might got cleaved during the first neutralisation step.
Thus, the second stage of neutralization is the repetition of stage one with the addition of more caustic soda to the mixture.
In addition to the sodium salt of the fatty acid, the ester connecting alcohol, triglycerol will be released (ester saponification, Saponification).
Soapstock is removed.
The final stage is a second wash with water to minimize the level of residual soap in the mixture.
Bleaching of Cottonseed oil:
The third stage in the refining process is the removal of any residual soap, gums or pigments through bleaching.
The most common bleaching agent employed is bleaching earth, a type of bentonite clay.
Once the clay is added, the mixture is agitated, which allows the clay to bind the contaminants in the oil, either physically (e.g. Van der Waal forces) or chemically (chemisorption).
The mixture is then filtered to remove the clay with the bound contaminants.
Deodorization of Cottonseed oil:
The fourth stage in the refining process is deodorization to remove any volatile substances.
The molecules are distilled using high pressure steam injected through a vacuum system.
Winterization of Cottonseed oil:
The fifth stage in the refining process is winterization to remove the saturated triacylglycerols to prevent the oil product from solidifying at low temperatures.
The processed oil is stored at a cool environment where the temperature is kept below 5 °C (41 °F).
Through winterization, the oil will separate into liquid and solid fractions.
The solid fraction will be crystallized due to the presence of saturated triacylglycerols.
The two fractions are then separated by filtration.
Benefits of Cottonseed oil:
The presence of an omega-6 fatty acid named linoleic acid makes cottonseed oil beneficial for reducing inflammation while lowering the risk related to heart diseases.
Besides this, Cottonseed oil also boosts immune function and improves brain function.
Oleic Acid found in cottonseed oil reduces cholesterol and blood pressure.
Cottonseed oil also helps prevent Type 2 diabetes and fights infections.
Vitamin E present in cottonseed oil soothes and moisturises the skin.
Cottonseed oil also helps protect against a range of skin conditions such as dark spots, marks and more.
Polyunsaturated fat in cottonseed oil is known to improve heart health while monounsaturated fat enhances HDL cholesterol.
The Omega-6 fatty acids present in cottonseed oil helps in reducing the risks related to life-threatening diseases like cancer.
Cottonseed oil also helps manage the risk related to stroke and all-cause mortality due to the presence of monounsaturated fat in this oil.
All-cause mortality is related to diseases or harmful exposures, such as radiation or dangerous chemicals in a statistical context.
Cottonseed Oil Side Effects
The presence of a high amount of Omega- 6 in the body can result in inflammation.
This is why one should avoid the intake of cottonseed oil with processed junk food.
Before consuming cottonseed oil, Cottonseed oil is crucial to determine that you are not allergic to Cottonseed oil.
Allergies due to cottonseed may result in a rash on a body area if used topically.
More severe side effects of cottonseed oil consumption include facial swelling, breathing difficulty, abdominal pain, severe asthma, vomiting and nausea.
These types of omega-6 fatty acids should be consumed along with omega-3 fatty acids.
Unfortunately, the standard American diet consists of way too much omega-6 fats, which can actually have adverse effects on your health.
Provides Oleic Acid of Cottonseed oil:
Almost 20 percent of oil from cottonseeds contains oleic acid, an omega-9 fatty acid that’s found naturally in vegetable fats.
Oleic acid is known for Cottonseed oils ability to reduce blood pressure and cholesterol.
Cottonseed oil may also help prevent type 2 diabetes, fight infections and promote brain function.
Olive oil, almond oil and avocado oil contain even higher amounts of heart-healthy oleic acid.
The Skin Benefits Of Cottonseed Oil:
This oil’s biggest assets are Cottonseed oils frankly extraodinary skin-softening and protecting properties.
Because of Cottonseed oils molecular weight, cottonseed oil effectively coats the skin in a way that allows Cottonseed oil to protect the cells beneath, and keeps them from being irritated.
This oil is also exceptionally high in omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, which have both been shown to help skin retain moisture—essential for combatting both winter dryness and summertime sun and wind damage.
Linoleic acid, one of the fatty acids in cottonseed oil, is especially great for treating dry skin because Cottonseed oil helps strengthen the skin's barrier, and Cottonseed oil helps calm red, irritated, dry skin.
Cottonseed oils also effective as an antioxidant, fighting the effects of cell-destroying—and skin-aging—free radicals.
Cottonseed oil is also high in Vitamin E, which works together with linoleic acid to soothe skin.
Basically, the specific combination of anti-inflammatory properties in this oil can help damaged skin cells take a breather and repair themselves
Promotes Skin Health of Cottonseed oil:
Cottonseed oil benefits the skin because of Cottonseed oils moisturizing and soothing properties.
Unrefined cottonseed oil contains vitamin E oil, which has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant effects.
Although there isn’t any scientific evidence of this cottonseed oil benefit, Cottonseed oils commonly used topically for these reasons.
Keep in mind, if you aren’t using an organic product, there may be pesticides present.
Protects Hair of Cottonseed oil:
Cottonseed oil for hair helps moisturize your hair and scalp, and Cottonseed oil may help reduce or eliminate dandruff.
Cottonseed oil can also be used as a styler, helping add shine and tame your hair, reducing the need for hair products that contain chemical additives.
Your hair may be less likely to break when you use just a bit of cottonseed oil before styling.
There are dozens of unproven claims of benefits.
Some of the claims are purely anecdotal, but there’s evidence to support others.
Anticancer effects of Cottonseed oil:
The anticancer effects of cottonseed oil and gossypol have been studied for years and the research continues.
Older animal studies found that gossypol improved the effects of radiation on prostate cancer cells.
There’s also evidence that cottonseed oil may suppress cancer cells that have been resistant to multiple drugs.
A 2018 studyTrusted Source also showed that gossypol reduced tumor growth and slowed or killed three prostate cancer cell lines.
Animal and human studiesTrusted Source have found that Cottonseed oil prevented tumor growth and spread in some breast cancers.
Lowers inflammation of Cottonseed oil:
There’s a lot of evidence that diets high in monounsaturated fats can reduce inflammation.
People who eat a Mediterranean diet high in monounsaturated fats have been found to have significantly lower levels of inflammatory chemicals in their blood.
Inflammation has been linked to chronic disease, including heart disease.
Cottonseed oil contains only 18 percent monounsaturated fat, but the content increases to 50 percent when partially hydrogenated.
In theory, cottonseed oil could have an anti-inflammatory effect similar to olive oil.
This may help lower the risk of heart disease and improve symptoms of inflammatory conditions, such as arthritis.
Though hydrogenated cottonseed oil is fairly high in unsaturated fats, the Arthritis Foundation recommends other oils that have anti-inflammatory properties, including:
Reduces the risk of cardiovascular diseases
Along with lowering inflammation, the unsaturated fats in cottonseed oil may help lower your LDL and increase your HDL.
This can improve blood pressure and reduce the risk of heart disease and stroke.
However, cottonseed oil is also higher in saturated fat than other vegetable oils, which can have the opposite effect.
There are other, more heart-friendly options available.
Wound healing of Cottonseed oil:
Cottonseed oil contains high amounts of vitamin E, which is an antioxidant with many proven benefits for the skin, including faster wound healing.
Vitamin E has also been shown to have a positive effect on skin ulcers, psoriasis, and other skin conditions and injuries.
This suggests that cottonseed oil may have similar effects, though you can find more potent sources of vitamin E.
Hair growth of Cottonseed oil:
Research has found that certain plant oils can help improve your hair’s health.
The oils work by:
Preventing protein loss
Protecting against styling and environmental damage
Healthy hair is less likely to break, which could help you grow your hair.
While this could apply to cottonseed oil, there’s no scientific evidence available on Cottonseed oil specifically.
Health Benefits of Cottonseed oil:
When you consume cottonseed oil, you increase your intake of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, two types of polyunsaturated fat.
Both omega-3 and omega-6 are essential fats, these are fats that must be consumed in the diet because your body does not produce them.
The omega-3 fatty acids in cottonseed oil help to reduce blood clotting and inflammation in the body and also may help dilate blood vessels and lower blood pressure.
However, this oil conversion to EPA and DHA which are essential to the human body is low.
Only 5% of ALA is converted to EPA and less than 0.5% of ALA is converted to DHA.
Cottonseed oil may be best to cook cottonseed oil with fatty fish.4
The omega-6 in cottonseed oil helps to reduce your risk for heart disease and may also help to reduce your risk for cancer.
The small amount of monounsaturated fat in cottonseed oil also provides health benefits.
Research has shown that when you replace saturated fat with monounsaturated fat your risk for cardiovascular events or cardiovascular death is reduced.
In addition, studies have found that an increased intake of monounsaturated fat reduces the risk for all-cause mortality and stroke.
If you choose to include cottonseed oil in your diet Cottonseed oils important to remember that this oil—like all oil—is fat.
Fats contribute nine calories per gram as opposed to four calories per gram for carbohydrates and protein.
So even though cottonseed oil is considered a healthy fat, you should still consume the oil in moderation in order to reach and maintain a healthy weight.
Is Cottonseed Oil Safe?
Though there is some anecdotal suggestions that a cottonseed oil can cause an allergic reaction, hydrogenated cottonseed oil lacks any allergic protein—and studies have found Cottonseed oil caused no irritation in skin care products where cottonseed oil made up about 20% of the formulation.
A quick note about that "hydrogenated" part: cotton seeds contain gossypol, a natural toxin that the cotton plant uses to fight off insect infestations.
To make Cottonseed oil safe for consumption, the oil has to be refined to remove the gossypol.
Once Cottonseed oils been removed, the resulting hydrogenated cottonseed oil is safe to consume and use in skincare.
Cottonseed oil is a vegetable oil extracted from the seeds of the cotton plant after the cotton lint has been removed.
Cottonseed oil must be refined to remove gossypol, a naturally occurring toxin that protects the cotton plant from insect damage.
Cottonseed oil has a high ratio of saturated fat, and in the diet may be a poor choice over olive or canola oil.
Cottonseed oil contains about 26% saturated fatty acids (primarily palmitic and some stearic).
Cottonseed oil may also contain traces of pesticides used when farming cotton crops.
Cottonseed oil is a favorite for mayonnaise, salad dressing, and other food products because of Cottonseed oils flavor stability.
Cotton (oil) is also one of the big four (soy, corn, canola and cotton) genetically modified crops grown around the world.
Uses of Cottonseed oil:
Cottonseed oil is mainly used in baked goods, salad dressings, cereals, packaged foods, snack bars, crackers, etc.
Cottonseed oil adds moisture to baked goods and helps impart a creamy consistency in icings and whipped creams.
Devoid of fragrance, Cottonseed oil works as a skin-moisturizing agent.
Cottonseed oil is found in an array of cosmetic products.
They include eye makeup, lipsticks, cleansers and more.
Cottonseed oil is used in non-food products as well.
Cottonseed oil is used in laundry detergents, insecticides, and cosmetics.
Cottonseed oil has many uses.
Cottonseed oils well-known for Cottonseed oils use as a cooking oil, much like canola or soybean oils.
But Cottonseed oils also used in shortenings and packaged foods.
Some products that may contain cottonseed oil include:
Baked goods (like packaged cookies and cakes)
In foods, Cottonseed oils used for frying, to add moisture to baked goods and to provide a creamy consistency in whipped creams and icings.
Oil from cottonseeds is also used topically in some cosmetic products.
Cottonseed oils used as an oil and emollient that can soften the skin.
Cottonseed oils fragrance-free and used as a skin-moisturizing agent.
You may find cottonseed oil in face and body cleansers, eye makeup and lipsticks.
Cottonseed oil is commonly used in processed foods because of Cottonseed oils ability to extend shelf life.
Cottonseed oils also a popular ingredient for baking.
Cottonseed oil provides a solid fat index for shortening, making for baked goods that’re moist and chewy.
Cottonseed oil also helps achieve a creamy consistency in icing and whipped toppings.
Cottonseed oil is also used by many fast food chains for deep frying because Cottonseed oil enhances the flavor of food instead of masking Cottonseed oil.
Cottonseed oils also less expensive than other vegetable oils.
Cottonseed oil has many nonfood uses, too.
In the 1800s, cottonseed oil was primarily used in oil lamps and to make candles.
Nowadays, Cottonseed oils used in insecticides, laundry detergents, and cosmetics.
Cottonseed oil may have economic benefits, but the saturated fat content makes Cottonseed oil an unhealthy choice in comparison to other vegetable oils.
Cottonseed oil for skin
This is one use for cottonseed oil that isn’t considered controversial.
Cottonseed oil contains high concentrations of vitamin E, fatty acids, and antioxidants that have many benefits for your skin, including:
Certain fatty acids increase your skin’s permeability.
This allows your skin to better absorb other ingredients for better results.
Linoleic acid, which is one of the fatty acids in cottonseed oil, is a common ingredient in skin care products.
Cottonseed oils also used in antidandruff shampoos and after-sun creams because of Cottonseed oils anti-inflammatory properties.
Cottonseed oils possible to be allergic to cottonseed oil.
Place some oil about the size of a dime on your and rub in.
If you have no reaction in 24 hours you should be able to use Cottonseed oil.
Use in food of Cottonseed oil:
Cottonseed oil has traditionally been used in foods such as potato chips and was for many years a primary ingredient in Crisco, the shortening product.
The current formulation of Crisco includes no cottonseed oil.
Significantly less expensive than olive oil or canola oil, cottonseed oil is a popular frying oil for the restaurant and snack-food manufacturing industries.
Cottonseed oil is used in the production of edible food products such as cooking oils, salad oils, margarines and shortenings.
In the United States, cottonseed oil is used in Procter & Gamble's Olestra and Olein products as a type of non-digestible fat substitutes used to create creamy textures and rich flavours in fried foods.
Effects on fertility of Cottonseed oil:
A 1929 investigation in Jiangxi showed correlation between low fertility in males and use of crude cottonseed oil for cooking.
A natural phenol derived from the cotton plant, gossypol, is a known male contraceptive.
Nonfood uses of Cottonseed oil:
For agricultural applications, cottonseed oil generally has the greatest insecticide power among all the vegetable oils.
Cottonseed oil is traditionally used because of Cottonseed oils effectiveness in “hard to treat” pest problems in fruit trees.
Cottonseed oil can also be mixed with other insecticides to provide a broader spectrum and increased control on pests.
Spider mites, whiteflies and young stages of scales are common pests that can be controlled using cottonseed oil.
Use as insecticide of Cottonseed oil:
In an agricultural context, the toxicity of untreated cottonseed oil may be considered beneficial: Oils, including vegetable oils, have been used for centuries to control insect and mite pests.
More recently, cottonseed oil has been used to protect the trunks of apple trees from the apple clearwing moth, which burrows into the trees' bark, potentially killing them.
This oil has been generally considered the most insecticidal of vegetable oils.
Is cottonseed oil healthy?
Cottonseed oil is a commonly used vegetable oil that’s derived from the seeds of cotton plants.
A whole cotton seed contains about 15 to 20 percent oil.
Cottonseed oil must be refined to remove gossypol.
This naturally occurring toxin gives the oil Cottonseed oils yellow color and protects the plant from insects.
Unrefined cottonseed oil is sometimes used as a pesticide.
This toxin has also been linked to infertility and liver damage.
Cottonseed oil is used in cooking and is also used as a home remedy for certain skin conditions and ailments.
Like olive oil, cottonseed oil is high in polyunsaturated fat which can help lower LDL (“bad” cholesterol) and increase HDL (“good” cholesterol).
But, Cottonseed oils also high in saturated fat, which has the opposite effect on cholesterol and increases the risk of heart disease.
Production Methods of Cottonseed oil:
Cottonseed oil is the refined fixed oil obtained from the seed of cultivated varieties of Gossypium hirsutum Linne or of other species of Gossypium (Fam. Malvaceae).
The seeds contain about 15% oil.
The testae of the seeds are first separated and the kernels are then exposed to powerful expression in a hydraulic press.
The crude oil thus obtained has a bright red or blackish-red color and requires purification before Cottonseed oil is suitable for food or pharmaceutical purposes.
Cottonseed oil is refined by treatment with diluted alkali to neutralize acids, decolorized with fuller’s earth or activated carbon, deodorized with steam under reduced pressure, and chilled to separate glycerides and resinous substances of higher melting point.
First Aid of Cottonseed oil:
EYES: First check the victim for contact lenses and remove if present.
Flush victim's eyes with water or normal saline solution for 20 to 30 minutes while simultaneously calling a hospital or poison control center.
Do not put any ointments, oils, or medication in the victim's eyes without specific instructions from a physician.
IMMEDIATELY transport the victim after flushing eyes to a hospital even if no symptoms (such as redness or irritation) develop.
Skin: IMMEDIATELY flood affected skin with water while removing and isolating all contaminated clothing.
Gently wash all affected skin areas thoroughly with soap and water.
If symptoms such as redness or irritation develop, IMMEDIATELY call a physician and be prepared to transport the victim to a hospital for treatment.
Inhalation: IMMEDIATELY leave the contaminated area; take deep breaths of fresh air.
If symptoms (such as wheezing, coughing, shortness of breath, or burning in the mouth, throat, or chest) develop, call a physician and be prepared to transport the victim to a hospital.
Provide proper respiratory protection to rescuers entering an unknown atmosphere.
Whenever possible, Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) should be used; if not available, use a level of protection greater than or equal to that advised under Protective Clothing.
Ingestion: DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING.
If the victim is conscious and not convulsing, give 1 or 2 glasses of water to dilute the chemical and IMMEDIATELY call a hospital or poison control center.
Be prepared to transport the victim to a hospital if advised by a physician.
If the victim is convulsing or unconscious, do not give anything by mouth, ensure that the victim's airway is open and lay the victim on his/her side with the head lower than the body.
DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING.
IMMEDIATELY transport the victim to a hospital.
Nutrition Facts of Cottonseed oil:
The following nutrition information is provided by the USDA for one tablespoon (13.6g) of cottonseed oil.
Saturated fat: 3.5g
CAS Number: 8001-29-4
Properties of Cottonseed oil:
Quality Level: 100
Biological source: plant (Gossypium hirsutum L.)
Composition: unsaturated fatty acids, ~70%
Density: 0.92 g/mL at 25 °C (lit.)
Shipped in: ambient
Storage temp.: room temp
Physical Properties of Cottonseed oil:
Flash Point: (refined oil) 610°F (cc); (cooking oil) 486°F (cc) (USCG, 1999)
Autoignition Temperature: 650°F (USCG, 1999)
Melting Point: 32°F (USCG, 1999)
Vapor Pressure: 5.17 mmHg (USCG, 1999)
Specific Gravity: 0.922 at 68°F (USCG, 1999)
Boiling Point: Very high (USCG, 1999)
CAS No.: 8001-29-4
Chemical Name: COTTONSEED OIL
Molecular Formula: CH4
Molecular Weight: 16.04246
MDL Number: MFCD00130872
MOL File: 8001-29-4.mol
refractive index: n20/D 1.471
Flash point: 113 °C
storage temp.: 2-8°C
solubility: Slightly soluble in ethanol (95%); miscible with carbon disulfide, chloroform, ether, hexane, and petroleum ether.
Stability: Stable, Combustible, Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents, Heat and light sensitive.
Indirect Additives used in Food Contact Substances: COTTONSEED OIL
FDA 21 CFR: 177.2800
EWG's Food Scores: 1
FDA UNII: H3E878020N
EPA Substance Registry System: Cottonseed oil (8001-29-4)
Synonyms of Cottonseed oil:
Regulatory process names
Extractives and their physically modified derivatives.
Cottonseed oil consists primarily of the glycerides of the fatty acids linoleic, oleic and palmitic. (Gossypium, Malvaceae).
4-08-00-03754 (Beilstein Handbook Reference)
Gossypol Sodium Salt
Sodium Salt, Gossypol
Gossypol Dipotassium Salt
Dipotassium Salt, Gossypol
Gossypol from cotton seeds
(2,2'-Binaphthalene)-8,8'-dicarboxaldehyde, 1,1',6,6',7,7'-hexahydroxy-3,3'-dimethyl-5,5'-bis(1-methylethyl)-, (-)-
(2,2'-Binaphthalene)-8,8'-dicarboxaldehyde, 1,1',6,6',7,7'-hexahydroxy-5,5'-diisopropyl-3,3'-dimethyl-, (+)-
(+/-)-Gossypol from cotton seeds
(+/-)-Gossypol from cotton seeds, >=95% (HPLC)
( inverted exclamation markA)-GOSSYPOL FROM COTTON SEEDS
[2,8'-dicarboxaldehyde, 1,1',6,6',7,7'- hexahydroxy-3,3'-dimethyl-5,5'-bis(1-methylethyl)-, (2R)-
[2,8'-dicarboxaldehyde, 1,1',6,6',7,7'-hexahydroxy-3,3'-dimethyl-5,5'-bis(1- methylethyl)-