CREATINE MONOHYDRATE

CAS Number: 6020-87-7
EC Number: 200-306-6
Molecular Weight: 149.15
Linear Formula: H2NC(=NH)N(CH3)CH2CO2H·H2O


Creatine monohydrate has been extensively studied and shown to help support muscle size, strength and recovery when used consistently over time in conjunction with a healthy, balanced diet and regular weight training.
The most common supplement form is creatine monohydrate. 
Creatine monohydrate is the form that has been used in the majority of research on the topic, this means that most of creatine’s beneficial effects, such as improved upper and lower body exercise performance, have been observed almost exclusively when creatine monohydrate was used.
The monohydrate form of creatine similar or identical to endogenous creatine produced in the liver, kidneys, and pancreas. 

Creatine monohydrate and creatine supplements in general are often offered as a powder that should be dissolved in water or juice. 
Warm water or tea makes the dissolving process easier. 
Creatine monohydrate dissolves somewhat more slowly in cold water or other cold drinks but is not any less effective. 

Once taken Creatine monohydrates bioavailability is greater than 95 percent. 
Creatine monohydrate also makes sense to take creatine with sugary drinks (e.g., grape juice) or with a meal because the muscles of your body can absorb creatine more easily when insulin is present. 
But taking creatine or creatine supplements without sugary drinks is just as effective. 
However we do not recommend ingesting large quantities of simple carbohydrates with creatine.

Creatine, in phosphate form, helps supply energy to muscle cells for contraction. 
After intense effort, when ATP deposits are depleted, creatine phosphate donates phosphate groups toward the fast synthesis of ATP. 
Dietary supplementation with creatine may improve muscle wasting associated with cancer and other chronic diseases.
This form is made up of a creatine molecule and a water molecule, though Creatine monohydrate can be processed in a few ways. 
Sometimes, the water molecule is removed, resulting in creatine anhydrous.
The removal of water increases the amount of creatine in each dose. 
Creatine anhydrous is 100% creatine by weight, whereas the monohydrate form is about 90% creatine by weight.

How Creatine Monohydrate Works
Creatine is found in the skeletal muscle and provides inorganic phosphate to resynthesize ATP during intense exercise. 
As your muscles are working in short, intense bursts, the creatine phosphate that your body stores in the muscle cells donate a phosphate to the degraded ATP. 
Supplementing with the best creatine powder ensures that your muscle cells are saturated with creatine phosphate and you are able to increase your endurance, strength and muscle mass.

Creatine monohydrate is a popular sports nutrition supplement.  
Out of all the “supplements” available to help build muscle, I would rate creatine being #1.  
Keep in mind I am not including protein powders as I believe they fall into the food category and not the dietary supplement category.  
Being that creatine is very popular, a lot of questions are asked about Creatine monohydrate.   
Therefore here are the most popular and most frequently asked questions about creatine monohydrate.

Is creatine monohydrate banned by the NCAA?
No, creatine monohydrate is not banned by the NCAA.  
However, the NCAA issues a strong warning against using dietary supplements.  
I agree with this warning because the benefits of supplement do not outweigh the risks of being popped for using a substance listed on the NCAA banned list.  
In addition, the risk of cross-contamination is there as well.  
Cross-contamination is when a contract packager (a company whom actually manufacturers the supplement for a supplement company) accidentally contaminates ingredients or substances from one supplement to another while manufacturing them.  
For example, Supplement Company A pays the contract manufacturer to make a prohormone supplement.  
The contract packager makes the supplements, but the employee does not clean the machine and the machine still has traces of the prohormone on Creatine monohydrate.  
The contract packager then makes a protein powder on the same equipment and the protein powder wound up having traces of prohormones in Creatine monohydrate.  
Joe Student then buys this protein powder, uses Creatine monohydrate, gets tested, and gets popped for the prohormones in his system.

What does creatine do to a woman’s body?
Creatine monohydrate does not react differently in a woman’s body than a man’s.  
Creatine will have the same effect whether youre a gal or a dude.  
That being said, creatine monohydrate, in conjunction with weight training will help increase lean muscle mass and strength.  
Both men and woman can estimate a muscle gain of 1 to 5 lbs.  
If you have never lifted weights before the muscle weight gain can be higher.  
On a footnote, creatine monohydrate does work better for older people.  
Suppversity wrote a great article on that subject here.

The main issues with creatine monohydrate are its solubility in fluids and Creatine monohydrates absorption by the body. 
Some research has reported that less than 3% of the original amount of creatine monohydrate is transported across the intestinal cells within 90 minutes. 
Not only is this an issue because Creatine monohydrate limits the uptake of creatine by the intestines and then by the muscles.
Creatine monohydrate can also lead to stomach upset (from the creatine sitting in the intestines and drawing water into them) and water retention in the subcutaneous space (under the skin), which blurs a person's muscularity and makes them look smooth and bloated.

Creatine monohydrate ımproves Exercise Performance Just as Well or Better Than Other Forms
Creatine monohydrate exerts a variety of effects on health and exercise performance, including increased strength, power and muscle mass.
Several studies have compared monohydrate and other forms for their effects on exercise performance.
Creatine monohydrate appears to be better than the ethyl ester and liquid forms of creatine.
One study found that monohydrate increases creatine content in the blood and muscles better than the ethyl ester form.
Another study reported that participants’ cycling performance increased by 10% when they took a monohydrate powder, but did not increase when they took liquid creatine.

Creatine monohydrate, trade name Creapure, is intended for use as a food ingredient in foods such as energy drinks, protein bars, milk shakes, protein powders, meal replacement powders and bars, meat analogues and dry mix drinks. 
Creatine monohydrate is proposed that creatine monohydrate will be added to foods in specific categories to provide an intake of 1 g of creatine (1.12 g creatine monohydrate) from a single portion. 
Foods will be presented in single portion packs or recommended portions sizes will be provided on packaging. 
The use of creatine monohydrate in food does not cover the application in infant formula and foods commonly consumed by young children. 

What is Creatine Monohydrate?
Creatine is a precursor to the bio-energetic fuel creatine phosphate, which replenishes cellular ATP (adenosine triphosphate) levels during maximum intensity contractions. 
Supplementing with creatine can increase levels of creatine phosphate in the muscle improving work output capacity, power, recovery and muscle hydration. 
When muscles are hydrated, muscle catabolism (breakdown) is minimized.

Creatine is an organic compound with the nominal formula (H2N)(HN)CN(CH3)CH2CO2H. 
This species exists in various modifications (tautomers) in solution. 
Creatine is found in vertebrates where Creatine monohydrate facilitates recycling of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the energy currency of the cell, primarily in muscle and brain tissue. 
Recycling is achieved by converting adenosine diphosphate (ADP) back to ATP via donation of phosphate groups. 
Creatine also acts as a buffer.

Other times, the creatine is micronized, or mechanically processed to improve water solubility. 
In theory, better water solubility could improve your body’s ability to absorb Creatine monohydrate.
Despite these minor differences in processing, each of these forms is probably equally effective when equal doses are given.
In addition to increasing strength, creatine monohydrate can increase water content in muscle cells. 
This may lead to beneficial effects on muscle growth by sending signals related to cell swelling.

Fortunately, a large amount of research indicates that creatine is safe to consume, and no serious side effects have been reported with its use.
When minor side effects do occur, they typically involve an upset stomach or cramping. 
These side effects may be relieved by consuming several smaller doses, rather than one larger dose (26Trusted Source).
Because Creatine monohydrate’s safe, effective and affordable, creatine monohydrate has long been the gold standard for this supplement.
Any new forms need to be compared to Creatine monohydrate before they can be recommended.

Why do people take creatine supplements?
Professional and amateur athletes at all levels have been known to take creatine supplements to aid their workout routines and improve workout recovery. 
Creatine creates “quick burst” energy and increased strength, which improves performance but has little effect on aerobic endurance. 
Most people who use creatine supplements are male athletes and are mostly involved in power sports, such as football, wrestling, hockey and bodybuilding.
No matter your age or health condition, talk to your doctor or healthcare provider before taking creatine supplements.

Are creatine supplements recommended for athletes?
Creatine supplements are used by many athletes. 
The supplement is allowed by professional sports associations, the International Olympic Committee and the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA).
Benefits have been reported in men and women, although most studies have been conducted on men. 
Some studies note that women who take creatine supplements may not see as much strength or muscle mass gain as men during training.

What are the potential benefits of taking creatine supplements?
Research shows that taking creatine supplements may:
-Improve your exercise performance.
-Help your recovery after intense exercise.
-Prevent and/or reduce the severity of injury.
-Help athletes tolerate heavy training loads.
-Increase your fat-free muscle mass during training.
Because vegetarians have lower intramuscular creatine storage, they may see greater gains from taking the supplements. 
However, Creatine monohydrate may take longer to build up levels in the muscles.

Creatine is a nitrogenous compound that acts as a high-energy reservoir for the rapid regeneration of ATP. 
Approximately 95% of creatine is found in skeletal muscle, primarily as phosphocreatine. 
Creatine can be acquired through dietary consumption or formed from L-arginine, glycine, and L-methionine in a multi-step reaction that occurs in the kidneys and liver. 
Creatine is then transported to muscle tissue. 
Creatine supplementation is used for the enhancement of sports performance, primarily by increasing muscle mass. 
Creatine is also being investigated as a treatment of neuromuscular diseases, where Creatine monohydrate may aid in neuroprotection and by improving the cellular bioenergetic state.
Several studies show that users experience less incidence of cramping, heat illness/dehydration, muscle tightness, muscle strains/pulls, non-contact injuries and total injuries/missed practices than those not taking creatine supplements. 
The effects appear to be sustained over time.
In addition, studies have noted that taking creatine supplements may aid in neurodegenerative diseases (such as muscular dystrophy, Parkinson’s and Huntington’s disease), diabetes, osteoarthritis, fibromyalgia, disorders of creatine metabolism or transport, aging, brain health and heart ischemia.

What Is Creatine?
Creatine is a natural substance that turns into creatine phosphate in the body. 
Creatine phosphate helps make a substance called adenosine triphosphate (ATP). 
ATP provides the energy for muscle contractions.

Creatine has proven itself over the years to be one of the most effective supplements for improving performance during repeated bouts of intense exercise. 
As far back as the 1970s, Soviet scientists knew that creatine supplements improved performance, and Creatine monohydrate contributed to the USSR’s Olympic dominance through the 70s and 80s.

The body produces some of the creatine Creatine monohydrate uses. 
Creatine monohydrate also comes from protein-rich foods such as meat or fish.

How Is Creatine Used?
Back in the 1970s, scientists discovered that taking creatine in supplement form might enhance physical performance. 
In the 1990s, athletes started to catch on, and creatine became a popular sports supplement. 
The supplement is particularly popular among high school, college, and professional athletes, especially football and hockey players, wrestlers, and gymnasts. 

Creatine is thought to improve strength, increase lean muscle mass, and help the muscles recover more quickly during exercise. 
This muscular boost may help athletes achieve bursts of speed and energy, especially during short bouts of high-intensity activities such as weight lifting or sprinting. 
However, scientific research on creatine has been mixed.
Although some studies have found that it does help improve performance during short periods of athletic activity, there is no evidence that creatine helps with endurance sports. 
Research also shows that not everyone's muscles respond to creatine; some people who use Creatine monohydrate see no benefit.

Creatine is an amino acid located mostly in your body's muscles as well as in the brain. 
Most people get creatine through seafood and red meat — though at levels far below those found in synthetically made creatine supplements. 
The body's liver, pancreas and kidneys also can make about 1 gram of creatine per day.
Your body stores creatine as phosphocreatine primarily in your muscles, where Creatine monohydrate's used for energy. 
As a result, people take creatine orally to improve athletic performance and increase muscle mass.
People also use oral creatine to treat certain brain disorders, neuromuscular conditions, congestive heart failure and other conditions. 
Topical creatine might be used to treat aging skin.

Despite the popularity of creatine among young people, there has been very little research conducted in children under age 18. 
Of those studies, a few have suggested a positive effect but the overall evidence is inconclusive. 
In one study, teenage swimmers performed better after taking creatine; in another study, Creatine monohydrate helped high school soccer players sprint, dribble, and jump more effectively.

Researchers are studying whether creatine might also be useful for treating certain health conditions caused by weakened muscles, including:
-Heart failure and heart attack
-Huntington's disease
-Neuromuscular disorders, including muscular dystrophy

Creatine monohydrate is an organic compound that helps facilitate recycling of ATP in muscle and brain tissue and is found in vertebrates. 
Creatine monohydrate was first discovered in 1832 by Michel Eugéne Chevreul, and the first evidence of Creatine monohydrates benefits on the muscles was found in 1912 by Harvard University researchers. 
Creatine became available as a dietary supplement in 1993, and since then Creatine monohydrate has become one of the most widely studied supplements. 
Creatine is commonly taken by athletes and bodybuilders and has become a staple of workout supplements.

Creatine (Cr) and phosphocreatine (PCr) are involved with rapid ATP production primarily in skeletal muscle tissue via the action of creatine kinase(s). 
Creatine may be used as a supplement to study Creatine monohydrates uptake mechanism and metabolism of action.

Creatine (creatine monohydrate) is a colorless, crystalline substance used in muscle tissue for the production of phosphocreatine, an important factor in the formation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the source of energy for muscle contraction and many other functions in the body.
Creatine is a substance that is naturally produced by the body, and is present in every human cell used in the production of energy through ATP (Adenosine triphosphate). 
As a dietary supplement, Creatine Monohydrate may help to support increased energy production, healthy cellular hydration, and healthy brain function.
Creatine Monohydrate is a preferred form of creatine due to its high molecular mass. 
True Nutrition's Creatine Monohydrate powder has been micronized to a fine mesh in order to help support increased absorption.

SUMMARY:
Creatine monohydrate is the most studied and most commonly used form. 
A large amount of research indicates that Creatine monohydrate’s safe and effective, and new forms of the supplement should be compared to Creatine monohydrate.

Creatine has been studied extensively as a dietary supplement for many years.
In fact, more than 1,000 studies have been conducted, which have shown that creatine is a top supplement for exercise performance.
Almost all of them used the same form of the supplement — creatine monohydrate.
What’s more, most scientists who study supplements believe that monohydrate is the best form. 
Here are five science-backed reasons why this form is the best.

How Does Creatine monohydrate Work?
Creatine, in the form of creatine phosphate, plays a critical role in cellular energy production.
That’s because Creatine monohydrate’s involved in the formation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is a major source of cellular energy.
There’s strong evidence that these supplements can improve exercise performance.
Some research has found that they may increase strength gains from a weight training program by about 10%, on average.
Others have stated that improvements in strength are about 5% for chest exercises like bench press and about 8% for leg exercises like squats.

Creatine is an amino acid found mostly in your muscles and in the brain. 
Creatine monohydrate’s naturally produced in the body from other amino acids. 
Creatine is also found in foods like meats, eggs, and fish. 
Creatine monohydrate plays a vital role in the body’s production of cellular energy by helping to make ATP, a molecule needed for intense exercise, as well as for supplying the energy to pump your heart and power your brain.

Many studies have demonstrated that the ingestion of ~20 g/d of creatine monohydrate for 5 d is effective at maximally increasing muscle creatine. 
The ingestion of 3-5 g/d for about 4 wk appears to be equally as effective, but there are fewer data. 
Increased muscle creatine levels can be maintained with low-dose supplementation (3-5 g/d), dietary sources (most meats contain about 0.7 g/6 oz serving) or a combination.
If muscle creatine and phosphocreatine are increased by creatine monohydrate supplementation, the performance of brief (< 30 s), intense exercise can be improved, especially if there are repeated bouts. 
Creatine supplements most consistently improve the performance of resistance exercise/training programs. 
The performance of longer-duration exercise (> 30 s) and sprints embedded during or at the end of endurance exercise may also be enhanced with creatine monohydrate supplementation, possibly because supplementation increases glycogen synthesis.

Creatine monohydrate supplementation enhances a variety of factors and processes involved in adaptation to exercise, including increased gene/ growth factor expression, satellite cell number and intracellular water content. 
Therefore, in addition to improving the quality of strength and conditioning workouts, increased muscle creatine may improve adaptation to intense training.
Brain creatine levels can also be increased with creatine monohydrate supplementation, and several studies have shown improved cognitive processing, which could be valuable for athletes, especially when fatigued. 

There is the potential that creatine monohydrate supplementation may reduce the severity or decrease the duration of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI, concussion), although there are few data.
After 25 yr of research on the effects of creatine monohydrate supplementation across multiple body systems and processes, in healthy adults taking recommended doses, clinical trials have not revealed adverse effects. 
A small number of case studies reporting adverse effects have been published, but these are confounded by pre-existing disease, concomitant medication, other supplement use or extreme unaccustomed exercise. 
Available data indicate that creatine monohydrate supplementation, when used properly, poses no threat to the renal, muscular and thermoregulatory systems. 

Pharmacokinetics
Most of the research to-date on creatine has predominantly focused on the pharmacological properties of creatine, yet there is a lack of research into the pharmacokinetics of creatine. 
Studies have not established pharmacokinetic parameters for clinical usage of creatine such as volume of distribution, clearance, bioavailability, mean residence time, absorption rate, and half life. 
A clear pharmacokinetic profile would need to be established prior to optimal clinical dosing.

Overall, exercise scientists widely agree that supplementing with creatine can improve strength and power production, or how much force can be produced in a certain amount of time, during exercise.
Furthermore, some research has reported that Creatine monohydrate can improve sprinting and swimming performance, but other research has failed to demonstrate consistent benefits.
Also, researchers have found that taking creatine may reduce mental fatigue.
These health and performance benefits are typically experienced when the creatine phosphate content in your cells is increased after supplementing with Creatine monohydrate.
However, several different forms of the supplement are sold, which can make choosing one confusing.
The remainder of this article will help you learn which form is best.

Creatine Monohydrate Benefits
Creatine monohydrate may promote anaerobic strength and weight gain and help increase muscle size. 
Creatine may also help with cognitive function and support the brain.
-Contribute to increased muscle mass
-Promote weight gain
-Help boost anaerobic strength
-Support the brain and cognitive function

Creatine helps you recover between sets. 
Which means a supplements’ value lies in boosting recovery speed, which in turn enhances the amount of work you’re able to do during a workout. 
Over time, this leads to faster gains in both strength and size.

Cognitive performance
Creatine is reported to increase cognitive performance, especially in individuals with inadequate intakes in their diet and is claimed by some sources to be a nootropic supplement.

Preventive health
A clinical study has shown that the intake of pure, high-quality creatine alone, or in combination with exercise, may reduce and delay age-related muscle atrophy, by improving fat-free body mass, muscle strength and endurance, while simultaneously improving bone density.

Muscular disease
A meta-analysis found that creatine treatment increased muscle strength in muscular dystrophies, and potentially improved functional performance.
Creatine treatment does not appear to improve muscle strength in people who have metabolic myopathies.
High doses of creatine lead to increased muscle pain and an impairment in activities of daily living when taken by people who have McArdle disease.
According to a clinical study focusing on people with various muscular dystrophies, using a pure form of creatine monohydrate can be beneficial in rehabilitation after injuries and immobilization.

Research on creatine use for specific activities and conditions shows:
Strength, muscle size and performance. 
Oral creatine use might allow an athlete to do more work during reps or sprints, leading to greater gains in strength, muscle mass and performance. 
Creatine is often used by athletes involved in high-intensity intermittent activities that require a rapid recovery during training and competition.
Injury prevention. 

Oral creatine might reduce the frequency of dehydration, muscle cramping, and injuries to the muscles, bones, ligaments, tendons and nerves.
Rare creatine-metabolizing syndromes. 
In children with the certain creatine deficiency syndromes, oral creatine supplements might improve some symptoms.

Cognition and brain health. 
Creatine supplementation might improve performance during cognitive tasks, especially in older adults.

Sarcopenia and bone health. 
Creatine supplementation might help counteract age-related declines in skeletal muscle and bone mineral density.

Heart failure. 
There isn't enough evidence to recommend use of oral creatine as a heart failure treatment.

Skin aging. 
Early research suggests that a cream containing creatine and other ingredients applied to the face every day for six weeks might reduce skin sag and wrinkles in men. 
Another study suggests that a cream containing creatine and folic acid improves sun damage and reduces wrinkles.
People who have low levels of creatine — such as vegetarians — appear to benefit most from creatine supplements.

SUMMARY:
Consuming creatine supplements can increase the amount of it in your cells. 
This can aid energy production and improve exercise performance.

Creatine monohydrate has the Best Safety Record
Many studies have shown that creatine monohydrate is very safe to consume.
The International Society of Sports Nutrition recently concluded, “There is no compelling scientific evidence that the short- or long-term use of creatine monohydrate has any detrimental effects”.
Studies have reported that consuming monohydrate for two to five years appears to be safe, with no adverse effects documented.
This supplement appears to be safe at higher doses, too. 
Although a typical daily dose is 3–5 grams, people have taken doses of up to 30 grams per day for up to five years with no reported safety concerns.
The only common side effect is weight gain.
However, this should not be viewed as a bad thing. 
Creatine increases the water content of muscle cells, and Creatine monohydrate can also help increase muscle mass.
Any weight gain you may experience as a result of using this supplement is due to an increase in water or muscle, not fat.
Although forms of creatine other than monohydrate may also be safe to consume, there’s very little scientific evidence that confirms this.

Creatine is a naturally occurring substance made from amino acids, the building blocks of protein. 
Creatine is produced in the liver, kidneys, and pancreas; 95 percent of Creatine monohydrate is found in muscles, with the rest located in the brain, heart, and testes. 
Besides occurring naturally, small amounts of creatine are also found in foods, such as red meat and seafood. 
Synthetic versions are also sold as supplements.

What are creatine’s benefits?
The primary benefit of creatine is an improvement in strength and power output during resistance exercise. 
For this purpose, creatine is well-researched, and the effects are quite notable for a supplement. 
When used in conjunction with resistance exercise, creatine may modestly increase lean mass. 
Creatine monohydrate has also been tested for anaerobic running capacity in many studies, the results of which are fairly mixed but generally suggest a small improvement in performance.
While creatine has been researched far less for cognitive performance than physical performance, Creatine monohydrate may have benefits in some contexts. 
A reduction in mental fatigue has been observed in various scenarios such as demanding mental activity, sleep deprivation, and traumatic brain injury. 
Creatine may improve working memory, though likely only for those with below-average creatine levels such as vegetarians and the elderly. 
We need more research in these areas and other cognitive measures before creatine can be said to be effective.

SUMMARY:
A large number of studies have confirmed that creatine monohydrate is safe to consume. 
There is far more safety information for this form of the supplement than any other form.

Creatine monohydrate has the Most Scientific Support
The vast majority of the more than 1,000 studies on creatine have used the monohydrate form.

Besides this form, the other main forms of creatine on the market are:
-Creatine ethyl ester
-Creatine hydrochloride
-Buffered creatine
-Liquid creatine
-Creatine magnesium chelate

Creatine (sometimes referred to as creatine monohydrate) has been called a “phenomenon” in the bodybuilding community and is among the best-selling supplements to gain muscle. 
To date, well over 500 research studies have evaluated the effects of Creatine monohydrates supplementation on muscle growth, metabolism, exercise capacity and many other markers of health.
According to researchers at the Exercise and Sport Nutrition Laboratory at Baylor University, “About 70% of these studies report statistically significant results, while remaining studies generally report non-significant gains in performance.”
Creatine monohydrate, trade name Creapure, has been determined to be generally recognized as safe under the conditions of intended use as proposed herein, and is therefore exempt from the requirement of premarket approval requirements of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act. 
The basis of this finding is presented in this dossier. 

The use of creatine monohydrate supplementation by athletes to increase strength and lean body mass has great anecdotal support. 
There has also been great interest in the use of lower doses of creatine monohydrate for extended periods during heavy resistance training. 
The purpose of this investigation was to document the long-term effects of creatine monohydrate supplementation on resistance-trained athletes. 
Sixteen collegiate football players were randomly separated into creatine monohydrate and placebo groups. 

Supplementation in capsule form consisted of 5 g/d of creatine mono-hydrate or placebo (no loading phase) throughout a 10-week supervised resistance training program. 
Pretesting and post-testing consisted of the following: weight; body fat estimation; 1 repetition maximum bench press, squat, and power clean; and Cybex testing. 
Results revealed the creatine monohydrate group was able to significantly increase measures of strength and power and increase body mass without a change in percent body fat, whereas the placebo group showed no significant changes. 
The results indicate that 10 weeks of creatine monohydrate supplementation while participating in a resistance training program significantly increases strength and power indices compared with placebo supplementation. 
These data also indicate that lower doses of creatine monohydrate may be ingested (5 g/d), without a short-term, large-dose loading phase (20 g/d), for an extended period to achieve significant performance enhancement.

Exercise performance
Creatine as a performance enhancing supplement has received support from the Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, and in joint position stands from the American College of Sports Medicine, Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, and Dietitians in Canada.

CAS Number: 6020-87-7
Molecular Weight: 149.15
Beilstein/REAXYS Number: 7942755
EC Number: 200-306-6
MDL number: MFCD00071582
PubChem Substance ID: 24892629
NACRES: NA.26

Examples of sport events that may be enhanced by creatine supplementation
Creatine use can increase maximum power and performance in high-intensity anaerobic repetitive work (periods of work and rest) by 5 to 15%.
Creatine has no significant effect on aerobic endurance, though Creatine monohydrate will increase power during short sessions of high-intensity aerobic exercise.
A survey of 21,000 college athletes showed that 14% of athletes take creatine supplements to improve performance.
Non-athletes report taking creatine supplements to improve appearance.

What Does Creatine Do?
Combined with weight training, creatine slows the loss of bone mass as you age and could ease the effects of osteoarthritis, where joints become stiff and painful. 
That said, creatine, inevitably, has different effects on individuals.

Creatine is transported through the blood and taken up by tissues with high energy demands, such as the brain and skeletal muscle, through an active transport system. 
The concentration of ATP in skeletal muscle is usually 2–5 mM, which would result in a muscle contraction of only a few seconds.
During times of increased energy demands, the phosphagen (or ATP/PCr) system rapidly resynthesizes ATP from ADP with the use of phosphocreatine (PCr) through a reversible reaction catalysed by the enzyme creatine kinase (CK). 
The phosphate group is attached to an NH center of the creatine. 

Creatine is one of your body's natural sources of energy for muscle contraction. 
Creatine monohydrates name comes from the Greek word for meat. 
About half of the body’s supply comes from a carnivorous diet and about half is produced in the liver, kidneys and then delivered to the skeletal muscles for use. 
About 95% of creatine is stored in the skeletal muscle of your body and is used during physical activity. 
Creatine helps to maintain a continuous supply of energy to working muscles by keep production up in working muscles. 
Small amounts are also found in your heart, brain and other tissues.

Creatine is also found in foods such as milk, red meat and seafood. 
In a normal omnivorous /carnivorous diet, you consume one to two grams/day of creatine. 
Vegetarians may have lower amounts of creatine in their bodies.
Creatine exists in a steady state with a similar compound named creatinine that can be measured in lab tests as a marker of kidney function. 
Creatine monohydrate is passed out of your body in the urine. 
This means your body must release stored creatine each day to keep normal levels, the amount depending on your muscle mass. 
Although creatine is created naturally in your body, you must keep up your levels and do so through your daily diet.

In skeletal muscle, PCr concentrations may reach 20–35 mM or more. 
Additionally, in most muscles, the ATP regeneration capacity of CK is very high and is therefore not a limiting factor. 
Although the cellular concentrations of ATP are small, changes are difficult to detect because ATP is continuously and efficiently replenished from the large pools of PCr and CK.
A proposed representation has been illustrated by Krieder et al.
Creatine has the ability to increase muscle stores of PCr, potentially increasing the muscle's ability to resynthesize ATP from ADP to meet increased energy demands.

While each of these forms has a handful of studies examining Creatine monohydrate, the information on the effects of these forms in humans is limited.
Almost all the health and exercise benefits of taking creatine supplements have been demonstrated in studies using monohydrate.
These benefits include muscle gain, improved exercise performance and possible brain benefits.
Studies have shown that this supplement can increase strength gains from a weight-training program by about 5–10%, on average.
Additionally, a large review of dietary supplements found that creatine monohydrate was the most effective for muscle gain.

SUMMARY:
Several forms of creatine are used in supplements. 
However, most of the known benefits can be attributed to creatine monohydrate, since most studies have used this form.

Creatine supplements help give you the energy you need to max out on reps and really push yourself during a workout. 
Protein powder and creatine go hand-in-hand. 
Protein for men is essential if you want to grow muscle, but many men use creatine supplements to fuel their muscles and boost their workouts. 
These supplements work within your own muscle cells to improve strength, gain muscle mass, and recover faster. 
If protein shakes are your post-workout go-to, you need to make creatine supplements part of your pre-workout routine.

Creatine is found naturally in your muscle cells, so taking a supplement of creatine before a workout can help increase your performance and strength. 
Many athletes and bodybuilders add some form of creatine in their workouts, and Creatine monohydrate’s one of the world’s most tested supplements. 
Taking creatine supplements increases the amount of phosphocreatine in your muscle cells, which then helps your body make more of a high-energy molecule called ATP. 
The increased levels of ATP in your muscles lead to better performance, quicker movements, and increased muscle growth.

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Uses
Creatine is one of the most popular supplements in the U.S., especially among men who participate in ice hockey, football, baseball, lacrosse, and wrestling.
Creatine monohydrate is also the most common supplement found in sports nutrition supplements, including sports drinks.
There are claims for a number of uses, some of which are supported by research evidence.

History
Creatine was first identified in 1832 when Michel Eugène Chevreul isolated Creatine monohydrate from the basified water-extract of skeletal muscle. 
He later named the crystallized precipitate after the Greek word for meat, κρέας (kreas). 
In 1928, creatine was shown to exist in equilibrium with creatinine.
Studies in the 1920s showed that consumption of large amounts of creatine did not result in Creatine monohydrates excretion. 
This result pointed to the ability of the body to store creatine, which in turn suggested Creatine monohydrates use as a dietary supplement. 

Genetic deficiencies
Genetic deficiencies in the creatine biosynthetic pathway lead to various severe neurological defects.
Clinically, there are three distinct disorders of creatine metabolism. 
Deficiencies in the two synthesis enzymes can cause L-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase deficiency caused by variants in GATM and guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiency, caused by variants in GAMT. 
Both biosynthetic defects are inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. 
A third defect, creatine transporter defect, is caused by mutations in SLC6A8 and inherited in a X-linked manner. 
This condition is related to the transport of creatine into the brain.

Creatine monohydrate is a small peptide that is made up of amino acids (the “building blocks of protein”). 
Creatine monohydrate is formed in the liver, pancreas and kidneys, mostly with the help of the amino acids glycine, arginine and methionine.

Quality Level: 200
assay: ≥98%
form: powder
application(s): cell culture | mammalian: suitable
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InChI key: MEJYXFHCRXAUIL-UHFFFAOYSA-N

Vegetarians
Some studies suggest that total muscle creatine is significantly lower in vegetarians than non-vegetarians.
This finding has been postulated to be due to an omnivorous diet being the primary source of creatine. 
Research shows that supplementation is needed to raise lacto-ovo vegetarian or vegan muscle creatine concentrations up to non-vegetarian levels.

Creatine monohydrate is assumed that there is a negative interaction between pure caffeine and creatine. 
However, research on this subject has remained inconclusive.  
In tests between 5 and 7 mg of caffeine per kg of body weight were used (i.e., 350–490 mg of caffeine for an individual who weighs 70 kg). 
Although no negative effects on creatine storage and muscle growth were observed, there may have been an effect on sprinting performance or explosive strength development. 
Creatine monohydrate cannot be conclusively assessed whether the intake of caffeine should be restricted when taking creatine. 
For the sake of safety one should avoid heavy caffeine consumption prior to any intense workout in any case.

Creatine intake – capsules and chewable tablets 
Taking creatine in capsule or chewable tablet form is just as effective.  
Capsules usually contain  750 mg each, while  tablets usually contain about 1 g. 
The recommended daily dose is 3–5 g per day.  

Creatine is a substance that occurs naturally in our organism. 
Creatine monohydrate is an essential source of energy for muscle contraction. 
Creatine monohydrates regular supplementation increases muscle performance, especially during intense workouts. 
To enhance Creatine monohydrates effect, we recommend using Creatine monohydrate in the so-called creatine cycles.

In 1912, Harvard University researchers Otto Folin and Willey Glover Denis found evidence that ingesting creatine can dramatically boost the creatine content of the muscle.
In the late 1920s, after finding that the intramuscular stores of creatine can be increased by ingesting creatine in larger than normal amounts, scientists discovered creatine phosphate, and determined that creatine is a key player in the metabolism of skeletal muscle. 
Creatine monohydrate creatine is naturally formed in vertebrates.
The discovery of phosphocreatine was reported in 1927.
In the 1960s, creatine kinase (CK) was shown to phosphorylate ADP using phosphocreatine (PCr) to generate ATP. 
Creatine monohydrate follows that ATP, not PCr is directly consumed in muscle contraction. 

CK uses creatine to "buffer" the ATP/ADP ratio. 
While creatine's influence on physical performance has been well documented since the early twentieth century, Creatine monohydrate came into public view following the 1992 Olympics in Barcelona. 
An August 7, 1992 article in The Times reported that Linford Christie, the gold medal winner at 100 meters, had used creatine before the Olympics. 
An article in Bodybuilding Monthly named Sally Gunnell, who was the gold medalist in the 400-meter hurdles, as another creatine user. 
In addition, The Times also noted that 100 meter hurdler Colin Jackson began taking creatine before the Olympics.

Biosynthesis
Creatine synthesis primarily occurs in the liver and kidneys.
On average, Creatine monohydrate is produced endogenously at an estimated rate of about 8.3 mmol or 1 gram per day in young adults.
Creatine is not an essential nutrient.
Creatine monohydrate is an amino acid derivative, naturally produced in the human body from the amino acids glycine and arginine, with an additional requirement for methionine to catalyze the transformation of guanidinoacetate to creatine. 
In the first step of the biosynthesis, the enzyme arginine:glycine amidinotransferase mediates the reaction of glycine and arginine to form guanidinoacetate. 
Creatine monohydrate is then methylated by guanidinoacetate N-methyltransferase, using S-adenosyl methionine as the methyl donor. 
Creatine itself can be phosphorylated by creatine kinase to form phosphocreatine, which is used as an energy buffer in skeletal muscles and the brain. 
A cyclic form of creatine, called creatinine, exists in equilibrium with its tautomer and with creatine.

At the time, low-potency creatine supplements were available in Britain, but creatine supplements designed for strength enhancement were not commercially available until 1993 when a company called Experimental and Applied Sciences (EAS) introduced the compound to the sports nutrition market under the name Phosphagen.
Research performed thereafter demonstrated that the consumption of high glycemic carbohydrates in conjunction with creatine increases creatine muscle stores.

However, a few small, initial studies have suggested that the buffered and magnesium chelate forms of creatine may be as effective as monohydrate at improving exercise performance.
Specifically, these forms may be equally effective for increasing bench-press strength and power production during cycling.
No suitable studies have compared the monohydrate and hydrochloride forms.
Overall, there is simply not enough scientific evidence to conclude you should take any form of creatine other than monohydrate.
While some new forms may be promising, the amount of evidence for monohydrate is much more impressive than the evidence for all other forms.

The effects of creatine should be evident in a week in most using the supplement— with your training volume and strength increasing. 
Studies in the journal Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise found that muscle fibres grow faster after creatine supplementation and resistance-based exercise.
That said, Creatine monohydrate's not a magic pill. 
"Creatine monohydrate supplementation is not a magic powder that turns fat mass into muscle mass," says Andreas Kasper, Performance Nutritionist at England Rugby.
"Dosing with creatine can help increase our muscles store of the metabolite, which is linked with repeated bouts of high intensity performance such as sprinting and lifting weights. 
When we resynthesise at a high rate, Creatine monohydrate means potentially we can exercise more readily and may even have a higher intensity session with shorter rest periods required, which hypothetically would aid with hypertrophy. 
However, you still have to lift the weights and bigger muscles do not always equal increased strength."

SUMMARY:
Creatine monohydrate is more effective than the liquid and ethyl ester forms for improving exercise performance. 
Creatine monohydrate is also at least as effective as the magnesium chelate and buffered forms.

Creatine monohydrate is the Easiest to Find
Some new forms of creatine are only available in multi-ingredient products, such as pre-workout supplements.
If you buy these, you’ll be paying for a handful of other supplements besides the one you actually want.
What’s more, these other ingredients are often unnecessary and do not have the same scientific support as creatine.
Other forms of creatine, such as hydrochloride and ethyl ester, can be purchased as an individual ingredient.
However, these are only available from a small number of sellers online or in stores.
On the other hand, the monohydrate form is easy to buy as a single ingredient.
With a quick online search, you’ll find many options to buy creatine monohydrate without any other ingredients added.

SUMMARY:
Monohydrate is the easiest form of creatine to find as an individual ingredient. 
Creatine monohydrate is available from numerous online sellers and stores.

Creatine is one of the most popular and widely researched natural supplements. 
The majority of studies have focused on the effects of creatine monohydrate on performance and health; however, many other forms of creatine exist and are commercially available in the sports nutrition/supplement market. 
Regardless of the form, supplementation with creatine has regularly shown to increase strength, fat free mass, and muscle morphology with concurrent heavy resistance training more than resistance training alone. 
Creatine may be of benefit in other modes of exercise such as high-intensity sprints or endurance training. 

However, Creatine monohydrate appears that the effects of creatine diminish as the length of time spent exercising increases. 
Even though not all individuals respond similarly to creatine supplementation, Creatine monohydrate is generally accepted that Creatine monohydrates supplementation increases creatine storage and promotes a faster regeneration of adenosine triphosphate between high intensity exercises. 
These improved outcomes will increase performance and promote greater training adaptations. 
More recent research suggests that creatine supplementation in amounts of 0.1 g/kg of body weight combined with resistance training improves training adaptations at a cellular and sub-cellular level. 

How Does Creatine Monohydrate Work?
Creatine is a key player in the phosphagen energy system, the primary source of ATP (the main energy substrate in our body) during short-term, high-intensity activities. 
Creatine exists as both free form creatine and phosphocreatine in the body. 
Phosphocreatine (PC) functions as a “storehouse for high energy phosphate”.
PC functions to replenish ATP in muscles that are rapidly contracting by transferring a phosphate group to the ADP that was formed from the hydrolysis of ATP for energy in the contracting muscle.
When our muscles run out of creatine, our short-term, high-intensity energy system shuts down and our muscles are no longer able to produce force.
The use of creatine as an ergogenic aid is based upon the theory that one can increase the saturation of creatine in the muscle through supplementation. 
This is an important point which we will discuss in a section below.

Creatine monohydrate is the Cheapest
Not only is monohydrate the easiest form of creatine to find as a single ingredient, Creatine monohydrate is also the cheapest.
There are a few possible reasons why.
Since monohydrate has been available for longer than other forms of creatine, Creatine monohydrate may be cheaper to produce.
Additionally, since many companies make this form of the supplement, there is more competition to keep prices low.
Other, newer forms of this supplement are often impossible for you to buy as an individual ingredient.

Metabolic role
Creatine is a naturally occurring non-protein compound of which the primary metabolic role is to combine creatine with a phosphoryl group to generate phosphocreatine, which is used to regenerate ATP or Adenosine Triphosphate.
Most of the human body's total creatine and phosphocreatine stores are found in skeletal muscle (95%), while the remainder is distributed in the blood, brain, testes, and other tissues.
The average amount of total creatine (creatine and phosphocreatine) stored in the body is approximately 120 mmol/kg of dry muscle mass.
However the upper limit of creatine storage post supplementation and dietary intervention is believed to be around 160 mmol/kg.
Studies have also shown that 1–2% of intramuscular creatine is degraded per day and an individual would need to consume about 1–3 grams of creatine per day to maintain average (unsupplemented) creatine storage.
For most individuals about half (1 g/day) of this daily need is consumed from an omnivorous diet, while the remaining amount is synthesized in the liver and kidneys.

Creatine is a common supplement taken by athletes and bodybuilders.
Creatine monohydrate is the most common form of the supplement and is thought to fuel the muscles, among other benefits.
Creatine monohydrate is considered safe to take, as long as it is taken according to proper dosage instructions.

Creatine is a substance naturally occurring in the body of all vertebrates playing a central role in energy metabolism. 
Creatine monohydrate is an endogenous substance, with the highest natural concentrations in the skeletal muscle and in the heart muscle of humans. 
Creatine monohydrate occurs naturally in foods such as meat, fish and other animal products. 
Creatine monohydrate is also formed endogenously by the liver, kidney and pancreas from the amino acids glycine, arginine and methionine. 
The Notifier’s product creatine monohydrate is produced by chemical synthesis. 
From a concentrated aqueous solution creatine (regardless of Creatine monohydrates natural or synthetic origin) crystallizes in the form of creatine monohydrate (CM) which is currently the most common form used in dietary supplements. 
Creatine monohydrate is also the form intended as a food ingredient for addition to food. 

Ignition Residue: 1% max.
Residue after Ignition: 1% max
Color: White to Yellow
Loss on Drying: 12.6% max. (105°C)
Infrared Spectrum: Authentic
Appearance: (1% aq. soln.) clear, colorless to slightly yellow
Packaging: Glass bottle
Quantity: 25g
Melting Point: 292.0°C
Assay Percent Range: 98.5% min. (on dry substance) (HPLC)
Linear Formula: H2NC(=NH)N(CH3)CH2CO2H·H2O
Beilstein: 04, 363
Merck Index: 14, 2568
Solubility Information: (1% in water) Clear colorless to light yellow
Formula Weight: 149.15
Physical Form: Crystalline Powder
Percent Purity: 99%
Chemical Name or Material: Creatine monohydrate

Creatine is a chemical that occurs naturally in your muscle cells. 
Creatine monohydrate’s made from the amino acids (protein building blocks, JIC you don’t remember from high school bio) glycine, methionine, and arginine, and it helps your muscles more effectively harness energy.
As a supplement, studies show that Creatine monohydrate’s great for boosting strength, improving performance in high intensity activities, and promoting exercise recovery. 
The one-two punch of creatine supplementation and resistance training is a great way to build muscle, too.
And according to Kelly Jones, MS, RDN, CSSN, sports dietitian and founder of Student Athlete Nutrition, creatine may have some benefits for menopause, depression, bone health, and cognition, as well.

SUMMARY:
Currently, monohydrate is the cheapest form of creatine to buy. 
Other forms are more expensive or difficult to find as a single ingredient.

The Bottom Line
Creatine is one of the most effective supplements for exercise performance. 
Several types are available, but monohydrate is currently the best form.
Creatine monohydrate has the best safety record, most scientific support and is at least as effective as any other form on the market. 
Creatine monohydrate’s also widely available and typically has the lowest price.
Overall, Creatine monohydrate’s clear that creatine monohydrate is the best form you can take.

Creatine monohydrate
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2-(1-Methylguanidino)acetic acid hydrate
Creatine hydrate
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N-Amidinosarcosine monohydrate
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Creatine (monohydrate)
Glycine, N-(aminoiminomethyl)-N-methyl-, monohydrate
9603LN7R2Q
2-[carbamimidoyl(methyl)amino]acetic acid;hydrate
Creatine, monohydrate

Creatine Monohydrate is the most scientifically studied form of creatine available. 
Creatine is a naturally occurring metabolite found in muscle tissue. 
Creatine monohydrate helps rapidly resynthesize ATP, the ultimate form of energy used by muscle cells to generate force (muscle contraction). 
Creatine has been clinically shown to improve muscle strength, torque and performance.
GAT Creatine is micronized to help maximize absorption and utilization.
Muscle Size & Power
Anti-Catabolic
Enhance Recovery
ATP Activator

Creatine monohydrate, 99%
Creapure
creatine-monohydrate
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Creatine Monohydrate 80 Mesh
Creatine monohydrate, >=98%
Creatine Monohydrate 150 Mesh
Creatine Monohydrate 200 Mesh
AMY8957

Creatine Monohydrate is one of the most well-known natural supplements having numerous studies showing the benefits. 
Creatine has been shown to increase muscle performance by supplying Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) for energy.

Creatine monohydrate is the most studied sports supplement in existence. 
Creatine safely and effectively:
-Promotes muscle growth
-Supports strength gains
-Delays muscular fatigue
-Enhances muscular energy
While there are more expensive types of creatine on the market, no data convincingly shows that any form worked better than the original creatine monohydrate in micronized form.

The chemical name for Creatine is methyl guanidine-acetic acid. 
Creatine is a natural substance found in our muscle cells, especially around the skeletal muscles. 
Creatine monohydrate is naturally manufactured in the liver, kidneys and pancreas, and Creatine monohydrate works as a storage form for potential energy.  
Widely accepted in the fitness communities across the globe as a top supplement; creatine is used to develop strength and stimulate muscle growth. 
Creatine monohydrate is found in muscles, the heart and brain tissue.  
Creatine monohydrate is a natural derivative of the amino acids arginine, methionine and glycine.  
About 95% of the body’s creatine supply is located near the skeletal muscles and the remaining 5% is stored in other parts of the body. 
Although Creatine monohydrate comes in many different forms, the most common formula used for athletic purposes is creatine monohydrate.

Creatine monohydrate is one of the most well studied supplements in the field of sports nutrition. 
As a supplement, creatine monohydrate combined with glucose (a simple carbohydrate such as fruit) provides maximum benefits.

Creatine is manufactured in the liver using S-adenosyl_methionine as the methyl donor. 
Creatine may also be derived from dietary sources, primarily from meat or fish, which contain approximately 4 to 5 grams of creatine per kilogram. 
Following its biosynthesis, creatine is quickly taken to the skeletal muscle, heart, brain and other tissues.
Most of the creatine is metabolized in these tissues into phosphocreatine (creatine phosphate), which is a primary energy storage form in the body.

Creatine functions to increase the availability of cellular energy ATP, adenosine triphosphate by donating a phosphate ion.  
When energy demand is high (e.g. during muscle exertion) creatine phosphate donates its phosphate to ADP (adenosine diphosphate) to yield ATP, which drives muscle contraction and protein production. 
Amazingly, this reaction is reversible: the phosphate of ATP can be transferred back to creatine, generating creatine phosphate by the action of creatine phosphokinase. 
Phosphocreatine and free creatine is then stored in the muscle for later energy use.  

When needed, phosphocreatine later binds with ADP to convert it back to ATP.
Matched with its popularity in recent years, creatine has been clinically proven in numerous studies to increase muscle strength and delay fatigue, allowing athletes to train harder and achieve greater muscle gains beyond normal capacities. 
Creatine’s influence on ATP is critical to metabolic activities, especially for activities like weightlifting, sprinting and jumping that are short-term and high intensity .
Creatine monohydrate is a dietary supplement that athletes and many bodybuilders use to increase high intensity exercise performance, increase strength, have fuller looking muscles, increase body mass and have faster post workout muscle recovery.

Because anything that improves performance is usually associated with steroids, creatine has received a bad reputation in the past from people who do not understand Creatine monohydrate. 
There are a wide variety of responses to the supplementatation of creatine; some people respond to Creatine monohydrate very well and almost instantaneously and others don’t. 
This is probably attributed to the amount of creatine already in their body.
Creatine enables users to continue with their intense and grueling training for longer periods of times. 

An increase of muscle mass leads to weight gain, which is the result of creatine drawing water into the muscle cell. 
This is reason enough for many bodybuilders and weight trainers to use creatine alone.
Although many professional athletes use creatine, most people will also benefit from the supplementation of creatine monohydrate because Creatine monohydrate improves strength and fitness in daily activities, can improve mental performance, and has shown to be an excellent antioxidant.
Purity and Concentration of Creatine Monohydrate

Our creatine monohydrate powder is assayed by the manufacturer to be 99.5% pure, according to HPLC standardized testing methods. 
You will receive a double sealed and labeled bulk polyethylene bag containing this white crystalline powder product. 
Creatine monohydrate contains no fillers, taste additives, or anti-caking agents.

Health Benefits of Creatine Monohydrate
Studies have shown that creatine monohydrate, when supplemented with proper diet, exercise and adequate hydration, can increase lean muscle mass and strength. 
Creatine also helps alleviate muscle soreness, thus giving its users a faster recovery time thus allowing them to train more frequently. 
Creatine is found to be beneficial in the overall growth of the lean muscle mass and provides athletes with enough energy to go on with their strenuous activities. 
Creatine also prevents the body from relying solely on the process of glycolysis, which has a byproduct of lactic acid. 
Lactic acid build up can cause a burning sensation in the muscle and if Creatine monohydrate reaches high levels Creatine monohydrate can cause muscle movement to cease.

If taken in high doses with cimetidine (a medication for heartburn and ulcers), diuretics, probenecid (used for gout), or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID) medications (such as ibuprofen), creatine may increase the likelihood of damage to the kidneys.  
For this reason, Creatine monohydrate is important to stay within the prescribed doses. 
People who currently suffer from renal disease should not take creatine.
Suggested Dosage of Creatine Monohydrate
There are two methods of taking creatine monohydrate powder.

-The first is called “loading”. 
This means quickly loading your muscles with creatine. 
During the first four days, take up to 20-30 grams per day mixed with your choice of juice, energy drink, water or shake. 
For this method mix, 5-10 grams of creatine in your choice of drink 4-5 times a day for a maximum of 20-30 grams a day. 
Creatine is best taken with products that increase the amount of insulin in your system. 
After the loading period, back the creatine amount down to 5-15 grams a day. 
Make sure you take Creatine monohydrate every day, preferably after working out.
-The second method is a gradual progression in which you skip the loading phase and simply take 5-15 grams per day, each day.

Caffeine should not be use while taking creatine. 
This is because caffeine reduces the effects of the creatine intake due to Creatine monohydrates nature of being a diuretic. 
While creatine makes your muscles hold water, caffeine will do the opposite, thereby neutralizing the benefits of creatine intake.
Mixing and solubility of Creatine Monohydrate – Creatine is a pure white powder that has no flavor or smell. 
Creatine monohydrate powder is easily soluble in water, fruit juice or shake. 

Creatine absorption is improved significantly when taken with something that increases insulin levels. 
To improve absorption take creatine with any beverage that has a high glycemic index. 
The consumption of creatine right before or during exercise is not recommended. 
Creatine absorbs quickly, and because of this Creatine monohydrate is advisable not to mix creatine powder too far in advance.  
For those on the go, simply measure the correct amount of powder into an empty water bottle or something similar. 
When you are ready to take Creatine monohydrate, fill the water bottle with your preferred method of drink.

This information has not been evaluated by the FDA and is not intended to be a substitute for medical advice. 
ALWAYS consult your doctor or pharmacist. 
Do not use any dietary supplement as a replacement for conventional care, or as a reason to postpone seeing a doctor about a medical problem. 
Tell all your health care providers about any complementary and alternative practices you use. 
Give them a full picture of what you do to manage your health. 
This will help ensure coordinated and safe care.

Why Micronized?
Micronized creatine has a particle size that's 20 times smaller than regular creatine. 
That means it's absorbed faster and more completely. 
As a bonus, micronized creatine mixes easily into water, juice, workout drinks, or protein shakes.

What's the Best Way to Use Creatine?
The best way to "load" creatine is to take 5 grams four times a day for 5-7 days. 
Once you've loaded up, you only need to take 3 to 5 grams a day to maintain full capacity.
Alternately, you can forget about loading Creatine monohydrate and just take 3 to 5 grams a day for 28 days. 
Both methods work.

Creatine Monohydrate is one of the most popular, effective, and researched amino acid supplements because Creatine monohydrate has the ability to quickly increase muscle mass and strength.

What's the Best Time to Take Creatine?
Creatine actually works through saturation and not timing. 
You don't have to take Creatine monohydrate immediately before or after your workout. 
As long as your muscles are filled with creatine, Creatine monohydrate'll be there to help with your workout regardless of when you take Creatine monohydrate.

What Do I Need to Do to Maximize Creatine's Effects?
Drink lots of water. 
The general rule is to drink half your body weight in ounces of water, so if you weigh 200 pounds, drink roughly 100 ounces of water a day.

How Fast Does Creatine monohydrate Work?
You should see or feel something in a few days. 
Most users will gain about 0.8 to 2.9 percent of bodyweight after the first few days of supplementation.

The Science
Creatine is stored as phospho-creatine in muscle cells and it supplies an extra phosphate group to regenerate ATP during high-intensity muscle contractions.
Creatine can increase your capacity to do high-intensity anaerobic repetitive work by about 15%. That means on any given set, you should be able to do one to two more reps with extra weight.
In addition to increasing work capacity, creatine builds up muscles by raising the level of anabolic hormones (like IGF-1), lowers myostatin levels (elevated levels inhibit muscle growth), improves cell signaling of satellite cells (that help with repair and new muscle growth), and reduces protein breakdown.
Creatine can augment the effects of exercise on lowering blood sugar.
Recent research shows that creatine may also lower blood trigylcerides and increase exercise capacity in heart patients.
Creatine has been shown to have neuroprotective effects, and may possibly improve memory formation and retention.

Creatine Monohydrate, a well-studied, foundational muscle building ingredient, supports the rapid production of cellular energy to enhance muscular power, endurance, and growth through replenishing the body’s ATP levels. 
COR-Performance Creatine features 5g of Micronized Creatine Monohydrate. 
Micronization of creatine improves water solubility.

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Creatine-[guanidino-13C] monohydrate
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AK158914
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2-(amidinomethylamino)acetic acid, oxamethane
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Creatine, United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Reference Standard
Glycine, N-(aminoiminomethyl)-N-(methyl-d3)-,monohydrate (9CI)

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