EMULSIFIERS

Emulsifiers stabilize emulsions, so in order to understand an emulsifier, we should first introduce an emulsion. 
An emulsion is an example of a dispersion, Emulsifiers is a mixture of two umiscible liquids. 
Emulsifiers can be mixed together by force (a strong whisk or homogenizer), however, over time they will spontaneously split again. 
In an emulsion one of the two liquids will be the continuous phase and the other liquid will float around that continuous phase in separate droplets.
Emulsifiers made from plant, animal and synthetic sources commonly are added to processed foods such as mayonnaise, ice cream and baked goods to create a smooth texture, prevent separation and extend shelf life. 

Emulsifiers can help make the suspension stable as they keep the oil particles dispersed throughout the liquid.
Emulsifiers are particles where one end is attracted to water and the other end is drawn to oil. 
Emulsifiers have a surface area that can encapsulate the dispersed droplets, these can be proteins, diglycerides, monoglycerides, or tiny cell fragments.
Common emulsifiers include egg yolks (in which the protein lecithin is the emulsifier), butter (the protein casein is what makes it work), cheese, mustard, honey, tomato paste, catsup, miso, and garlic paste.

A food emulsifier, also called an emulgent, is a surface-active agent that acts as a border between two immiscible liquids such as oil and water, allowing them to be blended into stable emulsions. 
Emulsifiers also reduce stickiness, control crystallization and prevent separation.
Emulsifiers create two types of emulsions: either droplets of oil dispersed in water or droplets of water dispersed in oil. 
Within the emulsion, there is a continuous and dispersed phase. 
In an oil-in-water emulsion, the continuous phase is the water and the dispersed phase is the oil; conversely, in a water-in-oil emulsion, the oil is the continuous phase.
Emulsions also can be made by applying mechanical force from a blender or homogenizer, which breaks down the dispersed phase into tiny droplets that become suspended in the continuous phase.

Low-fat spreads, ice cream, margarine, salad dressings and many other creamy sauces are kept in stable emulsions with the addition of emulsifiers. 
Emulsifiers also are widely used in other foods such as peanut butter and chocolate.
Emulsifiers enhance the structure of baked goods by increasing whip-ability of batters, conditioning of dough and helping foods like pasta be more resistant to overcooking.
Commonly used emulsifiers in modern food production include mustard, soy and egg lecithin, mono- and diglycerides, polysorbates, carrageenan, guar gum and canola oil.
Lecithin in egg yolks is one of the most powerful and oldest forms of an animal-derived emulsifier used to stabilize oil in water emulsions, for example, in mayonnaise and hollandaise sauce.


1-) GLYCERYL MONOSTEARATE

Glyceryl monostearate = Glycerol monostearate = GMS = MGS = Glycerin monostearate = Glycerol ester of stearic acid = Glycerine monostearate = ESTER OF GLYCERIN + STEARIC ACID 

Glycerine = Glycerin = Glycerol (= Glyceryl)

Stearic acid, monoester with glycerol


EC / List no.: 250-705-4
CAS no.: 31566-31-1

IUPAC names
1,3-dihydroxypropan-2-yl octadecanoate 2,3-dihydroxypropyl octadecanoate
2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)ethyl stearate
Glycerol monostearate; GMS
Glyceryl Monostearate
Glyceryl stearate
GMS
Stearic acid, monoester with glycerol

EC / List no.: 286-490-9
CAS no.: 85251-77-0

Glycerol monostearate, commonly known as GMS, is a monoglyceride commonly used as an emulsifier in foods.
Glyceryl monostearate takes the form of a white, odorless, and sweet-tasting flaky powder that is hygroscopic. 
Chemically it is the glycerol ester of stearic acid.

GMS (Glycerol monostearate) is a food additive used as a thickening, emulsifying, anti-caking and preservative agent; an emulsifying agent for oils, waxes and solvents

GLYCEROL MONOSTEARATE
Glycerol monostearate or monostearin, is a monoglyceride commonly used as an emulsifier in foods. 
Chemically it is the monoglycerol ester of stearic acid. 
Glyceryl stearate is a food additive used as a thickening, emulsifying, anticaking, and preservative agent, an emulsifying agent for oils, waxes, and solvents a protective coating for hygroscopic powders, a solidifier and control release agent in pharmaceuticals, and a resin lubricant. 
Glyceryl stearate is also used in cosmetics and hair-care products. 
It is generally a white, odorless, and sweet-tasting flaky powder that is hygroscopic.

Functions
Emulsion Stabilisers
Rheology / Viscosity Modifiers
Emulsifiers

Applications
After Sun
Body Care
Eye Colour
Face / Neck Skin Care
Face Colour
Facial Cleansers
Hair Conditioners - Rinse off
Lip Colour
Sun Protection

Glyceryl Monostearate, referred to as GMS for short, is a solid, waxy substance carrying a white appearance and minimal to no odor. 
This material is produced by distilling cold-pressed organic flax seed oil or sunflower oil to yield two parts, organic glycerin and organic fatty acids. 
The fatty acid byproduct portion are fractionated to produce saturated fatty acids which will react with the organic glycerin to form Organic Glyceryl Monostearate. 
GMS, or organic glyceryl monostearate, is most sought after for its emulsifying properties, the ability to bind water and oil together in a formulation which would naturally separate. 
Emulsifiers are an integral part of product development and formulation, used throughout cosmetic and personal-care manufacturing to food and beverage engineering, along with a wide range of industrial applications. 
In addition to emulsifying properties, GMS is a common food additive to thicken the consistency of a combination of ingredients, prevent caking, or act as an added preservative. 
Its natural emollient characteristics make it suitable for a multitude of topical skincare products.

Glyceryl monostearate (GMS), a nonionic amphiphilic monoglyceride of glycerol and stearic acid is widely used as emulsifier in food, cosmetic, pharmaceutical and textile industry.

Structure, synthesis, and occurrence
Glycerol monostearate exists as three stereoisomers, the enantiomeric pair of 1-glycerol monostearate and 2-glycerol monostearate. 
Typically these are encountered as a mixture as many of their properties are similar.

Commercial material used in foods is produced industrially by a glycerolysis reaction between triglycerides (from either vegetable or animal fats) and glycerol.

Glycerol monostearate occurs naturally in the body as a product of the breakdown of fats by pancreatic lipase. 
It is present at very low levels in certain seed oils.

Uses
GMS is a food additive used as a thickening, emulsifying, anticaking, and preservative agent; an emulsifying agent for oils, waxes, and solvents; a protective coating for hygroscopic powders; a solidifier and control release agent in pharmaceuticals; and a resin lubricant. 
Glyceryl Monostearate is also used in cosmetics and hair-care products.

GMS is largely used in baking preparations to add "body" to the food. 
Glyceryl Monostearate is somewhat responsible for giving ice cream and whipped cream their smooth texture. 
Glyceryl Monostearate is sometimes used as an antistaling agent in bread.

Glyceryl Monostearate can also be used as an additive in plastic, where GMS works as an antistatic and antifogging agent. This is common in food packaging.


Glyceryl Monostearate

A solvent for oral, topical applications, co-emulsifier and low HLB surfactant, structure-building consistency factor for semi-solids and a viscosity enhancer. 
It also hardens suppository formulations and adjust their melting points.

Glyceryl Monostearate is widely used as a co-emulsifier and consistency building factor. 
On the account of its consistency giving characters it is mainly used for the viscosity adjustment in pharmaceutical O/W emulsions. 
Glyceryl Monostearate is a white to slightly yellowish, hydrophilic wax, which is supplied as powder. BASF has in-depth knowledge about how to utilize this material and how best to manage its performance and its stability.

Glyceryl Monostearate grades can be used for all kinds of topical pharmaceutical applications such as gels, lotions and creams. 
All Glyceryl Monostearate grades act as consistency factors and co-emulsifiers at the same time. With their amphiphilic structure they will stabilize the surface between oil and water and will help to enhance the viscosity with building up a liquid crystalline network in the water-phase (lamellar structure).
Glyceryl Monostearate is able to stabilize W/O and O/W emulsion and will help top create a unique softness and creaminess in the end application. 
Glyceryl Monostearate acts as co-emulsifier and low HLB surfactant. 
It stabilizes the surfactant phases & emulsion droplets. It is suitable for production of emulsions & creams, ointments, gels and foams.

Product Details
Chemical name    Glycerol Monostearate
Former product name: Cutina GMS V PH
CAS No.    85251-77-0

Glyceryl Monostearate is used as structure-building consistency factor for semi-solids. It can mitigate stickiness or greasiness in emulsions, ointments and gels.

Glyceryl Monostearate is used as solvent for oral and topical applications. It is suitable for solutions, liquid suspensions and lipid-based drug delivery systems technologies.

As co-emulsifier and viscosity enhancer Glyceryl Monostearate is used in capsule fill formulations.

Glyceryl Monostearate is used as solvent for oral and topical applications. It is suitable for solutions, liquid suspensions and lipid-based drug delivery systems technologies.


Suppository formulations can be hardened and adjusted in their melting point by the addition of Glyceryl Monostearate.

Glycerol monostearate
Structural formula of 1-glycerol monostearate
1-glycerol monostearate (1-isomer)
Structural formula of 2-glycerol monostearate
2-glycerol monostearate (2-isomer)

Names
IUPAC name: 2,3-Dihydroxypropyl octadecanoate

Other names
Glyceryl monostearate
Glycerin monostearate
Monostearin

Identifiers
Compounds
(Mix): Mixture of 1- and 2- isomers
(1-): 1-glycerol monostearate
(2-): 2-glycerol monostearate
CAS Number    
(Mix): 31566-31-1 check
(1-): 123-94-4
(2-): 621-61-4

Properties
Chemical formula: C21H42O4
Molar mass: 358.563 g·mol−1
Appearance: White solid
Density: 1.03 g/cm3

Glyceryl 1-stearate (Glycerol monostearate), commonly known as GMS, is an organic molecule used as an emulsifier. 
GMS is a white, odorless, and sweet-tasting flaky powder that is hygroscopic. 
Glycerol monostearate is a glycerol ester of stearicacid. 
Glycerol monostearate occurs naturally in the body as a product of the breakdown of fats by pancreatic lipase, and is also found in fatty foods. 
GMS is a food additive used as a thickening, emulsifying, anti-caking, and preservative agent; an emulsifying agent for oils, waxes, and solvents; a protective coating for hygroscopic powders; a solidifier and control release agent in pharmaceuticals; and a resin lubricant. 
Glycerol monostearate is also used in cosmetics and hair care products. 
Glycerol monostearate is used in antiperspirants and deodorants, baby care, body care, facial care, sun care, conditioners, facial make-up, creams and lotions-skin care, sprayable emulsions, feet, hands and nails, self-tanning, nail grooming and color cosmetics. 
GMS is largely used in baking preparations to add "body" to the food. 
Glyceryl monostearate is responsible for giving ice cream and whipped cream its smooth texture. 
Glyceryl monostearate is sometimes used as an anti-staling agent in bread. Glycerol 1-stearate is affirmed by FDA as GRAS.


Description: A white or yellowish white, hard waxy mass or unctuous powder or flakes; odourless or slight, agreeable, fatty odour. 
Solubility: Practically insoluble in water; soluble in ether R, benzene R, and ethanol (~750 g/l) TS at 60 C. 
Category: Emulsifying agent; cream and ointment base. 
Storage: Glyceryl monostearate should be kept in a tightly closed container, protected from light. 
Additional information: Glyceryl monostearate may contain a suitable antioxidant. 

Self-emulsifying glyceryl monostearate contains additional emulsifying agents. 
Definition: Glyceryl monostearate is a mixture of mono-, di- and triglycerides of stearic and palmitic acids. 
Glyceryl monostearate contains not less than the equivalent of 35.0% of monoglycerides, calculated as C20H40O4, and not morethan the equivalent of 6.0% of free glycerol.

Glyceryl Monostearate
Also known as glycerol monostearate or monostearin
What is Glyceryl Monostearate?
Glyceryl monostearate (GMS) is an effective emulsifier used in the baking industry available in the form of small beads, flakes, or powders. 
In addition to emulsification, GMS is a thickening agent and a  stabilizer.

In baking, it is used to improve dough quality and stabilize fat/protein emulsions.

Composition
GMS is a non-ionic ester of glycerol and stearic acid. It is soluble in ethanol at 122°F (50°C) but immiscible with water. 
It often consists of a mixture of mono, di, and triesters of fatty acids occurring in food oils and fats. They may contain small amounts of free fatty acids and glycerol.

Commercial Production
GMS is produced either through heating oils/fats with excess glycerol or by direct esterification of glycerol (of animal or plant sources) with stearic acid. 
The proportion of monoester formed is dependent on the proportion of glycerol and reaction temperature range of 86-140°F (60-80°C). 
Further purification is carried out by high vacuum distillation.2

Function
The ratio of hydrophilic to lipophilic moieties, called hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) is used in classifying emulsions. 
HLB values range from 0-20 with lower values indicating dominant lipophilic character while higher values indicate hydrophilic character. 
GMS has a HLB value of 3.8, making it lipophilic and suitable for uses in w/o emulsions, such as batters and doughs, dairy and other products.

GMS is used in a paste form, i.e. mixed with water and other ingredients to improve gel stability. 
It is an unsaturated monoglyceride and offers better stability than other unsaturated monoglycerides, such as oleic acid.

Glyceryl Monostearate is used in the baking industry to:

Help in the formation and maintenance of uniform dispersions of immiscible solvents.
Stabilize emulsions via displacing proteins from oil, wax or solvent surfaces.
Improve bread texture, and retard staling due to its complexation with starch amylopectin4
Improve aeration of doughs and batters.
Applications
GMS has been used in the following applications:2

To improve the physical and rheological properties of the batter and thus better-quality cakes
In breads such as pain courant Français, Friss búzakenyér, naan and roti
In sponge cakes and pancakes for aeration.
Dairy products such as cream, whipped cream, ice cream, cream powder, imitation creams, etc.
Fruit/vegetable spreads, jams, jellies, marmalades

Glyceryl monostearate, also known as monostearin, is a mixture of variable proportions of glyceryl monostearate (C21H42O4), and glyceryl esters of fatty acids present in commercial stearic acid. 
Glyceryl monostearate is prepared by glycerolysis of certain fats or oils that are derived from edible sources or by esterification, with glycerin, of stearic acid that is derived from edible sources.


Chemical Properties    
Glyceryl monostearate is waxy to the touch and has a slight, mild fatty odor and taste The USP describes glyceryl monostearate as consisting of not less than 90% of monoglycerides, chiefy glyceryl monostearate and glyceryl monopalmitate.

Chemical Properties    
While the names glyceryl monostearate and mono- and diglycerides are used for a variety of esters of long-chain fatty acids, the esters fall into two distinct grades:
40–55 percent monoglycerides The PhEur 6.0 describes glyceryl monostearate 40–55 as a mixture of monoacylglycerols, mostly monostearoylglycerol, together with quantities of di- and triacylglycerols. It contains 40–55% of monoacylglycerols, 30–45% of diacylglycerols, and 5–15% of triacylglycerols. This PhEur grade corresponds to mono- and di-glycerides USP– NF, which has similar specifications (not less than 40% monoglycerides).
90 percent monoglycerides The USP32–NF27 describes glyceryl monostearate as consisting of not less than 90% of monoglycerides of saturated fatty acids, chiefly glyceryl monostearate (C21H42O4) and glyceryl monopalmitate (C19H38O4).
The commercial products are mixtures of variable proportions of glyceryl monostearate and glyceryl monopalmitate.
Glyceryl monostearate is a white to cream-colored, wax-like solid in the form of beads, flakes, or powder. 
It is waxy to the touch and has a slight fatty odor and taste.


Uses    glyceryl stearate is an emulsifier that helps form neutral, stable emulsions. It is also a solvent, humectant, and consistency regulator in water-in-oil and oil-in-water formulations. In addition, it can be used as a skin lubricant and imparts a pleasant skin feel. glyceryl stearate is a mixture of mono-, di-, and triglycerides of palmitic and stearic acids, and is made from glycerin and stearic fatty acids. Derived for cosmetic use from palm kernel or soy oil, it is also found in the human body. It is very mild with a low skin-irritation profile; however, a slight risk of irritation exists if products contain poor quality glyceryl stearate.
Uses    Glyceryl monostearate is also known as monostearin, is a mixture of variable proportions of glyceryl monostearate, glyceryl monopalmitate, and glyceryl esters of fatty acids present in commercial stearic acid. Is prepared by glycerolysis of certain fats or oils that are derived from edible sources or by esterification, with glycerin, of stearic acid that is derived from edible sources.
Uses    Lonzest GMS is a surfactant used in a variety of markets.
Uses    Aldo MS BO KFG is a glycerol ester made from soybean oil derived fatty acid. This product finds uses in both food and cosmetic applications.
Uses    Aldo MSD KFG is a self emulsifying nonionic surfactant, used as a lubricant in confectionery, as a release agent and as a dough softener. 
It is used as a low HLB emulsifier in personal care products where non animal grade products are needed.
Uses    In pharmaceutical dispensing
Uses    glyceryl monostearate (glycerin monostearate; glyceryl stearate) is widely used in cosmetics. It is an emulsifying and solubilizing ingredient, dispersing agent, emollient, formula stabilizer, and surface-action agent. employed in baby creams, face masks, foundation, and hand lotions, it is often derived from hydrogenated soybean oil. glyceryl monostearate has little or no G toxicity.

Definition    
An intermediate chemical.

Production Methods    
Glyceryl monostearate is prepared by the reaction of glycerin with triglycerides from animal or vegetable sources, producing a mixture of monoglycerides and diglycerides. 
The diglycerides may be further reacted to produce the 90% monoglyceride grade. 
Another process involves reaction of glycerol with stearoyl chloride.
The starting materials are not pure substances and therefore the products obtained from the processes contain a mixture of esters, including palmitate and oleate. 
Consequently, the composition, and therefore the physical properties, of glyceryl monostearate may vary considerably depending on the manufacturer.

Pharmaceutical Applications    
The many varieties of glyceryl monostearate are used as nonionic emulsifiers, stabilizers, emollients, and plasticizers in a variety of food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic applications. 
It acts as an effective stabilizer, that is, as a mutual solvent for polar and nonpolar compounds that may form water-in-oil or oil-in-water emulsions.
These properties also make it useful as a dispersing agent for pigments in oils or solids in fats, or as a solvent for phospholipids, such as lecithin.
Glyceryl monostearate has also been used in a novel fluidized hot-melt granulation technique for the production of granules and tablets.
Glyceryl monostearate is a lubricant for tablet manufacturing and may be used to form sustained-release matrices for solid dosage forms. 
Sustained-release applications include the formulation of pellets for tablets or suppositories, and the preparation of a veterinary bolus. Glyceryl monostearate has also been used as a matrix ingredient for a biodegradable, implantable, controlledrelease dosage form.
When using glyceryl monostearate in a formulation, the possibility of polymorph formation should be considered. 
The aform is dispersible and foamy, useful as an emulsifying agent or preservative. 
The denser, more stable, b-form is suitable for wax matrices. 
This application has been used to mask the flavor of clarithromycin in a pediatric formulation.

Safety Profile    
Poison by intraperitoneal route. When heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke and irritating fumes. See also ESTERS.

Safety    Glyceryl monostearate is widely used in cosmetics, foods, and oral and topical pharmaceutical formulations, and is generally regarded as a nontoxic and nonirritant material.
LD50 (mouse, IP): 0.2 g/kg
storage    

If stored at warm temperatures, glyceryl monostearate increases in acid value upon aging owing to the saponification of the ester with trace amounts of water. 
Effective antioxidants may be added, such as butylated hydroxytoluene and propyl gallate.

Glyceryl monostearate should be stored in a tightly closed container in a cool, dry place, and protected from light.

Incompatibilities    
The self-emulsifying grades of glyceryl monostearate are incompatible with acidic substances.


Glycerin Monostearate (GMS) is made with natural vegetable oil and fat, which is the most widely applied food emulsifier. Cardlo’s DM-99 GMS is produced by Germany six-stage distillation equipment. It has higher monostearate content (> 99%), lower impurity content, long-term stable physical-chemical indexes and higher emulsifying properties.

 


Application
Benefit
Suggested Dosage

Protein beverage
Glyceryl Monostearate stabilizes the fat and protein, prevent elimination and sedimentation 
0.05%-0.1%

Ice cream 
Glyceryl Monostearate avoids forming large ice crystal, improve mouth feels and provide creamy texture, improve stabilization
0.1%-0.2%

Flour products

Breads
Glyceryl Monostearate improves crumb softness, provides a fine and uniform crumb structure, reduces staling rate
0.3%-0.8% of flour

Cakes
Glyceryl Monostearate enlarges volume, improve texture ,prolong the shelf life
3%-10% of oil

Biscuit
Glyceryl Monostearate improves process properties, prevent oil separating out and make the dough easy to off-module
1.5%-2% of oil

Oils and fats

Margarine 
Glyceryl Monostearate adjusts the oil crystal, imparts fine and stable water dispersion
Shortening
Glyceryl Monostearate adjusts the oil crystal, improve its function properties


Coffee-whitener
Glyceryl Monostearate gives a more uniform fat globule size distribution resulting in improved whitening effect

Caramels ,toffees and chocolate
Glyceryl Monostearate reduces stickiness and sugar crystallization, thus improve the eating quality
1.5%-2% of oil
Chewing gum

Glyceryl Monostearate improves mastication and texture, soften gum base and facilitate mixture, especially for SBR and PVA
0.3%-0.5% of base 

Meats products 
Glyceryl Monostearate helps fat disperse and combine with water and starch, prevent starch retrogradation
0.1%-1.0%
Edible antifoaming agent
Glyceryl Monostearate decreases or inhibit foaming during production
0.1%-1.0%

Peanut butter
Improve stabilization
0.1%-0.2%

Granular potato products
Ensure uniformity, improve structure and make production easier
0.3%-1.0% of starch

For non-food: Glyceryl Monostearate is used in PVC lubricants, cosmetics auxiliary emulsifier and thickener, antifogging agent of agricultural greenhouse plastic film, antistatic agent of packaging film.

 


Glyceryl Monostearate is a solvent for oral, topical applications, co-emulsifier and low HLB surfactant, structure-building consistency factor for semi-solids and a viscosity enhancer. 
Glyceryl Monostearate also hardens suppository formulations and adjust their melting points.

Glyceryl Monostearate is widely used as a co-emulsifier and consistency building factor. 
On the account of its consistency giving characters it is mainly used for the viscosity adjustment in pharmaceutical O/W emulsions. 
Glyceryl Monostearate is a white to slightly yellowish, hydrophilic wax, which is supplied as powder. BASF has in-depth knowledge about how to utilize this material and how best to manage its performance and its stability.

Glyceryl Monostearate grades can be used for all kinds of topical pharmaceutical applications such as gels, lotions and creams. 
All Kolliwax grades act as consistency factors and co-emulsifiers at the same time. With their amphiphilic structure they will stabilize the surface between oil and water and will help to enhance the viscosity with building up a liquid crystalline network in the water-phase (lamellar structure).
Glyceryl Monostearate is able to stabilize W/O and O/W emulsion and will help top create a unique softness and creaminess in the end application. Glyceryl Monostearate acts as co-emulsifier and low HLB surfactant. It stabilizes the surfactant phases & emulsion droplets. It is suitable for production of emulsions & creams, ointments, gels and foams.

Product Details
Chemical name: Glycerol Monostearate
Former product name: Cutina GMS V PH
CAS No.    85251-77-0

Glyceryl Monostearate is used as structure-building consistency factor for semi-solids. 
Glyceryl Monostearate can mitigate stickiness or greasiness in emulsions, ointments and gels.

Glyceryl Monostearate is used as solvent for oral and topical applications. 
Glyceryl Monostearate is suitable for solutions, liquid suspensions and lipid-based drug delivery systems technologies.

As co-emulsifier and viscosity enhancer Glyceryl Monostearate is used in capsule fill formulations.

Glyceryl Monostearate is used as solvent for oral and topical applications. 
Glyceryl Monostearate is suitable for solutions, liquid suspensions and lipid-based drug delivery systems technologies.


Suppository formulations can be hardened and adjusted in their melting point by the addition of Glyceryl Monostearate.

Glyceryl Monostearate 40-55 PhEur is Nonionic emulsifier, W/O and O/W emulsion stabiliser, dispersant and emollient used in oral and topical pharmaceutical preparations. 
Glyceryl Monostearate is used to form sustained release matrices for solid dosage forms. 
Recommended topical usage levels of 1-10%

Glyceryl monostearate (GMS) is an organic molecule used as an emulsifier in food. A glycerol ester of stearic acid, it is a colorless, odorless, sweet-tasting flaky powder. Glyceryl monostearate occurs naturally in the body as a by-product of the breakdown of fats, and is often found in fatty foods.

GMS is the esterification product of vegetable-derived, high-purity triple-pressed stearic acid with glycerin. 

Glyceryl monostearate is one of the most broadly utilized ingredients for personal care products. 
GMS is typically used as the primary emulsifier, in conjunction with a variety of auxiliary emulsifiers. 
The typical use level is 2- 5% in creams and lotions. 


GMS should be stored in sealed containers and kept in a cool, dry 
Prolonged storage above 90°F (32°C) should be avoided. 
Avoid overheating.

Glyceryl monostearate is emulsifier for foods, Defoamer of TOFU making process, Antifogging agent for plastic films, Plastic lubricant, Antistatic agent for plastics. 
High-purity mono-glyceride with molecular distillation. 
Food use : Mild flavor. Excellent stability.

Use: Emulsifiers for pharmaceuticals and cosmetics,

Synonyms:
     abracol S.L.G.
     admul
     advawax 140
     aldo HMS
     aldo MS
     arlacel 161
     arlacel 169
     armostat 801
     cefatin
     celinhol - A
     cerasynt 1000-D
     cerasynt S
     cerasynt WM
     citomulgan M
     cyclochem GMS
     dermagine
2,3-    dihydroxypropyl octadecanoate
(1)-2,3-    dihydroxypropyl stearate
2,3-    dihydroxypropyl stearate
     drewmulse 200K
     drewmulse TP
     drewmulse V
     drumulse AA
     emcol CA
     emcol MSK
     emerest 2400
     emerest 2401
     emerest 2407
     excel VS-95
     glycerin 1-monostearate
     glycerin 1-stearate
     glycerol 1-monostearate
     glycerol 1-stearate
     glycerol a-monostearate
     glycerol monostearate
     glycerol monostearate finastat 9500
     glyceryl 1-monostearate
     glyceryl monooctadecanoate
1-    glyceryl monooctadecanoate
1-    glyceryl monostearate
     glyceryl monostearate flakes
     glyceryl monostearate N.F. grade
1-    glyceryl stearate
     glyceryl-1-monostearate
     grocor 5500
     grocor 6000
     hallstar GMS pure
     hallstar GMS pure C
     hodag GMS
     imwitor 191
     imwitor 900K
     kessco 40
     lipo GMS 450
     lipo GMS 600
     monelgin
     myvaplex 600
     octadecanoic acid 2,3-dihydroxypropyl ester
     octadecanoic acid, 2,3-dihydroxypropyl ester
     octadecanoic acid, ester with 1,2,3-propanetriol
     octadecanoic acid, monoester with 1,2,3-propanetriol
1-    octadecanoyl-rac-glycerol
1-mono    octadecanoyl-rac-glycerol
     ogeen GRB
     ogeen M
     orbon
     protachem GMS
     sandin EU
     sedetine
     starfol GMS 450
     starfol GMS 600
     starfol GMS 900
     stearic acid 1-monoglyceride
     stearic acid a-monoglyceride
     stearic acid alpha-monoglyceride
     stearic acid, monoester with glycerol
     stearic monoglyceride
1-mono    stearin
alpha-mono-    stearin
mono    stearin
mono-    stearin
     stearin, 1-mono-
1-mono    stearoyl glycerol
3-    stearoyl oxy-1,2-propane diol
1-    stearoyl-rac-glycerol
     stearoylglycerol
1-mono    stearoylglycerol
mono    stearoylglycerol
3-    stearoyloxy-1,2-propanediol
     tegin
     unimate GMS
     witconol MS

Glyceryl monostearate is a kind of white wax sheet, pearl or powdery solid, dissolves in the organic solvents such as chloroform, ethanol, acetone or ether, also dissolves in mineral oil and vegetable and animals oils.
Water insoluble, strongly vibrating to mix with hot water can be dispersed in the hot water, also can form gel with hot water.
Mono-glycerides HLB value belongs to water-in-oil (W/O) type emulsifying agent 3~4, because emulsifying property is unique, also can be used as oil-in-water (O/W) type emulsifying agent


Glyceryl monostearate is a kind of tensio-active agent of non-ionic type.
It existing hydrophilic have again oleophilic group because of, have the several functions such as wetting, emulsification, foaming.
Glyceryl monostearate is emulsifying agent and the additive of food; Be used as emulsifying agent in makeup and the medical paste, make lotion fine and smooth, lubricious; Be used for the emulsifying agent of industrial yarn finish and the lubricant of textiles; 
In plastics film, be used as drip agent and antifogging agent; 
In plastic working, make lubricant and static inhibitor, can be used as in other respects defoamer, dispersion agent, thickening material, wetting agent etc.
Its preparation is generally and is divided into chemical method and biological process, and wherein chemical method has following several approach:
(1) by glycerine and stearic acid esterification and get.
Stearic acid, glycerine and sodium hydroxide are added in the reactor, start stirring behind the heating and melting, pass into nitrogen. 
Reacting by heating.
This process application is the most general, but the control condition is the key of product yield and purity in the technique, needs to continue perfect.
(2) direct esterification
Stearic acid and glycerine are pressed 1:(1.2~1.3) mol ratio, under 0.2% an acidic catalyst effect, at 180~250 ℃: the reaction 2~4h; Reactant speed is chilled to 100 ℃, adds the alkali catalyst neutralisation, must contain the product of monoesters 40%~60% after washing with water.
This process yield is low, and product purity is low, the aftertreatment difficulty, and relative cost is high.
(3) ester-interchange method
Stearin and glycerine are at 0.06%~0.1% Cu (OH) 2Under the existence, at 170~240 ℃ of reaction 1~2h, pass into nitrogen protection in the reaction process, reactant obtains containing the product of monoesters 40%~60% after decompression deodorization, acid neutralize, make with extra care.
This technique can be converted into glyceryl monostearate with many stearins, but scale is limited, and product yield is low, and cost is high.
(4) Racemic glycidol saponification method
Racemic glycidol and stearic acid at 100~130 ℃ of reaction 30~70 min, can contain the product of monoesters 80%~90% after reactant is refining under the catalysis of tetraethyl ammonium iodide.
This technological reaction mild condition, productive rate is high, but cost is higher.
(5) epoxy chloropropane phase transfer catalysis process
Epoxy chloropropane and sodium stearate (2:1, mol ratio) are in toluene, under the catalysis of phase-transfer catalyst Tetrabutyl amonium bromide, at 90~110 ℃ of reaction 2h; 
Reactant washs with sodium chloride solution, divides and gets organic phase, and toluene is removed in distillation and unreacted epoxy chloropropane gets the stearic acid glycidyl ester, with its NaOH solution hydrolysis with 0.1mol/L, through separation, drying, get product with the normal hexane recrystallization, monoester content is more than 90%.
The monoesters product of content 40%~60% can obtain high density product more than 90% through molecular distillation.The productive rate of this technique is low, and cost is high.

Glycerol monostearate, commonly known as GMS, is a monoglyceride mainly used as an emulsifier in foods
It is produced industrially by a glycerolysis reaction between triglycerides (from either vegetable or animal fats) and glycerol. 
Chemically it is the glycerol ester of stearic acid
 

Glycerol monostearate is a hygroscopic chemical, meaning it draws in water. 
Glycerol monostearate is commonly used as an emulsifier in foods, and is an ideal ingredient if you want to thicken your favourite shake or pre-workout formula without using fat-heavy ingredients like milk and cream.

Glycerol monostearate is a glycerol ester of stearic acid. 
It’s typically found in foods that are high in fat.

Octadecanoic acid, monoester with 1,2,3-propanetriol
Stearic acid, monoester with glycerol
stearic acid, monoester with glycerol
CAS names
Octadecanoic acid, monoester with 1,2,3-propanetriol

IUPAC names
1,3-dihydroxypropan-2-yl octadecanoate 2,3-dihydroxypropyl octadecanoate
2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)ethyl stearate
Glycerol monostearate; GMS
Glyceryl Monostearate
Glyceryl stearate
GMS
Stearic acid, monoester with glycerol
stearic acid, monoester with glycerol
Stearic acid, monoester with glycerol
stearic acid, monoester with glycerol
Stearic Acid, monoester with glycerol (glycerol monostearate)

Trade names
Dimodan
Ekömul Flex Series
GLYCERIN STEARATE
Grindsted
Kemester 150V
Kemester 84 Vegetable
Kemester 84V
Kemester MST
MASESTER GMS 40-NSE
MASESTER GMS 50
MASESTER GMS 60


Applications:    

Application in plastics industry:
Glyceryl monostearate is as a lubricant, anti-static agent, non-toxic plasticizer, anti-aging in the production of polymers plastics, packaging films. 
Glyceryl monostearate can improve the flexiblity, plasticity and anti-static properties.
Glyceryl monostearate is used e.g. in the manufacturing of polypropylene-caps to provide a slip/lubricant effect in addition to an anti-static effect.
Glyceryl monostearate is used in agriculture plastic films as anti fogging agent.
Glyceryl monostearate is used as a process aid in production of expanded polyethylene to improve gas exchange.

Product benefits:
Reduces friction during the extrusion process, giving a uniform cell size distribution and is improving the gas exchange.
Glyceryl monostearate is compatible with anionic, cationic and non-ionic surfactants and has exceptional electrolyte tolerance.
Glyceryl monostearate has effects of emulsification, dispersion, foaming, defoaming and starch anti-aging.

Product dosing:
We strongly recommend testing of your own system under the actual conditions of processing and end-use prior to full scale testing. 
Exact loading must be determined by composition of the specific polymer system.

Other applications:
Glyceryl monostearate is used in Cosmetics as co-emulsifier for emulsions  to improve stability and to modify viscosity.
Glyceryl monostearate is an emulsifier in the production of foods, including ice cream, chewing gum, toffee,shortening, margarine, starch etc.
Glyceryl monostearate is Anti-aging agent for starch.
Glyceryl monostearate is Protective coating for hygroscopic powders.


EC / List no.: 286-490-9
CAS no.: 85251-77-0

Glycerides, C16-18 mono- and di-
Glyceryl mono and dipalmitostearate

CAS names
Glycerides, C16-18 mono- and di-

IUPAC names
(1-hexadecanoyloxy-3-hydroxypropan-2-yl) octadecanoate
(2R)-2,3-dihydroxypropyl octadecanoate 2,3-dihydroxypropyl hexadecanoate 2-hydroxy-3-(octadecanoyloxy)propyl octadecanoate 3-(hexadecanoyloxy)-2-hydroxypropyl octadecanoate

GELEOL
Glycerides C16-18, mono and di
Glycerides, C16-18 (even numbered) mono- and di-
Glycerides, C16-18 mono- and di-
Glycerides, C16-18 mono- and di-
Glycerides, C16-18 mono- and di- (even numbered)
Glycerides, C16-18 mono-and di-
Glycerides, C16-18 monoglycerides and diglycerides
Glycerides, C16-18, mono- and di- 85251-77-0
Glycerides, C16-C18 mono- di-

MDG, Saturated

Mono and diglycerides of fatty acids

Mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids

Mono-(C16-18)-acylglycerol and Di-(C16-18)-acylglycerol

Trade names
BC 130
CHINT: FCE (glycerol)mono/diE C16-18
Cithrol 0795
Cithrol GMS-30
Cithrol GMS-40
DUB GMS
GELEOL
GMS
Imwitor 900 K
Imwitor 900 P
PALMSURF GMS 40
PALMSURF GMS 40SE
PALMSURF GMS 50
PALMSURF GMS 50SE
Phase I REACH Kandidat
RADIAMULS MG 2120K
RADIAMULS MG 2142K
RADIAMULS MG 2143
RADIAMULS MG 2143K
RADIAMULS MG 2146
RADIAMULS MG 2164K
RADIAMULS MG 2165K
RADIAMULS MG 2341
RADIAMULS MG 2342
RADIAMULS MG 2364K
RADIAMULS MG 2542K
RADIAMULS MG 2543K
RADIAMULS MG 2604K
RADIAMULS MG 2642K
RADIAMULS MG 2643
RADIAMULS MG 2643K
RADIAMULS MG 2644K
RADIAMULS MG 2646K
RADIAMULS MG 2655
RADIAMULS MG 2923K
RADIASURF 7140
RADIASURF 7142
RADIASURF 7143
RADIASURF 7340
RADIASURF 7342
RADIASURF 7343
RADIASURF 7344
RADIASURF 7346
RADIASURF 7600
RADIASURF 7601
RADIASURF 7641
RADIASURF 7643
RADIASURF 7644
RADIASURF 7645


Glyceryl Stearate. IMWITOR 900 K by IOI Oleo is a non-ionic co-emulsifier for O/W emulsions. 
It is an ester of natural stearic and palmitic acid esterified with glycerol. 
It is 100% natural, vegan and compatible with skin. It does not contain additives, residues of antioxidants, stabilizers, solvents or unsaturated components. 
Because of surface-active properties, it functions as solubilizing and binding agent, dispersing adjuvants, softeners and consistency regulators. 
It is applicable for hot/cold and hot/hot processes. 
IMWITOR 900 K finds application in formulating lotions, creams, powders, skin cleansing products, makeup bases and foundations, mascara, eye shadow, eyeliner, hair conditioners and sun care products. 
It is ECOCERT and COSMOS approved. 
It has a shelf life of 24 months.


Glyceryl Stearate. 
Cithrol GMS 40 by Croda acts as a co-emulsifier for w/o & o/w emulsions, moisturizing, nourishing and soothing agent. 
It also functions as an emulsion stabilizer, rheology/ viscosity modifier, calming, hydrating and anti-redness agent. Used for baby care, body care, facial care, sun care, conditioners, facial make-up, sprayable emulsions, eyecare and specific skin care treatments. 
Cithrol GMS 40 is also applicable for feet, hands, nails, shampoos, hair care treatments, roll on deodorants, color cosmetics, lip & face care products and depilatories. 
It is eco-certified and bio/ organic approved.


2-) LECITHIN

Lecithin is also known as alpha-phosphatidylcholines, lecithinum ex soya, sojalecithin, or soy lecithin.
Lecithin is a fat that is essential in the cells of the body. 
Lecithin can be found in many foods, including soybeans and egg yolks. 
Lecithin is taken as a medicine and is also used in the manufacturing of medicines.
Lecithin is used for treating memory disorders such as dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. 

Lecithin is also used for treating gallbladder disease, liver disease, certain types of depression, high cholesterol, anxiety, and a skin disease called eczema.
Some people apply lecithin to the skin as a moisturizer.
You will often see lecithin as a food additive. 
Lecithin is used to keep certain ingredients from separating out.

You may also see lecithin as an ingredient in some eye medicines. 
Lecithin is used to help keep the medicine in contact with the eye’s cornea.
Sunflower lecithin is a clean emulsifier. 
In grassfed whey protein, Lecithin serves the role of an adaptor. 
Two chemicals that otherwise would never form a bond due to their differences in chemical composition, like oil & water, whey protein, and water, now have a bridging agent that allows them to bind to one another efficiently.

Lecithin is a generic term to designate any group of yellow-brownish fatty substances occurring in animal and plant tissues which are amphiphilic – they attract both water and fatty substances (and so are both hydrophilic and lipophilic), and are used for smoothing food textures, emulsifying, homogenizing liquid mixtures, and repelling sticking materials.
Lecithins are mixtures of glycerophospholipids including phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylserine, and phosphatidic acid.
Lecithin was first isolated in 1845 by the French chemist and pharmacist Théodore Gobley, he named the phosphatidylcholine lécithine.
Gobley originally isolated lecithin from egg yolk—λέκιθος lekithos is "egg yolk" in Ancient Greek—and established the complete chemical formula of phosphatidylcholine in 1874; in between, he had demonstrated the presence of lecithin in a variety of biological matters, including venous blood, in human lungs, bile, human brain tissue, fish eggs, fish roe, and chicken and sheep brain.
Lecithin can easily be extracted chemically using solvents such as hexane, ethanol, acetone, petroleum ether or benzene; or extraction can be done mechanically. 

Lecithins have emulsification and lubricant properties, and are a surfactant. 
Lecithin is a group of chemicals that are related. 
Lecithin isn’t a single chemical. Lecithins belong to a larger group of compounds called phospholipids, these are important parts of the brain, blood, nerves, and other tissues. 
Phospholipids are also a part of cell membranes.

Sunflower lecithin
Sunflower lecithin is non-GMO* and does not have to be declared as a major food allergen. 
Sunflower Lecithin offers comparable taste, color, and functionality to soy lecithin and is available as liquid or deoiled. 
Sunflower lecithin has shown double-digit growth in new product launches since 2013, according to Innova market trends data.

Canola lecithin
Canola lecithin Emulpur RS™ is the latest exciting addition to our lecithin portfolio! 
Canola lecithin is available in the powdered (deoiled) form. 
This is a non-GMO* option that may be used in organic products and does not have to be declared as a major food allergen. 
Lecithin is more cost-effective than sunflower lecithin and may be used as a one-to-one replacement for other deoiled lecithin types, making Lecithin easy for food manufacturers to incorporate into their product lines with only minor adaptations.

Lecithin is a natural emulsifier and stabilizer in foods. 
Lecithin’s widely used in cakes and yeast-leavened bakery products. 
Lecithin is found in raw materials such as eggs or soybeans, and can be used as a clean label ingredient.

Lecithin is used as a:
-Wetting agent
-Pan release agent
-Cake batter stabilizer
-Fat replacer

Commercial production of Lecithin:
Lecithin is produced commercially as a by-product of crude oilseed refining. 
Lecithin is a part of the “gum” that is removed during the degumming step of sunflower and rapeseed oil refining. 
To create different commercial products, bleaching with hydrogen peroxide, hot drying and chemical modifications are used.2
Lecithin is available as a powder or in liquid forms.

Applications of Lecithin:
Lecithin is used in baked goods, confections, chocolate, cocoa powder, dairy products, icings, frostings, margarine and other spreads. 
Lecithin is usually added to bread formulations at 0.2% and to layer cakes at 0.5–1.5%, based on flour weight. 
Lecithin is also used in cake donut dry mixes at 0.25–0.5% of total mix weight. 
As a result, Lecithins easier for wetting the dry blend when the batter is mixed. 
Lecithin provides:
-Finer crumb grain
-Greater loaf volume
-Better gluten stability
-Better emulsification of fats
-Longer shelf-life
-Increased water absorption
Lecithin has limited anti-staling ability, due to the molecule’s bulky structure. 
However, cleaving one fatty acid or the phosphatidylcholine moiety using lipases can improve its functionality as crumb softener.

Handling considerations
Native lecithin is a sticky, viscous paste that can be difficult to weigh, handle and disperse in water. 
So, chemical modification such as hydroxylation or enzymatic treatment can improve its dispersibility in cold water, batters and doughs.

Soy lecithin
Soy continues to dominate the lecithin market and is available in either liquid or deoiled form. 
Try our non-GMO* soy lecithin as a label-friendly option for your non-GMO needs.

The body uses lecithin in the metabolic process and to move fats. 
Lecithins turn into choline in the body. 
They help make the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
Lecithin is commonly used as a food additive to emulsify foods.
Many people know lecithin as the oily film on their frying pan when they use a nonstick cooking spray.
They can be completely metabolized (see inositol) by humans, so are well tolerated by humans and nontoxic when ingested; some other emulsifiers can only be excreted via the kidneys.

The major components of commercial soybean-derived lecithin are:
33–35% soybean oil
20–21% phosphatidylinositols
19–21% phosphatidylcholine
8–20% phosphatidylethanolamine
5–11% other phosphatides
5% free carbohydrates
2–5% sterols
1% moisture
Lecithin is used for applications in human food, animal feed, pharmaceuticals, paints, and other industrial applications.

Applications include:
In the pharmaceutical industry, Lecithin acts as a wetting agent, stabilizing agent and a choline enrichment carrier, helps in emulsification and encapsulation, and is a good dispersing agent. 
Lecithin can be used in manufacture of intravenous fat infusions and for therapeutic use.
In animal feed, Lecithin enriches fat and protein and improves pelletization.
In the paint industry, Lecithin forms protective coatings for surfaces with painting and printing ink, has antioxidant properties, helps as a rust inhibitor, is a colour-intensifying agent, catalyst, conditioning aid modifier, and dispersing aid; it is a good stabilizing and suspending agent, emulsifier, and wetting agent, helps in maintaining uniform mixture of several pigments, helps in grinding of metal oxide pigments, is a spreading and mixing aid, prevents hard settling of pigments, eliminates foam in water-based paints, and helps in fast dispersion of latex-based paints.
Lecithin also may be used as a release agent for plastics, an antisludge additive in motor lubricants, an antigumming agent in gasoline, and an emulsifier, spreading agent, and antioxidant in textile, rubber, and other industries.

Food additive
The nontoxicity of lecithin leads to Lecithins use with food, as an additive or in food preparation. 
Lecithin is used commercially in foods requiring a natural emulsifier or lubricant.

Powder vs. Liquid Lecithin
There are two types of lecithin that you'll find on the market, at least in terms of its consistency. 
You can purchase either powder or liquid lecithin to use when baking your edibles. 
Which is the better product for making canna infused items?
For some people, Lecithin's a matter of personal choice, but one huge reason to buy powder over liquid is that Lecithin has low-fat content. 
Powder lecithin contains very little fat when compared to the liquid form, so this is something many health-conscious people will think about when choosing which to use.
In a non-health-related advantage, many people use the powder form because Lecithin is much easier to clean up. 
When you make food, either cooking or baking, you'll always have spills and tumbles with your ingredients. 
The powder is always easier to mop up quickly and efficiently.

Lecithin Health Benefits
Lecithin also has a few health benefits that make Lecithin part of why some canna enthusiasts love Lecithin so much; and why some people who aren't interested in canna still make sure to eat it.
Firstly, Lecithin can help aid in digestion. 
Lecithin has been proven to work as a therapy for those who have ulcerative colitis and is also recommended for those who live with irritable bowel syndrome, or IBS. 
Lecithin has been shown to help lower cholesterol levels, as well as to increase liver function.
Lecithin is also important for breastfeeding mothers. 
The Canadian Breastfeeding Foundation recommends that they take 1200 mg of Lecithin per day. 
This is because evidence shows that Lecithin decreases the stickiness of the milk by increasing the amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids. 
This means that Lecithin can help ensure they don't get blocked ducts, which is very painful. 
Lastly, lecithin will even moisturize your skin. 
Lecithin makes your skin feel smooth by restoring hydration.
All of these are great reasons to use lecithin in your baking, with or without the T-C.

What’s Soy Lecithin?
Soy lecithin is essential to the health of your body’s cells. 
You can find Lecithin in many types of foods ranging from egg yolks to soybeans. 
Yellow-pigment fatty substances are often referred to as lecithin. 
This fat contains phospholipids, which are mainly found in the cell membranes of plants and animals.
In many cases, lecithin is the main ingredient in food additives that stabilize and maintain fat in food products. 
Lecithin adds more texture to food and increases the shelf life of many products. 
Lecithin is responsible for binding both fat and water. 
You can find Lecithin in salad dressings, cooking oils, and chocolates.
Soy lecithin works in the same way as lecithin. 
However, this product is extracted from soybeans. 
Lecithin is also composed of fatty acids with small amounts of carbohydrates and proteins. 
Phosphatidylcholine is the main ingredient in soy lecithin, and it makes about 20 percent to 80 percent of its total fat.
You can find soy lecithin used in both conventional and health food products. 
While lecithin is primarily used as a binding agent, soy lecithin is sold in a supplemental form to boost your health.

In confectionery, Lecithin reduces viscosity, replaces more expensive ingredients, controls sugar crystallization and the flow properties of chocolate, helps in the homogeneous mixing of ingredients, improves shelf life for some products, and can be used as a coating. 
In emulsions and fat spreads, such as margarines with a high fat content of more than 75%, Lecithin stabilizes emulsions, reduces spattering (splashing and scattering of oil droplets) during frying, improves texture of spreads and flavor release.
In doughs and baking, Lecithin reduces fat and egg requirements, helps even out distribution of ingredients in dough, stabilizes fermentation, increases volume, protects yeast cells in dough when frozen, and acts as a releasing agent to prevent sticking and simplify cleaning. 
Lecithin improves wetting properties of hydrophilic powders (such as low-fat proteins) and lipophilic powders (such as cocoa powder), controls dust, and helps complete dispersion in water.
Lecithin keeps cocoa and cocoa butter in a candy bar from separating.
Lecithin can be used as a component of cooking sprays to prevent sticking and as a releasing agent.
Lecithin is approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for human consumption with the status "generally recognized as safe". 
Lecithin is admitted by the EU as a food additive, designated as E322.

Dietary supplement
Lecithin contains phosphatidylcholines, lecithin is a source of choline, an essential nutrient.
Clinical studies have shown benefit in acne, in improving liver function, and in lowering cholesterol, but older clinical studies in dementia and dyskinesias had found no benefit.
An earlier study using a small sample (20 men divided in 3 groups) did not detect statistically significant short term (2–4 weeks) effects on cholesterol in hyperlipidemic men.
La Leche League recommends Lecithins use to prevent blocked or plugged milk ducts which can lead to mastitis in breastfeeding women.
Egg-derived lecithin is not usually a concern for those allergic to eggs since commercially available egg lecithin is highly purified and devoid of allergy-causing egg proteins.
Similarly, soy lecithin does not contain enough allergenic proteins for most people allergic to soy, although the US FDA only exempts a few soy lecithin products from its mandatory allergenic source labeling requirements.

Application Areas
-Bakery
-Bars
-Beverages
-Confectionery
-Culinary
-Dairy
-Dietary supplements
-Frozen desserts
-Meal solutions

Religious restrictions
Soy-derived lecithin is considered by some to be kitniyot and prohibited on Passover for Ashkenazi Jews when many grain-based foods are forbidden, but not at other times. 
This does not necessarily affect Sephardi Jews, who do not have the same restrictions on rice and kitniyot during Passover.
Muslims are not forbidden to eat lecithin per se; however, since Lecithin may be derived from animal as well as plant sources, care must be taken to ensure this source is halal. 
Lecithin derived from plants and egg yolks is permissible, as is that derived from animals slaughtered according to the rules of dhabihah.

Top types of lecithin
Not all lecithin is the same. 
Here are the most popular varieties.

Soy lecithin
Soy lecithin comes from (you guessed it) soybeans. 
Lecithin’s a popular additive in:
-dairy products
-infant formulas
-margarine
-breads
-fast food
-You can also find Lecithin in a lot of skin products.

PSA: Some folks don’t dig the way manufacturers make soy lecithin. 
About 94 percent of U.S.-grown soy is genetically modified. 
You might have to shop around a while to find a non-GMO brand.

How should I use lecithin?
When considering the use of herbal supplements, seek the advice of your doctor. 
You may also consider consulting a practitioner who is trained in the use of herbal/health supplements.
If you choose to use lecithin, use Lecithin as directed on the package or as directed by your doctor, pharmacist, or other healthcare provider. 
Do not use more of Lecithin than is recommended on the label.
Do not use different formulations of lecithin (such as tablets, liquids, and others) at the same time, unless specifically directed to do so by a health care professional. 
Using different formulations together increases the risk of an overdose.
Call your doctor if the condition you are treating with lecithin does not improve, or if Lecithin gets worse while using this product.
Store at room temperature away from moisture and heat.

Lecithin
Lecithin is also known as alpha-phosphatidylcholines, lecithinum ex soya, sojalecithin, or soy lecithin.

General description
Lecithin is a group of chemicals that are related. 
Lecithin isn’t a single chemical. 
Lecithins belong to a larger group of compounds called phospholipids. 
These are important parts of the brain, blood, nerves, and other tissues. 
Phospholipids are also a part of cell membranes.

The body uses lecithin in the metabolic process and to move fats. 
Lecithins turn into choline in the body. 
They help make the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
Lecithin is commonly used as a food additive to emulsify foods. 
Many people know lecithin as the oily film on their frying pan when they use a nonstick cooking spray.

What happens if I miss a dose?
Skip the missed dose and use your next dose at the regular time. 
Do not use two doses at one time.

What happens if I overdose?
Seek emergency medical attention or call the Poison Help line

What should I avoid while using lecithin?
Follow your healthcare provider's instructions about any restrictions on food, beverages, or activity.

Lecithin Structure
Lecithin is an emulsifier made up of about five smaller molecules. 
Lecithin has a backbone of glycerol that bonds up to three other molecules. 
Two of the bonded molecules are fatty acids -- these are hydrophobic. 
They give lecithin a structure similar to fats, or lipids. 
The third substance attached to glycerol is phosphoric acid that has an amino alcohol attached called choline. 
The phosphate/amino alcohol end of lecithin is hydrophilic. 
Shelly Schmidt, Ph.D., a professor in food science, explains that "emulsifiers are molecules that contain both a hydrophilic, water loving, and hydrophobic, water hating, portion." 
So, lecithin is a molecule with one end that is hydrophilic and another that is hydrophobic. 
Lecithins chemical name is phosphatidylcholine.

Lecithin in Emulsions
Lecithin makes a good emulsifier because the hydrophobic end dissolves in oil droplets and the hydrophilic end dissolves in water. 
In emulsions the only place lecithin likes to be is at the edge of oil droplets with Lecithins hydrophobic end in the oil and the hydrophilic end in the water. 
If you think of a party balloon compared to soap bubbles you will understand that the balloon lasts a lot longer because the "bubble" is covered by the material of the balloon. 
Oil droplets in water are protected in the same way by lecithin so the emulsion stays stable for a long time.

Weight Loss
Gene Bruno of Huntington College of Health Sciences suggests that lecithin helps your body break down dietary and blood fats into small particles. 
This means fatty acids are more likely to be metabolized for energy rather than stored in your adipose tissue as fat. 
So, lecithin helps you burn off fat.

Sunflower lecithin
Sunflower lecithin is made from dehydrated sunflowers. 
Lecithin’s not as common as soy lecithin, but some peeps prefer Lecithin. 
Lecithin might be a better choice if you want to avoid GMOs.

you can buy Lecithin as a powder or liquid.

Lecithin granules
Lecithin granules are usually made from soy. 
Lecithin has a tender texture and a mild nutty flavor. 
Pro tip: Sneak some into homemade bread or sprinkle Lecithin on salads.

Alternative names
Lecithin has a lot of alternate names. 
Lecithin’s sometimes referred to as:

Lecithin is a fat that is essential in the cells of the body. 
Lecithin can be found in many foods, including soybeans and egg yolks. 
Lecithin is taken as a medicine. 
Lecithin is also used in the manufacturing of medicines, foods, and cosmetics.
Lecithin is used for reducing fatty build-up in the liver and treating memory disorders such as dementia and Alzheimer's disease. 
Lecithin is used to improve memory in the elderly or in people who have had a head injury. 
Lecithin is also used for decreasing pain after surgery, treating gallbladder disease, inflammatory bowel disease (ulcerative colitis), a nerve disease called Friedreich's ataxia, nipple blebs/blisters, mania, high cholesterol, anxiety, a skin disease called eczema, Parkinson's disease, and for improving athletic performance. 
Lecithin is also used in people receiving peritoneal dialysis. 
In combination with lithium, lecithin is used for a movement disorder called tardive dyskinesia.
Some people apply lecithin to the skin as a moisturizer to treat dry skin or dermatitis.
You will often see lecithin as a food additive. 
Lecithin is used to keep certain ingredients from separating out.
Lecithin is also used in preparations for intravenous (IV) or skin injections. 
Lecithin is used to stabilize and prevent medicines in the preparation from separating out.
You may also see lecithin as an ingredient in some eye medicines. 
Lecithin is used to help keep the medicine in contact with the eye's cornea.

vitellin
lecitina
vitelline
ovolecithin
vegilecithin
soy lecithin
egg lecithin
soybean lecithin
soy phospholipid

Lecithin (also known as alpha-phosphatidylcholine) is a naturally occurring nutrient found in foods that is also sold as a dietary supplement. 
Lecithin is not a single substance but rather a group of chemicals belonging to compounds called phospholipids. 
Phospholipid, a type of fat that helps maintain the integrity of cells, are vital to the normal functioning of the brain, nerves, liver, and other vital organs.1
Lecithin can be found in green vegetables, red meat, and eggs. 
Commercial preparations are most often made from soybeans, egg yolks, or animal products. 
Not only is lecithin taken as a supplement, but Lecithin is also used in the manufacture of eye drops, skin moisturizers, and food emulsifiers (agents that keep ingredients from separating).

The banging benefits of lecithin
Lecithin has been known to:
-aid liver function
-lower cholesterol
-prevent dementia
-reduce inflammation
-alleviate digestive issues
-make breastfeeding easier

Lecithin is usually available from sources such as egg yolk, marine sources, soybeans, milk, rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower oil. 
Lecithin has low solubility in water, but is an excellent emulsifier. 
In aqueous solution, Lecithins phospholipids can form either liposomes, bilayer sheets, micelles, or lamellar structures, depending on hydration and temperature. 
This results in a type of surfactant that usually is classified as amphipathic. 
Lecithin is sold as a food additive and dietary supplement. 
In cooking, Lecithin is sometimes used as an emulsifier and to prevent sticking, for example in non-stick cooking spray.

Lecithin describes a substance that’s naturally found in the tissues of your body. 
Lecithin’s made up of fatty acids, and Lecithin has a variety of commercial and medical uses.
Lecithin works as an emulsifier, meaning Lecithin suspends fats and oils and keeps them from mixing with other substances.
Lecithin supplements can be purchased to help treat high cholesterol, as a breastfeeding aid, and to treat ulcerative colitis, among other things.

Lecithin supplements are usually derived from sunflower seeds, eggs, or soybeans. 
Soy is by far the ingredient most commonly used to create lecithin supplements. 
Animal fats, fish, and corn are also sometimes used.
While soybean lecithin tends to come in granulated capsule form, you can buy sunflower lecithin in both powder and liquid form, too. 
Sunflower lecithin isn’t as common, but some people prefer Lecithin, especially if they’re trying to avoid genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in their food.
While soybeans are sometimes genetically modified in mass production, sunflower seeds aren’t. 
The process of extraction is also gentler for sunflower lecithin. 
Extracting lecithin from the sunflower seeds doesn’t require harsh chemicals.

Health Benefits
When ingested, lecithin is broken down into a substance called choline, which the body uses to transport fat, regulate metabolism, maintain the structural integrity of cells, and facilitate nerve transmissions (by synthesizing a neurotransmitter called acetylcholine). 
Choline is not readily produced by the body; most of Lecithin is obtained from the foods we eat.

Lecithin has been touted for Lecithins benefits in treating many health conditions and is said to:
-Improve sleep patterns
-Enhance athletic performance
-Alleviate stress and anxiety
-Lower cholesterol
-Reduce inflammation
-Improve liver function
-Prevent the loss of cognitive function and the onset of dementia
To date, there is insubstantial evidence that the supplemental use of lecithin can treat any medical condition.

Lecithin is a naturally occurring substance found in the membranes of living cells. 
Lecithin is made up of both lipophilic (oil-friendly) and hydrophilic (water-friendly) lipids, making it an excellent emulsifier and a functional powerhouse. 
Beyond emulsification, lecithin acts as a dough improver, viscosity modifier, release agent and instantizing agent with usage across nearly every food and beverage category. 
Ciranda offers organic and conventional non-GMO lecithins from sunflower and soy in liquid or deoiled powder.

The most well-known benefitTrusted Source of lecithin is its ability to lower cholesterol. 
Researchers have discovered that soybean lecithin can contribute to raising HDL (good) cholesterol and lowering LDL (bad) cholesterol in blood profiles.
Soy protein provides an extra boost for people using Lecithin to treat cholesterol because of other componentsTrusted Source that soy offers.

Recommended intake
Lecithin comes in capsules, liquid, and granules. 
There is no recommended intake amount.

Foods that have lecithin include:
-Egg yolks
-Soybeans
-Wheat germ
-Peanuts
-Liver
Signs of lecithin deficiency aren’t clear. 
They are more likely to be caused by choline deficiency, not lecithin.

Lecithin is a fat that can be found in many foods like soybeans and egg yolks. 
Lecithin is also known as Egg Lecithin, Lecitina, Ovolecithin, Soy Lecithin, Soy Phospholipid, Soybean Lecithin, Vegilecithin, Vitellin, Vitelline, and other names.
Lecithin has been used in alternative medicine as a possibly effective aid in treating liver disease.
Lecithin has also been used to treat gallbladder disease, dementia related to Alzheimer's disease, age related loss of memory, and head injuries. 
However, research has shown that lecithin may not be effective in treating these conditions.
Other uses not proven with research have included high cholesterol, manic-depressive disorder, dermatitis, improvement of athletic performance, Parkinson's disease, stress, insomnia, and other conditions.

Found in multiple plant and animal sources, lecithin has a variety of applications in personal health as well as industry. 
Lecithin’s unique properties make Lecithin an excellent additive in food, feed, pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries:
Emulsifier
Stabilizer
Softener
Wetting agent
Dispersing agent
Blending aid
Extends shelf life
Neutral flavor and color (except for fluid lecithin)
The diverse forms in which lecithin is available – fluid, powder and granules – make it even more suitable to use as per industry specific demands. 
With additional processing, fluid lecithin can also be hydrolysed, fractionated, hydroxylated and acetylated for very specific industry applications.

Lecithin is not certain whether lecithin is effective in treating any medical condition. 
Medicinal use of this product has not been approved by the FDA. 
Lecithin should not be used in place of medication prescribed for you by your doctor.
Lecithin is often sold as an herbal supplement. 
There are no regulated manufacturing standards in place for many herbal compounds and some marketed supplements have been found to be contaminated with toxic metals or other drugs. 
Herbal/health supplements should be purchased from a reliable source to minimize the risk of contamination.
Lecithin may also be used for purposes not listed in this product guide.

Lecithin contains choline, which is a chemical your brain uses to communicate. 
Clinical researchTrusted Source suggests that a diet rich in choline can lead to a sharper memory and help people with Alzheimer’s.
Lipid substances that contain choline, like lecithin, may improve the brain’s functional pathways. 
There’s some conflicting evidence on if lecithin can be used to treat people that have neurological and nervous system conditions, but research into this benefit of lecithin is promising and moving forward.

How does Lecithin work ?
Lecithin is converted into acetylcholine, a substance that transmits nerve impulses.

What Lecithin’s Made Of
Lecithin itself is an oily compound that’s made primarily from a type of molecule called a phospholipid, Phospholipds are fatty acids with phosphate groups attached at the end.  
This gives them the useful quality of being able to bind with fatty substances and watery substances simultaneously.  
That’s why Lecithin’s used so often in different foods.  
The technical term for this sort of compound is an “emulsifier.”  
Our cell membranes consist of phospholipids for this same reason, and an adequate supply of lecithin through the diet is the primary way the body gets the substrate necessary to build cell walls.  
Phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylserine help make your cell membranes “squishy”, which makes Lecithin much easier for things to get transported into and out of them.

This is especially true of cholesterol, which directly uses lecithin-based transporters to go into and out of cells.  
For this reason lecithin supplementation has proven to be very useful for removing arterial plaque.
People with high cholesterol have a traffic jam of the LDL kind trying to get into cells, and the increased membrane fluidity from dietary lecithin helps grease the wheels of cellular flow.

Phospholipids come in a variety of flavors, but the big players are as follows:
-phosphatidylcholine
-phosphatidylserine
-phosphatidylinositol

Lecithin has been recommended to combat recurrent plugged ducts. 
The usual recommended dosage for recurrent plugged ducts is 3600-4800 mg lecithin per day, or 1 capsule (1200 milligram) 3-4 times per day. 
After a week or two with no blockage, mom can reduce the dosage by one capsule. 
If there is no blockage within another 2 weeks she can reduce Lecithin again by one. 
Mom may need to continue taking 1-2 capsules per day if stopping the lecithin leads to additional plugged ducts.

Production
Commercial lecithin, as used by food manufacturers, is a mixture of phospholipids in oil. 
The lecithin can be obtained by water degumming the extracted oil of seeds. 
Lecithin is a mixture of various phospholipids, and the composition depends on the origin of the lecithin. 
A major source of lecithin is soybean oil. 
Because of the EU requirement to declare additions of allergens in foods, in addition to regulations regarding genetically modified crops, a gradual shift to other sources of lecithin (such as sunflower lecithin) is taking place.
The main phospholipids in lecithin from soy and sunflower are phosphatidyl choline, phosphatidyl inositol, phosphatidyl ethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, and phosphatidic acid. 
They often are abbreviated to PC, PI, PE, PS and PA, respectively. 
Purified phospholipids are produced by companies commercially.

Hydrolysed lecithin
To modify the performance of lecithin to make Lecithin suitable for the product to which Lecithin is added, Lecithin may be hydrolysed enzymatically. 
In hydrolysed lecithins, a portion of the phospholipids have one fatty acid removed by phospholipase.
Such phospholipids are called lysophospholipids. 
The most commonly used phospholipase is phospholipase A2, which removes the fatty acid at the C2 position of glycerol. 
Lecithins may also be modified by a process called fractionation. 
During this process, lecithin is mixed with an alcohol, usually ethanol. 
Some phospholipids, such as phosphatidylcholine, have good solubility in ethanol, whereas most other phospholipids do not dissolve well in ethanol. 
The ethanol is separated from the lecithin sludge, after which the ethanol is removed by evaporation to obtain a phosphatidylcholine-enriched lecithin fraction.

Origin
Lecithin is a key component of cell membranes, and found frequently in nature. 
For example, Lecithin’s in plant sources such as soybeans, corn and rapeseed. 
Also, Lecithin’s found in animal products such as egg yolks.

Lecithin was discovered in 1846 by the French chemist Maurice Gobley. 
He isolated an orange-colored substance from egg yolk and called lecithin after the Greek name for egg yolk, “lekithos.”
Egg yolk contains 10–20% lecithin, while most vegetable oils contain 0.1–3.0%.

Function
Chemically, lecithin is a glycerol with two fatty acid chains at carbons 1 and 2. 
Also, there is a phosphate ester group at the 3 position, which is bound to a molecule of choline. 
The phosphate and choline groups form phosphatidylcholine. 
This means the polar headgroup is the water loving part of lecithin.
Meanwhile, fatty acid chains form the lipophilic region. 
These moieties make Lecithin an emulsifier.

Lecithin used in: instant products, beverages, margarine and spreads, baked goods, snacks, salad dressings, chocolate, confections, protein shakes, dietary supplements, pharmaceutical and personal care products
Lecithin used as: emulsifier, dispersing agent, surfactant, release agent
Definition: A group of compounds of varying chemical composition depending on the source, lecithin mixes well with a wide variety of other food ingredients thereby serving multiple functions in foods and making it one of the most widely used food ingredients. 
Dietary lecithin is a primary source of the essential nutrient choline, important for cell membrane integrity and nerve signaling. 
Lecithin is also important in many industries including paint and plastics

Lecithin’s hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) is intermediate and ranges from:7
-3-4 for native fluid lecithin
-7-8 for de-oiled lecithin
-8- >10 for modified lecithin

Reduces cholesterol
Lecithin has a pretty powerful impact on cholesterol.

Lecithin is a natural emulsifier produced from seeds of soft oils with extensive functionality due to its unique characteristics. 
Lecithin can be used in a wide variety of applications such as chocolate and confectionery, bakery, dairy, infant nutrition, margarines, and fats. 
In addition, lecithin can be used in non-food applications, such as animal feed, nutritional supplements, personal care, and cosmetics. 

In a 2010 study, participants took a 500 milligram lecithin supplement on the daily for 2 months. 
Lecithin reduced total cholesterol levels by 42 percent and LDL levels by 56.15 percent. Woop!

Supports immune function
Soy lecithin might bolster your immune system, especially if you have diabetes. 
One study found that daily lecithin supplements increased lymphocytes (natural killer cells) in diabetic rats by 92 percent.
Lecithin also increased macrophage activity by 29 percent in nondiabetic rats. 
Digestive aid for IBD
Lecithin might ease inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) symptoms. 
The fat contains phosphatidylcholine (PC), which helps protect the colon from inflammation and bacteria.
A small 2010 study found that lecithin supplements reduced bowel inflammation in folks with ulcerative colitis by 50 percent.
Lecithin might also help with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), but more research is needed.

CAS
8002-43-5
Molecular Formula
C42H80NO8P
Molecular Weight (g/mol)
750
MDL Number
MFCD00082428
InChI Key
JLPULHDHAOZNQI-JLOPVYAASA-N

Breastfeeding
Got milk? Breastfeeding is totes natural, but Lecithin can be uber uncomfortable.
Lecithin is a fatty substance that's naturally found in animal and plant tissue. 
Good sources of Lecithin include egg yolks and soybeans. 
If you look at the ingredients, you'll often find "soybean lecithin" listed on processed foods such as baked goods, margarine, chocolate and ice cream.
When used in foods, lecithin acts as an emulsifier, which means Lecithin keeps oil and water from separating out. 
In candy bars, Lecithin helps stabilize the cocoa and cocoa butter. 
Lecithin also makes fluffier cakes by creating a less sticky dough and helps the cake rise. 
Lecithin's sometimes a “wetting agent" that makes Lecithin easier to spread cake mixes in a pan after you add the liquid.

Alternative names: phosphatidylcholine, partially hydrolyzed lecithin, E322
Naturally present in: liver, egg yolks, soybeans, wheat germ
Commercial Source: vegetable (soy, sunflower, canola seeds)

Lecithin might make things easier. 
However, research shows that while doctors have recommended the supplement as a treatment for plugged milk ducts, no high-quality evidence confirms that this is the case.
The Canadian Breastfeeding Foundation recommends a daily lecithin dose of 1,200 milligrams 4 times a day. 
But, you should check with your bébé doctor before switching up your diet or supplements while nursing.
Keep in mind, lecithin won’t help if you already have a clogged milk duct.

Insoluble Matter: 0.02% max. (in hexane)
Color: Tan or Yellow
Acidity: 35mg KOH/g max.
Quantity: 250g
Infrared Spectrum: Authentic
Packaging: Plastic Bottle
Water: 1% max.
Merck Index: 15, 5483
Solubility Information    
Solubility in water: negligible
Formula Weight: 750

To treat a clogged duct:
-massage your ta-tas
-apply a warm compress
-drain the boob well after each feeding
-chat with a lactation specialist for personalized tips
-Other uses that need more research

Lecithin’s compounds, called phosphatides, help maintain healthy cell membrane structure and fluidity, which is essential to healthy cellular function. 
Because of this beneficial attribute, lecithin can promote brain cell health. 
Our lecithin is made from soy (as opposed to animal-sources) and contains phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylinositol.

Some folks claim lecithin can help with:
-anxiety
-liver disease
-gallbladder disease
-dry skin conditions like eczema or dermatitis
-cognitive function
-Just keep in mind, there’s little to no research to back up these claims.

Genetically modified crops as a source of lecithin
As described above, lecithin is highly processed. 
Therefore, genetically modified (GM) protein or DNA from the original GM crop from which Lecithin is derived often is undetectable – in other words, Lecithin is not substantially different from lecithin derived from non-GM crops.
Nonetheless, consumer concerns about genetically modified food have extended to highly purified derivatives from GM food, such as lecithin.
This concern led to policy and regulatory changes in the EU in 2000, when Commission Regulation (EC) 50/2000 was passed which required labelling of food containing additives derived from GMOs, including lecithin. 
Because Lecithin is nearly impossible to detect the origin of derivatives such as lecithin, the European regulations require those who wish to sell lecithin in Europe to use a meticulous, but essential system of identity preservation (IP).

Application Notes
Lecithin is a good source of choline, which may help with brain function and growth. 
Lecithin used as an emulsifier and solubilizer for drugs in an aqueous solution, also as a vehicle for liposomes.

Usage Statement
Unless specified otherwise, MP Biomedical's products are for research or further manufacturing use only, not for direct human use. 
For more information, please contact our customer service department.

Lecithin has long enjoyed popularity in the treatment of high cholesterol, Alzheimer's and bipolar disorder. 
However, scientific studies do not always support the medicinal effects of lecithin supplements, as the Langone Medical Center points out. 
Still, lecithin components do play key roles in normal body function. 
You can obtain lecithin from eggs, soybeans, peanuts, sunflower seeds, canola seeds and beef products.
Although the above food sources have protein as a common component, lecithin itself is not a protein.

Lecithin Powder
Also Known As: Soy Lecithin Powder or Powdered Lecithin
Origin:
Ingredients: Lecithin Powder from soy beans.
Taste and Aroma: Nutty, buttery and pleasant.
Uses: Baking, dressing, mayonnaise, chocolate, gravies, soup, cake and bread. 
Lecithin Powder is a powerful ingredient that can serve as an emulsifier(combination of two liquids that repel, such as oil and water), thickener and stabilizer all at once.
Substitutes:Lecithin Granules, Clear Jel Instant, Gum Arabic Powder, Potato Starch, Almond Flour, Tapioca Starch or Xanthan Gum.
Fun Fact: Lecithin is actually a natural part of all of us; located in our brain, liver and every cell of our body.

Specific Uses of the Substance:
Lecithin has a wide range of food application, which includes emulsification, release properties, wetting, dispersing and texturization. 
The major applications for lecithin include margarine, chocolates, instantizing powders, release sprays, and baked goods. 
Lecithin is used as a natural surfactant between oil and 64 water systems as seen in margarine products. 
Lecithin also helps modify chocolates for better enrobing and reduces crystallization of cocoa fat. 
In release applications, lecithin modifies the cooking surface to allow products to be more easily removed. 
As an instantizing agent, lecithin reduces the hydration properties of powders that would otherwise clump during dispersion in water and milk products.
In baking, the lecithin provides a multifunction application by emulsifying the fat and water and as an anti69 staling agent by inhibiting starch retrogradation. 
Actually, lecithin enhances the quality of baked goods by improving water absorption and the handling of the dough, increasing volume and shelf life, and improving uniformity of the products. 
Lecithin is also used as a packaging aid and directly on processing equipment as a lubricant.

In addition, lecithin is used in pharmaceuticals (as dietary supplements, emulsifying agent for intravenous
injections, and dispersant for vitamins); in cosmetics (as emulsifier and emollient in hair and make-up
preparations, creams, and oils); and in animal feeds (as a nutritional ingredient, emulsifier, and wetting aid
in calf milk replacers, pet foods, and many other types of feeds required high fat and oil contents). Other
industrial applications include improving plasticity of industrial sealing compounds, in textile processing
and dyeing operations, in the manufacture of masonry and asphalt products, paints and pigmented
coatings, as well as in the production of plastic and rubber compounds.

Bleached lecithin is used in applications where a lighter color is deemed important. 
Unbleached fluid lecithin has a dark brown color which does not permit high use levels in white or very light colored products; however, in some formulations, brown fluid lecithin can be use effectively at low concentrations.
Dry lecithin is used in commercial applications of food systems where liquid lecithin is more difficult to handle and the powdered or granular lecithin is more easily incorporated.

Lecithin that comes from soy can improve cardiovascular health, especially if you’re already at risk of developing high blood pressure or heart disease. 
This is according to a small study in which participants were given soy products including lecithin additives.
Since soy is complicated to digest, Lecithin takes your body longer to break soy products down. 
For some people, this works to make them feel more full after consuming Lecithin.

Lecithin May Help Make Your Edibles Feel More Potent
Lecithin may help make your high that much more effective. 
Lecithin is a phospholipid, and phospholipids help increase the bioavailability of cannabinoids. 
This also means that Lecithin helps your body absorb the T-C that much better, which may make the effects feel stronger.

Lecithin is in the ingredients of some skin care products. 
Lecithin’s used as an emollient, making skin feel smooth by restoring hydration. 
In most of these products, the kind of lecithin used is called hydrogenated lecithin.
There’s not a lot of evidence that lecithin, when used alone, can cure acne and eczema — although some people use it for that. 
Taking lecithin capsules could theoretically improve your skin, since Lecithin tones and stimulates other parts of your body, but we don’t know for sure.

Lecithin is a naturally occuring mixture of the diglycerides of stearic, palmitic and oleic acids, linked to the choline ester of phosphoric acid whose form varies from a waxy mass to a thick, pourable liquid. 
Hydrogenated Lecithin is the product of controlled hydrogenation (addition of hydrogen) of Lecithin. 
Lecithin and Hydrogenated Lecithin are used in the formulation of a large number of cosmetics and personal care products.

Lecithin has been tested in people with ulcerative colitis to improve their digestion. 
Lecithin’s emulsifying qualities contribute to a chain reaction that improves the mucus in your intestine, making the digestive process easier and protecting the delicate lining of your digestive system.
Even if you don’t have ulcerative colitis, you might want to consider using lecithin if you have irritable bowel syndrome, or another condition that affects your digestive process.

Likely InEffective for
Dementia related to Alzheimer's disease or other causes. 
Taking lecithin alone or with tacrine or ergoloids does not seem to improve mental abilities in people with dementia. 
Lecithin also doesn't seem to slow the progression of Alzheimer's disease.

Lecithin and Hydrogenated Lecithin enhance the appearance of dry or damaged skin by reducing flaking and restoring suppleness. 
These ingredients also help to form emulsions by reducing the surface tension of the substances to be emulsified.

Sunflower and Soy Lecithin
Lecithin is made from a variety of different products, and you'll most commonly see Lecithin made from sunflower, soy, or egg. 
But for our purposes, we'll skip the egg lecithin and discuss the two most common: sunflower and soy.
Sunflower lecithin is much better for you for a variety of reasons. 
The first being that many people generally are allergic to soy, and they don't have the same reactions to sunflower oil.
If we include eggs in the mix, many people also have allergies to eggs. 
As such, sunflower oil is the least harmful and means you can share your edibles with even more people.
Secondly, when extracting sunflower lecithin, there is no use of solvents as there are with soy. 
This means when you eat soy lecithin, you're at risk for chemical contamination, which most people try to avoid.

Soy Lecithin, or lecithin, is commonly used to hold emulsions together. 
Lecithin is a very common ingredient in packaged foods because Lecithin is such a great emulsifier and stabilizer. 
Lecithin's also the main reason egg yolks work so well to stabilize mayonnaise, aiolis, and sauces like Hollandaise. 
In modernist cooking Lecithin is often used to hold vinaigrettes together, create light foams and airs, and add elasticity and moisture tolerance to doughs.

Lecithin is very easy to use. 
Lecithin can be blended into liquids of any temperature and begins working right away. 
For emulsions, Lecithin is blended into the liquid before the oil is added. 
Lecithin is also often used with other stabilizers and thickeners such as xanthan gum for added effect.

Lecithin powder, or lecithin liquid, is just a processed version of lecithin. 
Lecithin has been removed from other ingredients, such as eggs or soy, so it is pure and of a set strength. 
Lecithin also allows you to use Lecithin without adding the flavor of eggs to your dishes. 
Most powdered lecithin is created as a by-product of making soy oils.

Insufficient Evidence for
-High cholesterol. 
Limited research shows that lecithin decreases cholesterol in healthy people and in people taking cholesterol-lowering therapy (statins). 
However, other evidence shows that lecithin has no effect on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol or total cholesterol levels in people with high cholesterol.
-Manic-depressive disorder. 
Early research shows that taking lecithin improves symptoms of delusions, jumbled speech, and hallucinations in people with mania.
-Dry skin, dermatitis. Lecithin is often put in skin creams to help the skin retain moisture. 
People may tell you this works, but there is no reliable clinical research showing that lecithin is effective for this use.
-Athletic performance. 
Limited research shows that taking lecithin by mouth does not seem to improve athletic performance in trained athletes.
-Movement disorders (tardive dyskinesia). 
Early studies suggest that taking lecithin by mouth alone, or in combination with lithium, does not appear to improve symptoms in people with tardive dyskinesia when used for 2 months.
-Parkinson’s disease. 
Early research shows that 32 grams lecithin daily does not improve clinical symptoms in people with Parkinson’s disease.
-Stress.
-Anxiety.
-Eczema.
-Sleep.
-Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate lecithin for these uses.

Lecithin is a fat that can be found in many foods like soybeans and egg yolks. 
Lecithin is also known as Egg Lecithin, Lecitina, Ovolecithin, Soy Lecithin, Soy Phospholipid, Soybean Lecithin, Vegilecithin, Vitellin, Vitelline, and other names.
Lecithin has been used in alternative medicine as a possibly effective aid in treating liver disease.
Lecithin has also been used to treat gallbladder disease, dementia related to Alzheimer's disease, age related loss of memory, and head injuries. 
However, research has shown that lecithin may not be effective in treating these conditions.
Other uses not proven with research have included high cholesterol, manic-depressive disorder, dermatitis, improvement of athletic performance, Parkinson's disease, stress, insomnia, and other conditions.
Lecithin is not certain whether lecithin is effective in treating any medical condition. 
Medicinal use of this product has not been approved by the FDA. 
Lecithin should not be used in place of medication prescribed for you by your doctor.
Lecithin is often sold as an herbal supplement. 
There are no regulated manufacturing standards in place for many herbal compounds and some marketed supplements have been found to be contaminated with toxic metals or other drugs. 
Herbal/health supplements should be purchased from a reliable source to minimize the risk of contamination.
Lecithin may also be used for purposes not listed in this product guide.

Some breastfeeding experts recommend lecithin as a solution for preventing recurrent plugged ducts. 
The Canadian Breastfeeding Foundation recommends a dose of 1,200 milligrams, four times per day, to experience this benefit.
They speculate that lecithin may decrease the viscosity of your breast milk, making Lecithin less likely to clog milk ducts in your breast.
This isn’t meant to be a treatment for plugged ducts, however. 
Treat ducts with:
-application of warm compresses
-massage
-extra pumping, if needed
-draining the breast well
-asking a lactation consultant for more suggestions
Report any fever or flu-like feelings to your doctor.

Soy lecithin is extracted from raw soybeans, so if you’re wondering if Lecithin contains soy, the answer is yes. 
First the oil is extracted using a chemical solvent, like hexane, and then the oil is processed (which is called degumming) so the lecithin is separated and dried.
Lecithin appears that soy lecithin only contains trace levels of soy proteins. 
For this reason, researchers believe that soy lecithin will not provoke allergic reactions in the majority of soy-allergic consumers because Lecithin does not contain sufficient soy protein residues.
You see, the soybean allergens are found in the protein fraction, which is almost entirely removed in the soy lecithin manufacturing process. 
The Institute of Agriculture and National Resources at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln suggests “many allergists do not even advise their soybean-allergic patients to avoid soybean lecithin when it is included as an ingredient on food products.”

Do use caution when eating any product containing soy, though. 
People with more sensitive soybean allergies still may react negatively to soy lecithin ingestion and will have to be more conscious of packaged foods containing this ingredient.
Another widely researched issue regarding soy is that it contains isoflavones or phytoestrogens, which are naturally occurring estrogenic compounds. 
Although isoflavones are found in many different plant foods, soybeans contain uniquely rich amounts.
In soybeans, isoflavones occur almost exclusively as glycosides (sugar compounds), but once the soy food is ingested, the sugar is hydrolyzed and can be absorbed by the body.

Isoflavones have a chemical structure that’s similar to the hormone estrogen, so they can bind to estrogen receptors and cause estrogen-like effects on the body. 
That’s at least what some animal studies have shown us, but there is definitely more research to be done on this topic to fully understand the role that consuming isoflavones has on our health.
Although consuming isoflavones may have potential health benefits, like improving menopause and osteoporosis symptoms, there are concerns about their estrogen-like properties and how they affect the thyroid, uterus and breasts, according to an evaluation of the clinical and epidemiologic literature on this subject that was published in Nutrients.
Personally, when I do eat soy, I only go for fermented soy products, like miso and tempeh. 

They may be beneficial to your health because they:
are excellent sources of dietary protein
contain all of the essential amino acids
are easier to digest
Plus, the fermentation process breaks down the antinutrients that are present, and they contain probiotics.

Lecithin
Lecithin, a lipid that consists mostly of choline, and includes inositol, phosphorus, and linoleic acid, helps to prevent arteriosclerosis, protects against cardiovascular disease, improves brain function, benefits and keeps the liver and kidneys healthy. 
Lecithin aids in thiamin and vitamin A absorption and can even help to repair liver damage caused by alcoholism.
The choline and inositol in lecithin protects against [heart disease] hardening of the arteries by promoting normal processing of fat and cholesterol. 
Lecithin helps to bind fats and cholesterol to water so that they can pass through the body rather than cause a potentially harmful buildup in the heart or liver. 
Cell membranes, (the protective sheaths surrounding the brain,) and nerve cells also contain this essential fatty substance.
The choline found in lecithin helps the body produce acetylcholine, a substance that acts as a chemical messenger to parts of the nervous system and is essential to the brain’s memory function. 
Studies have shown that people taking lecithin have significant improvement in memory test scores and fewer memory lapses than those who took the placebos. 
Dr. Safford, who conducted studies that show that lecithin and choline supplements seem to actually boost memory, also noted that the health benefits of lecithin are seen almost immediately. 
“ The fascinating thing about lecithin is that when Lecithin helps, Lecithin’s right away. 
Lecithin’s one of the few substances like alcohol, which crosses the blood-brain barrier and produces an immediate reaction.”

Natto, for example, is a dish that contains fermented soybeans, and I consider Lecithin one the greatest probiotic foods because Lecithin has been proven to help reduce inflammation and support your immune system.
The appropriate dose of lecithin depends on several factors such as the user’s age, health, and several other conditions. 
At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for lecithin. 
Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. 
Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using.


3-) POLYGLYCEROL POLYRICINOLEATE

Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate = E476 = PGPR

PGPR, the full name of polyglycerol polyricinoleate, is an ingredient commonly used as a water-in-oil type (W/O) emulsifier in chocolate and chocolate-type confectionary to reduce the viscosity in production. 
Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate is a type of polyglycerol esters (PGE) with the European food additive number E476. 
Polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR), E476, is an emulsifier made from glycerol and fatty acids (usually from castor bean, but also from soybean oil). 
In chocolate, compound chocolate and similar coatings, PGPR is mainly used with another substance like lecithin to reduce viscosity. 
Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate is used at low levels (below 0.5%), and works by decreasing the friction between the solid particles (e.g. cacao, sugar, milk) in molten chocolate, reducing the yield stress so that it flows more easily, approaching the behaviour of a Newtonian fluid.
Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate can also be used as an emulsifier in spreads and in salad dressings, or to improve the texture of baked goods.
Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate is made up of a short chain of glycerol molecules connected by ether bonds, with ricinoleic acid side chains connected by ester bonds.
PGPR is a yellowish, viscous liquid, and is strongly lipophilic: Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate is soluble in fats and oils and insoluble in water and ethanol.

Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate using in chocolate
Because PGPR improves the flow characteristics of chocolate and compound chocolate, especially near the melting point, Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate can improve the efficiency of chocolate coating processes: chocolate coatings with PGPR flow better around shapes of enrobed and dipped products, and it also improves the performance of equipment used to produce solid molded products: the chocolate flows better into the mold, and surrounds inclusions and releases trapped air more easily.
PGPR can also be used to reduce the quantity of cocoa butter needed in chocolate formulations: the solid particles in chocolate are suspended in the cocoa butter, and by reducing the viscosity of the chocolate, less cocoa butter is required, which saves costs, because cocoa butter is an expensive ingredient, and also leads to a lower-fat product.

The food additive named polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR) and identified with the code E-476 (PGPR) is used as emulsifier in tin-greasing emulsions for the baking trade and for the production of low-fat spreads. 
However, the main application of PGPR is in the chocolate industry, where, besides Polyglycerol Polyricinoleates action as an emulsifier, Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate also has important properties as a viscosity modifier and thus improves the moulding properties of the molten chocolate. 
An additional property of PGPR in chocolate is its ability to limit fat bloom. 
Known chemical methods for preparing this emulsifier involve long reaction times and high operating temperatures, which adversely affect the quality of the final product leading to problems of coloration and odors that could make it inadvisable for the food industry. 
As an alternative, the enzymatic synthesis of PGPR by the catalytic action of two lipases has been developed. 
The enzymes act in mild reaction conditions of temperature and pressure, neutral pH, and in a solvent-free system, which makes the process environmentally friendly and avoids side reaction, so that the product has a higher purity and quality.

What’re the common food uses?
The common applications of PGPR are as an emulsifier in chocolates. 
Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate also can be used in confectionery fillings to reduce fat and improve the flow properties, and in low-fat spreads to stabilize the emulsion and improve mouthfeel and spreadability.

What is this ingredient in chocolate?
Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate is common to see Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate in the ingredients list of the chocolate candy which you might find in the supermarket. 

Let’s see Polyglycerol Polyricinoleates functions in chocolate:
-Viscosity reduction agent
PGPR has good thermal stability. 
The most important advantage in chocolate manufacturing is Polyglycerol Polyricinoleates ability in preventing crystals occur by reducing the viscosity of the chocolate slurry, thereby improving its fluidity, accelerating and optimizing the chocolate moulding process. 
-Eliminating bubble formation and empty holes
PGPR also help release small bubbles generated during the moulding process, thereby avoiding bubbles and holes in the chocolate product. 
-Synergistic with lecithin
Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate has a good synergistic effect when used together with lecithin (an emulsifier, E322).
-Reduction of cocoa butter 
Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate can significantly reduce the shear stress and the amount of cocoa butter needed (to reduce the cost for chocolate manufacturers) in chocolate formulations, along with the reduction of the thickness of the chocolate coating, and improve the ease of processing.

Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate Functions:
PGPR is most often found in foods, on which Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate is labelled as E476. 
Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate is an FDA approved emulsifying food additive used to lower the viscosity of chocolate and salad dressings among other foods, but Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate has also found use as a skin conditioning agent as well as an emulsifier in cosmetic products. 
These properties are quite typical of long chain fat derived molecules. 
PGPR contains both hydrophilic and hydrophobic chemical groups, meaning that part of the molecule will bind to the water, and the other will bind to the oil part of the product to create a smooth consistency.

Polyglycerol polyricinoleate (E476) is an emulsifier made in a three-step process from glycerol and fatty acids. 
PGPR (PolyGlycerol PolyRicinoleate) reduces the viscosity of chocolate and improves the flowability in chocolate mass. 
Polyglycerol polyricinoleate is also used in food as a release agent.

Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate (PGPR)
Baking is an appealing activity, especially for moms. 
We all can’t deny that cookies are tasty that’s why our sweet tooths would always go for it anytime. 
In manufacturing chocolates for applications such as baking, polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR) works in enhancing the thickness and volume of the product. 
Chocolate coatings flow satisfactorily when PGPR is added unto Polyglycerol Polyricinoleates mixture. 
Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate also complements lecithin when combined.

Description: Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate or PGPR is a combination of polyglycerol and castor oil (oil of the Ricinus communis tree). 
Normal fat consists of glycerol and fatty acids, for these products additional glycerol is coupled to the normal glycerol.
The product generally is a mixture of different components but has a certain element as synthetic as Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate uses an acetone-benzene solution. 
Castor oil seed is also used to make the poison ‘Ricin’
Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate (PGPR) is becoming increasingly popular in Chocolate bars from the lower end market and are sold in bulk to offload costs.
Polyglycerol is also used in polymer coatings, paint and as a coating for plastic film to aid in anti-fogging.

Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate uses:  PGPR as an emulsifier, stabiliser allowing chocolate coating to be spread more thinly to save costs. 
This is done at the expense of cocoa butter, which is eliminated from certain chocolate, namely Hershey’s, and PGPR used instead.
Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate is also used in spreadable fats and spreads, creamers and dressings of various kinds, where a plastic viscosity is desired in the products. 
echnically speaking, PGPR is a plastic

INTENDED USAGE:
-Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate serves to produce better quality chocolate reducing cocoa oil quantity in chocolate industry.
-Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate provides easier discharge property eliminating bubble formation and empty holes.
-Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate serves to produce chocolate with desired refirement.
-Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate doesnt have any bad odour. 
-Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate has a good thermal stability. 
-Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate is suitable to use together with lecithin. 
-Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate makes the process easier. 

USAGE AREA :
-Chocolate and products thereof
-Low oil content products
-Spreadable oils (oil rate is less than 41%)
-Cocoa based candies
-Spreadable products (oil rate is less than 10%)
-Sauces
-Ice cream mixtures
-Candies
-Drug and cosmetic mixtures
-Oil and water emulsions

Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate is a W/O type surfactant. 
Polyglycerol Polyricinoleates lipophilic group is polycondensed ricinoleic acid, and Polyglycerol Polyricinoleates hydrophilic group is polyglycerin group. 
Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate has good solubility in grease and can be used as emulsifier, stabilizer, and thickener. 
Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate is widely used in food (chocolate and its products, ice cream icing, etc.), cosmetics, lubricants and other fields.
-Polyglycerol Polyricinoleates most important feature is that Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate can reduce the viscosity of the chocolate slurry without forming crystals, thereby improving Polyglycerol Polyricinoleates fluidity;
-Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate has a good synergistic effect when mixed with lecithin, which can significantly reduce the shear stress of chocolate, reduce the amount of cocoa butter and cocoa butter substitutes, and reduce the thickness of the chocolate coating and the ease of processing;
-Make chocolate and its products easy to discharge the small bubbles generated in the process of filling the mold, and avoid the phenomenon of voids and pores in the product;
-Reduce the amount of chocolate required for effective slurrying and molding; speed up the injection molding of chocolate;
-Improve the ease of processing of the product, make the chocolate icing of the biscuit evenly thick, and the icing thinner and flatter, so that the wrapped air can be released more easily;
-In a humid environment, increase the low-temperature adhesion of the chocolate coating, so that the chocolate icing of the ice cream can be formed quickly, accelerate its adhesion, increase the adhesion, and reduce the tiny pores. 
For example: adding 0.3% polyglycerol polyricinoleate and 0.3% lecithin to chocolate, the shear stress can be reduced by about 50%, or use 0.2% polyglycerol polyricinoleate and 0.5% lecithin together, can reduce the amount of cocoa butter by about 8%, reduce the thickness of the chocolate coating, and improve the ease of processing.
-A thicker and heavier chocolate coating is formed on the biscuit.
-Downward products: Cocoa products, chocolate and Polyglycerol Polyricinoleates products, candy, ice cream coating

Factories find PGPR as a helpful agent in maintaining the good quality of the chocolate or other products that require certain smoothness and viscosity. 
Baking will be much fun for everybody who loves doing Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate.

Polyglycerol polyricinoleate, E476, is an emulsifier made in a three step process from glycerol and fatty acids, respectively. 
PGPR reduces the viscosity of chocolate and similar coatings and compounds. 
Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate works by decreasing the friction between the particles of cacao, sugar, milk, etc. present so they can flow more easily when melted. 
Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate is used at low levels. 
Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate is made up of a short chain of glycerol molecules connected by ether bonds, with ricinoleic acid side chains connected by ester bonds. 
PGPR is a yellowish, viscous liquid composed of polyglycerol esters of polycondensed fatty acids from castor oil. 
Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate may also be polyglycerol esters of dimerized fatty acids of soybean oil. 
PGPR is strongly lipophilic, soluble in fats and oils and insoluble in water and ethyl alcohol. 
In chocolates, Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate is used as a viscosity-reducing agent. 
Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate is virtually always paired with lecithin or another plastic viscosity-reducing agent. 
Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate can also be used as an emulsifier in spreads and in salad dressings or as a crystal inhibitor and anticlouding agent in fractionated vegetable oils. 
In a study in 1998, "PGPR was found to be 98% digested by rats and utilized as a source of energy superior to starch and nearly equivalent to groundnut oil." 
Additionally, there was no evidence of interference with normal fat metabolism, nor with growth, reproduction, and maintenance of tissue. 
Overall, Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate did not "constitute a human health hazard."

Use in chocolate candy bars

Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate is primarily used to reduce the fat content of chocolate. 
PGPR is a yellowish, viscous liquid composed of polyglycerol esters of polycondensed fatty acids from castor oil. 
Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate may also be polyglycerol esters of dimerized fatty acids of soya bean oil.
PGPR is strongly lipophilic, soluble in fats and oils and insoluble in water and ethyl alcohol. 
In chocolates Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate is used as a viscosity-reducing agent.
Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate is virtually always paired with lecithin or another plastic viscosity-reducing agent. 
Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate can also be used as an emulsifier in spreads and in salad dressings or as a crystal inhibitor and anti-clouding agent in fractionated vegetable oils. 
The Vegan Society claims that PGPR may be animal-derived, but no evidence has been presented that any commercially available PGPR products are made using animal-derived substances.

INDUSTRIES
Polyglycerol polyricinoleate (E476) is used in food as an emulsifier for chocolate products, spreads, sauces, cocoa based sweets.

SAMPLE AND DATA REQUEST
You have the opportunity to compile a data and sample request for our products, which you can then submit directly to us.

Polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR) is used as an emulsifier in the food industry, especially in chocolate coatings and chocolate bars. 
PGPR improves the characteristics of molten chocolate by reducing yield stress, facilitating the coating of confectionery pieces, while limiting the amount of cocoa butter involved.
The enzymatic synthesis of PGPR catalyzed by lipases presents several advantages over chemical synthesis, including enzyme specificity and the mild conditions needed, thereby avoiding undesirable side-reactions and by-products. 
A novel process to synthesize PGPR using a biocatalyst, is presented. 
Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate is appropriate for catalyzing both the reactions involved in this process. 
A PGPR fulfilling European specifications for this food additive as well as recommendations set out in the Food Chemical Codex, was obtained using a discontinuous vacuum reactor with a dry nitrogen flow. 
In addition, the biocatalyst reuse would decrease costs. 
Moreover, Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate was confirmed that the ability to obtain PGPR in a one-step reaction significantly shortens the time required.

FOOD ADDITIVES
-Citrate
-Salts and minerals
-E vitamins
-Proteins and isolates
-Ascorbic acid derivatives
-Triacetin

-Product Type: emulsifier, food grade
-Color: light yellow
-Form: viscous liquid
-Odor: no bad odor
-CNS: 10.029
-INS: 476
-CAS: 29894-35-7

E476 is a food additive used to make foods/sauces smoother and blend easier. 
Polyglycerol Polyricinoleates scientific name is Polyglycerol polyricinoleate. 
On its Vegan status Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate’s pretty much always vegan.
Generally Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate’s safe to assume E476 is Vegan, as Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate’s essentially always made from either soybean oil or castor oil, however technically Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate can be derived from animal sources/fats. 
In practice while E476 (Polyglycerol polyricinoleate) can be made from animal tallow (fat) if Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate’s not made from one of the two plant-based ingredients mentioned above Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate’s generally made with Palm Oil.
In other words, if you’re vegan I don’t believe this is an ingredient that should be of concern, as while Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate technically can be made in a non-vegan way I honestly cannot find a production facility that makes E476 that uses animal products in Polyglycerol Polyricinoleates production.

What other food may contain it?
The following products may with it:
Spreadable fats 
Cocoa products 
Cocoa-based confectionery 
Emulsified sauces

Is PGPR safe to eat?
Yes, PGPR has been approved as a safe emulsifier by U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), as well as Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA).

PGPR is most often found in foods, on which Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate is labelled as E476. 
Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate is an FDA approved emulsifying food additive used to lower the viscosity of chocolate and salad dressings among other foods, but it has also found use as a skin conditioning agent as well as an emulsifier in cosmetic products. 
These properties are quite typical of long chain fat derived molecules. 
PGPR contains both hydrophilic and hydrophobic chemical groups, meaning that part of the molecule will bind to the water, and the other will bind to the oil part of the product to create a smooth consistency.

Manufacture
Glycerol is heated to above 200 °C in a reactor in the presence of an alkaline catalyst to create polyglycerol. 
Castor oil fatty acids are separately heated to above 200 °C, to create interesterified ricinoleic fatty acids. 
The polyglycerol and the interesterified ricinoleic fatty acids are then mixed to create PGPR

How is Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate made?
PGPR is a mixture of esterified products manufactured by the esterification of polyglycerol with condensed castor oil fatty acids. 

What is Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate (PGPR)?

Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate (PGPR) is an emulsifier made from castor beans. 
Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate reduces the viscosity of chocolate so Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate will allow the chocolate to melt faster while in your mouth. 
Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate is also used to lower the fat content in chocolate. 

Is PGPR Natural or Artificial?

"Some manufacturers are now using PGPR, an artificial emulsifier derived from castor oil that allows them to reduce the amount of cocoa butter while maintaining the same mouthfeel."

The brief 3 step manufacturing processes as follows:
-Polyglycerols preparation: Glycerol is heated to above 200 ℃ in the presence of an alkali catalyst to produce polyglycerol. 
-Condensation of the castor oil fatty acids: Castor oil fatty acids (synthesized by hydrolysing castor oil in water) are heated to above 200 ℃ to create interesterified ricinoleic fatty acid chains of varying lengths. 
-Esterification: Then polyglycerol mixed with interesterified ricinoleic fatty acids to produce PGPR with different chain lengths. 

Fatty acids In Castor Oil 
Castor oil is a vegetable oil that can be pressed from castor beans. 
Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate is mainly composed of ricinoleic acid (85–95%). 
Other components are oleic acid (2–6%), linoleic acid (1–5%), stearic acid (0.5–1%) and palmitic acid (0.5–1%). 

On the label you will see it listed as an emulsifier. 
Polyglycerol polyricinoleate is a yellowish, viscous liquid comprised of polyglycerol esters of polycondensed fatty acids from castor oil.

CAS Number: 29894-35-7  
ChemSpider: None
ECHA InfoCard: 100.117.614  
E number: E476 (thickeners, ...)
PubChem CID: 9843407
Chemical formula: (C3H5O2)n(C18H32O2)m

Properties: Yellow highly viscous liquid, odorless or slightly peculiar smell, insoluble in cold water and ethanol, soluble in hot glycerin and hot oil, soluble in ether and hydrocarbons. 
Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate is non-ionic and belongs to water-in-oil (W/O) emulsifier.

Physical properties: insoluble in water and ethanol. 
Soluble in ether, hydrocarbons and halogenated hydrocarbons.
Appearance: highly viscous yellow to brown liquid, odorless or slightly peculiar smell
Function: This product is a W/O type surfactant, which can be used as an emulsifier, stabilizer, thickener, and anticaking agent. 
Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate is widely used in the fields of food and cosmetics. 
PGPR is a special emulsifier that can stabilize water-in-oil systems with high water content.
Adjust the surface tension. Adjust product viscosity.

Appearance
Clear, highly viscous liquid.

HLB Value
Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate is strong lipophilic W/O emulsifier and can form stable emulsions even when the water content is very high.

Commercial Production
PGEs are produced by polymerization of glycerol in the presence of an alkaline catalyst followed by esterification with fatty acids.
The fatty acids are from corn oil, cottonseed oil, lard, palm oil, peanut oil, sesame oil, sunflower oil, soybean oil, etc.
Besides esters, PGEs also contain impurities, like mono, di, and triglycerides, free fatty acids, free glycerol and polyglycerol, and sodium salts of fatty acids may be present.

Function
Components of bakery products, such as oil, water and flour, are not soluble in each other. 
Interfaces are present between these substances, such as water and oil, gases (air bubbles) and solid substances (flour components), air and water. 
PGEs, like other emulsifiers, have both a hydrophobic and hydrophilic nature so they can reduce interfacial tension between different phases.
PGEs’ hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) depends on the length of the polyglycerol chain and the degree of esterification. 
The HLB can vary from 3 to 14, and the desired HLB value may be obtained by appropriate blending. 
Depending upon their HLB, PGEs can act as water-in-oil (W/O) or oil-in-water (O/W) emulsifiers.
PGEs form highly stable alpha-gel in water. 
The α-gel phase of PGEs is surface active and is able to stabilize foams when the temperature is lower than the melting temperature of the emulsifier. 
The special structure also leads to better emulsification properties.

Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate Applications
An important application of PGEs is in cake batters with little or no content of fat and oil (i.e. batters for sponge cakes, Swiss rolls and similar types of cake formulations that are based on egg, sugar and flour and/or starch). 
PGEs enhance aeration and help stabilize foams. 
The use of PGEs makes it possible to produce sponge cakes by single stage mixing, and produce final products with a finer crumb structure and longer shelf life.

PGEs can be used in margarines. 
The addition of PGEs improve the functional properties of the margarine (e.g. the organoleptic properties of spreads, stabilizing or aerating of food) in addition to the emulsification of the emulsion. 
PGEs are reported to improve the organolepic properties of a margarine or low-fat spread by reducing the graininess of the lipid phase to yield a plasticity and elasticity of the margarine corresponding to natural butter.
Compared to alternative emulsifiers, such as monoglycerides, the polyglycerol ester is found to have an advantage in providing long-time stability of  whipping properties, making the emulsifier an excellent choice for cake mixes.

Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate Origin:
Combination of polyglycerol and castoroil (oil of the tree Ricinus sp. ). 
Normal fat consists of glycerol and fatty acids, for these products additional glycerol is coupled to the normal glycerol. 
The product generally is a mixture of different components.

Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate Function & characteristics:
Emulsifiers and stabilisers.

Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate Products:
Bakery products

Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate Description
Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate (PGPR) E 476 is an emulsifier manufactured from Interesterified Castor oil fatty acids and Polymerized Glycerol. 
Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate is a highly lipophilic emulsifier with a low Hydrophilic-Lipophilic Balance. 
This food additive is a viscous amber coloured liquid. 
Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate is insoluble in hot and cold water, soluble in oils and fats.
PGPR works by reducing the friction between the particles of the solid ingredients in molten chocolate and reducing the surface tension or yield stress (Casson yield value) so that chocolate flows much more uniformly and in an easily controllable manner. 
This greatly aids the application of chocolate in bar-making, moulding, enrobing and coating. 

PGPR is also a cost-saving emulsifier as it reduces the quantity of fat required in chocolate production to achieve the desired chocolate viscosity.
The worldwide PGPR food additive market for the chocolate industry had been controlled by a multinational that produced a high functionality PGPR and had a monopoly in this segment. 
They controlled this high functionality segment for over a decade and had no competition.
In 2014, Savannah was the first company to be able to produce a PGPR with the same functionality and break this monopoly. 
Multinational chocolate manufacturers have been the first to affirm Savannah’s quality and several large and small chocolate producers worldwide have also seen the merit in using Savannah’s DynaVisc 999.
Viscosity reduction testing: The percentage reduction in viscosity achieved through the use of Savannah’s 999 grade can be calculated with a very simple mathematical formula. 
This formula is referred to as Viscosity Reducing Power or Viscosity Reduction Index.
(Original Starting Viscosity of Chocolate - Viscosity after addition of 0.2% DynaVisc 999) / Original Starting Viscosity of Chocolate
This number, multiplied by 100, is the percentage viscosity reduction achieved.

Acceptable Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate Daily Intake:
Up to 7.5 mg/kg bodyweight

PGEs can also be used as low fat shortening. 
They can also form emulsion systems with a high amount water, thus reducing the overall caloric content of a food product. 
As the α-tending emulsifier, PGEs also have the crumb softening and anti-staling effects and they also help improve cake volume in baked products. 
The reason is that emulsifiers can reduce the rate of starch retrogradation.

PGEs can be used in whippable emulsions and toppings. 
Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate can promote fat particle aggregation and water absorption, and help achieve increased viscosity and aeration, and reduced coalescence.

Different than monoglycerides (MGs), the α-gel structure formed by PGEs are thermodynamically more stable, which means the emulsion system formed by PGEs are more stable than that of MGs. 
Blends of PGEs and MGs are known to improve sponge cake aeration and stability with less mixing time and improved foam and emulsion stability.
Polyglyceryl polyricinoleate is a Polyglyceryl esters of interesterified ricinoleic acid Polyglyceryl polyricinoleate uses and applications include: Emulsifier, stabilizer, viscous modifier, emulsion stabilizer, pan release agent in foods; emulsifier, stabilizer in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, emulsions; release agent.

Solubility 
Insoluble in water and in ethanol; soluble in ether.

IUPAC name
1,2,3-Propanetriol, homopolymer, (9Z,12R)-12-hydroxy-9-octadecenoate
POLYGLYCEROL POLYRICINOLEATE
Q168686

Polyglycerol polyricinoleate is an emulsifier which is a yellowish, viscous liquid composed of polyglycerol esters of polycondensed fatty acids from castor oil. 
Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate is lipophilic , being soluble in fats and oils but insoluble in water. 
Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate is used in reducing the friction of chocolate particles to obtain better flow when melted. 
Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate also func- tions to reduce the fat content of chocolate when replacing cocoa butter. 
Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate uses include chocolate candy bars, confectionary. 
PGPR is strong lipophilic W/O emulsifier and is used as anemulsifier for making of baking grease which is used as a release agent in the bread tins in the Bread Industry.
Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate is used as Emulsifier for margarines and shortenings, stabiliser for water- in-oil emulsion systems, dispersant for high solid preparations, suspending agent for food colors, Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate can be also used as anti-clouding agent for fractionated vegetable oils.
Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate is used as a Viscosity reducer, which increases the smooth flow without the air problems getting trapped inside. Generally Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate is used in the dosage of 0.5%.

Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate is reported that mixing polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR) and polyglycerol laurilester has a great emulsifying capacity, and consequently fine oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions can be formed. 
However, the role of PGPR is not clear. 
The objective of this research is to investigate the phase behavior of vegetable oil/mixture of PGPR and polyglycerol fatty acid ester/water systems, and to clarify the role of PGPR in making a fine emulsion. 
Phase diagrams were constructed to elucidate the optimal process for preparing fine emulsions. 
In all the systems examined in this study, the phases, including the liquid crystal phase (L(c)) and sponge phase (L(3)), spread widely in the phase diagrams. 
We examined droplet size of the emulsions prepared from each phase and found that o/w nano-emulsions with droplet sizes as small as 50 nm were formed by emulsifying either from a single L(3) phase or a two-phase region, L(c) + L(3). 
These results indicate that a sponge phase L(3) or liquid crystal phase L(c) or both is necessary to form an o/w nano-emulsion whose average droplet diameter is less than 50 nm for PGPR and polyglycerin fatty acid ester mixtures used as surfactant.

Three different analytical techniques, namely NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and dynamic light scattering, were used to unravel the structure and morphology of polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR). 
This material is used as an emulsifier in the preparation of chocolate and other confectionary products. 
The use of 1D and 2D NMR techniques led to the distinction of two separate entities in commercial ricinoleic acid (RA) and PGPR samples, namely the monomeric and oligomeric RA (estolides). 
1H and 13C spectra of PGPR confirmed the presence of polyglycerol moieties of various lengths being esterified by RA and estolides and to a lesser extent by oleic and linoleic acids. 
13C-NMR DOSY experiments demonstrated the occurrence of several species in PGPR. 

Item: STANDARD
Acid Value (mgkoH/g): =<6.0
Saponification Value (mgkoH/g): 170-210
Iodine Value (g/100g): 72-103
Hydroxyl Value (mgkoH/g): 80-100
Pb (ppm): =<2

Electrospray Ionization and tandem Mass Spectrometry succeeded in identifying the presence of over 30 glycerol/polyglycerol species containing n glycerol moieties with n = 1–6 esterified by monomeric and oligomeric RA molecules. 
Dynamic light scattering contributed to the characterization of PGPR morphology. 
The PGPR mixture contains relatively small-sized entities (monomers, dimmers, trimmers) and larger aggregates resulted from chain association. 
The percentage of larger aggregates is minimal compared to small-sized species.

Product Specification
E Number: E 476
Form: Viscous Liquid
Colour: Amber Honey
Acid Value: Max 3 mgKOH/gm
Polyglycerol: Less than 10%
Hydroxyl Value: 80-100 mgKOH/gm
Viscosity: 700-900 CPS at 60 C
Saponification Value: 170-185 mgKOH/gm
Heavy Metals (as Pb): Less than 10 mg/kg
Arsenic: Less than 1 mg/kg
Mercury: Less than 1 mg/kg
Cadmium: Less than 1 mg/kg
Lead: Less than 5 mg/kg
Refractive Index: 1.4630-1.4665

This emulsifier (E 476) is produced from ricinoleic acid and glycerol (from castor oil) and used both in cosmetics and in the pharmaceutical and food industries. 
Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate is skin-friendly and has virtually no potential for irritation.

Food additives enhances the flavour and shelf life of the food.
With increasing inclination of consumers towards processed food is contributing to the growth of food additives market. 
Polyglycerol polyricinoleate is naturally and chemically obtained food additive with excellent emulsifying properties. 
Polyglycerol polyricinoleate is chemically obtained from polymerized ricinoleic acid and polymerized glycerol, whereas naturally Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate is derived from castor bean oil. 
Polyglycerol polyricinoleate has hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties, thus making Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate a water-in-oil emulsifier. 
Hence predominantly used in food & beverage industry. 
Polygylcerol polycricinoleate is chemically prepared through four stages starting from preparation of castor oil fatty acid up to the partial esterification process of castor oil fatty acid with polyglycerol. 
Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate can either be used in blended or individual form depending upon the quality to be obtained.

Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate Definition
Polyglycerol polyricinoleate is an emulsifier used to improve the flow and spread of chocolate and candy coatings.

Polyglycerol PolyricinoleateHealth considerations
Polyglycerol polyricinoleate is considered safe at the levels present in food (a maximum of 0.3% in the US). 
Studies in animals and humans found no adverse health effects at intakes of up to 10g a day.

Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate may be found in
Chocolate, confectionery, candy coated chocolate, chocolate coated candy/fruit/nuts, salad dressing, fractionated vegetable oil

Related compounds: 
Triricinolein (monomer)
Polyglycerol
Ricinoleic acid
drewpol PGPR
(Z,12R)-12-hydroxyoctadec-9-enoic acid;propane-1,2,3-triol (poly)
1,2,3-propanetriol, homopolymer, (9Z,12R)-12-hydroxy-9-
1,2,3-propanetriol, homopolymer, (9Z,12R)-12-hydroxy-9-octadecenoate
ricinoleic acid, ester with polyglycerol
Polyglyceryl polyricinoleate
Glyceran esters of condensed castor oil fatty acids
Glycerol esters of condensed castor oil fatty acids
PGPR; Polyglycerol esters of interesterified ricinoleic acid
Polyglycerol esters of polycondensed fatty acids from castor oil

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