LAMP BLACK 101
pigment carbon black powder LAMP BLACK 101 POWDER for Coatings & Polymers
Lamp black 101 by Orion Engineered Carbons is a high structured, highly stable amorphous carbon black.
LAMP BLACK 101 offers pigment separation. Designed for powder coatings.
Lamp black 101 is listed in the Color Index as Black 6-77266.
Lamp black 101 is carbon black. LAMP BLACK 101 is used as inorganic color pigment for black coloring and tinting in plastics.
Lamp black 101 possesses good dispersibility due to its high structure.
LAMPBLACK 101 features excellent stability and high-speed dispersibility, along with conductivity at some concentrations.
LAMPBLACK 101 is used primarily in transportation and structural coatings.
Chemical Auxiliary Agent
CAS No.: 1333-86-4
Other Names: carbon black
EINECS No.: 215-609-9
Place of Origin: Germany
Type: Carbon Black
Usage: Coating Auxiliary Agents, Plastic Auxiliary Agents
Brand Name: LAMP BLACK 101 POWDER
Manufacturing Process: Lamp Black (LB)
Average Particle Size: 95 nm
BET (NSA) Surface Area:29 m2/g
Oil Absorption:140 ml/100g
Function: Carbon Black, Pigments
Industries: Coatings, Plastics
Principal: Orion Engineered Carbons
LAMP BLACK 101 as an alternative to iron oxide black
LAMP BLACK 101 has coarse primary particle size, broad primary particle size distribution and high structure
LAMP BLACK 101 allows an easier dispersibilty in coatings compared to finer
LAMP BLACK 101
• Mainly used for tinting in liquid or powder coatings
• Typically provides a bluish undertone in grey coatings
• Low tinting strength results in relatively minor metering errors
• In mass tones low jetness with typically brownish undertone
• Offers excellent light fastness, chemical resistance and thermal conductivity
LAMP BLACK 101 POWDER (carbon black) is used as a highly resistant tinting carbon black for coatings, for plastics, for metal casting layers, for batteries, graphite parts, as well as for a reactivity component (hard metals, ceramics).
Used for powder coatings.
LAMP BLACK 101 POWDER provides high stability in pigment separation.
LAMP BLACK 101 POWDER is used as an inorganic color pigment for black dyeing and toning in plastic.
LAMP BLACK 101 POWDER possesses good dispersibility due to its high structure.
LAMP BLACK 101 is also used as a pigment for gray colors.
Carbon black is a generic term for an important family of products that is used principally for the reinforcement of rubber, as a black pigment and because of its electrically conductive properties. It is an extremely fluffy fine powder with a large surface area and is composed essentially of elemental carbon.
Carbon black is one of the most stable chemical products.
In general, it is the most widely used nanomaterial and its aggregate dimension ranges from tens to a few hundred nanometers (nm); it imparts special properties to composites of which it is a part. Plants for the manufacture of carbon black are strategically located worldwide to supply the rubber tyre industry, which consumes 70% of the carbon black produced. About 20% is used for other rubber products and 10% is used for a variety of non-rubber applications
Carbon black is a form of elemental carbon that is manufactured by the controlled vapour-phase pyrolysis and partial combustion of hydrocarbons.
Several processes have been used to produce carbon black, including the oil-furnace, impingement (channel), lampblack, thermal (decomposition of natural gas) and acetylene (decomposition) processes. Carbon blacks are commonly referred to by the process or the source material from which they are made, e.g. furnace black, lampblack, thermal black, acetylene black and channel black. The different grades from the various processes have certain unique characteristics, but it is now possible to produce reasonable approximations of most of these grades using the oil-furnace process, by which more than 95% of the total output of carbon black is produced (Voll & Kleinschmit, 2002; Wang et al., 2003).
In contrast to carbon black, soot is a material of varying and often unknown composition that is an unwanted by-product of the incomplete combustion of all types of material that contain carbon, such as waste oil, coal, paper, rubber, plastic, household waste and also some fuel oils.
Soots have a small surface area of available carbon due to their large particle size and low carbon content.
They typically contain large quantities of solvent-extractable materials and their ash content can be 50% or more (European Committee for Biological Effects of Carbon Black, 1982; Voll & Kleinschmit, 2002; Wang et al., 2003). Two other commercial carbonaceous products are activated carbon (including activated charcoal) and bone black.
Activated carbon is a collective name for a group of porous carbons, which are manufactured either by the treatment of carbon with gases or by the carbonization of carbonaceous materials with simultaneous activation by chemical treatment.
Activated carbon possesses a porous structure, usually has small amounts of chemically bonded oxygen and hydrogen and can contain up to 20% of mineral matter, which usually consists of ash or residue as a result of ignition. The nature of this mineral material depends on the raw materials used, and can consist of silica and compounds of alkali and alkaline-earth metals, for example. X-Ray investigations show that the carbon is mainly in the form of very small crystallites with a graphite-like structure (Vohler et al., 1986).
Bone black is a pigment that is derived as a by-product of the manufacture of bone char, which is made by carbonizing bones and is used principally in sugar refining.
Bone black is used primarily as a colourant in artists’ paint and for tinting vinyl fabrics for upholstery and automotive interiors.
The carbon content of bone black is usually approximately 10% (Lewis, 1988, 1993).
Soot, activated carbon and bone black, as well as other forms of carbonaceous products, are not considered in this monograph.
1.1.3 Chemical and physical properties of the technical products (a) Particle size Different types of carbon black have a wide range of primary particle sizes, large surface areas per unit mass, low contents of ash and solvent-extractable materials and 46 IARC MONOGRAPHS VOLUME 93 varying degrees of particle aggregation.
A carbon black with a high degree of aggregation is said to have a high ‘structure’.
Structure is determined by the size and shape of the aggregated primary particles, the number of primary particles per aggregate and their average mass.
Carbon black is initially formed as roughly spherical primary particles, which, in most cases, rapidly form aggregates.
An aggregate is a chain of primary carbon particles that are permanently fused together in a random branching structure.
The aggregate may consist of a few or hundreds of spherical particles (or, as in the case of thermal black, primarily single spheres rather than chains).
The chains are open structures and are used to absorb fluids and reinforce materials such as rubber.
The aggregates can bind together by van der Waals forces in more loosely associated agglomerates, or they may be compressed into pellets (up to 0.5 cm) that are held together by means of binders (molasses and/or lignosulfonates) (Dannenberg et al., 1992; Gardiner et al., 1992a).
Two dimensions are necessary to define a carbon black aggregate.
(1) Mean diameter of the component spheres in the chain: this is a measure of the ‘thickness’ of the chain, is called the primary particle size and is generally inversely proportional to the surface area of the carbon black.
(2) Extent of the branched chain aggregate: this is called the aggregate size and is the dimension of the rigid framework that is the aggregate.
In addition to these two dimensions, there is a property or ‘structure’ which is the volume of space that is ‘reinforced’ by the aggregate—essentially, the amount of fluid it can absorb internally. A standard method of measuring this property is by the dibutyl phthalate absorption of a carbon black (in units of millilitres per 100 g).
The properties and grades of carbon black that largely determine its use are related to structure, surface area and condition.
Over the years, a system for the designation of types was developed in the production and consumer industries which used the initial letters of words that describe a particular carbon black. For example, HAF stood for high-abrasion furnace black, and SRF stood for semi-reinforcing furnace black. These generic designations have largely been replaced by the technical classification system developed by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM).
This system, originally adopted in 1966, is primarily for rubber-grade carbon blacks and consists of a letter followed by a three-digit number.
Thus, the letter N stands for normal cure of a rubber compound and the first digit following the letter designates the group number, which is determined by the average primary particle size as measured by electron microscopy. The particle range of rubber-grade carbon black is arbitrarily divided into 10 groups, as shown in Table 1.1.
The third and fourth characters of this system are numbers that are assigned arbitrarily.
For example, HAF black has ASTM number N330 (ASTM International, 2005a). More than 40 grades of carbon black are currently in use in the rubber industry and all contribute to the physical properties of the finished rubber product, such as tensile strength and resistance to abrasion. Almost as many specialty grades (some of which are re-brands of the standard rubber-grade carbon blacks) are used in the paint, plastics, ink CARBON BLACK 47 and other such industries.
In these applications, particle size and surface characteristics contribute to tinting strength and blackness
Carbon black is produced by the partial oxidation or thermal decomposition of hydrocarbon gases or liquids.
Several processes have evolved over the years, yielding a variety of products that differ in particle size, structure, purity and method of manufacture, including furnace black, thermal black, lampblack, acetylene black and channel black. Furnace black is by far the predominant form of carbon black in commerce, and accounts for over 95% of total world production of carbon black.
Thermal black is far less important and only minor quantities of the other three blacks are used in highly specialized applications.
Approximately 70% the world consumption of carbon black is for the production of tyres and tyre products for automobiles and other vehicles.
Approximately 20% is used in other rubber products such as hose, belting, mechanical and moulded goods, footwear and other uses, and the remainder (nearly 10%) is used in plastics, printing ink, paint, paper and miscellaneous applications (Auchter, 2005).
1.2.1 Production (a) Processes Carbon black was first produced many centuries ago for use as a pigment in inks and lacquers by a simple lampblack process.
The channel black process was developed in the nineteenth century when large quantities of natural gas became available, but worldwide use of carbon black was still less than 1000 tonnes. Following the discovery of the CARBON BLACK 57 usefulness of carbon black in the reinforcement of rubber at the beginning of the twentieth century, production increased rapidly and a gas-furnace process was introduced in the 1920s.
In the 1940s, oil supplanted gas as a feedstock in the production of furnace black and, following the end of the Second World War, carbon black manufacture was established in many industrialized countries (Dannenberg et al., 1992).
(i) Furnace black The oil-furnace process generates > 95% of all carbon black produced in the world.
It was developed in 1943 and rapidly displaced previous gas-based technologies because of its higher yields and the broader range of carbon blacks that could be produced.
It also captures particulates effectively and has greatly reduced their release into the environment around carbon black plants.
The oil-furnace process is based on the partial combustion of residual aromatic oils.
Because residual oils are widely available and are easily transported, the process can be carried out with little geographical limitation, which has led to the construction of carbon black plants all over the world. Plants are typically located in areas of tyre and rubber goods manufacture.
Because carbon black has a relatively low density, it is far less expensive to transport feedstock than to transport the carbon black (Wang et al., 2003).
The basic process consists of atomizing preheated oil in a combustion gas stream that is formed by burning fuel in preheated air.
Some of the atomized feedstock is combusted with excess oxidant in the combustion gas.
Temperatures in the region of carbon black formation range from 1400 to > 1800 °C.
The gases that contain carbon black are quenched by spraying water into the stream as it passes through a heat exchanger and into a bag filter.
The bag filter separates the unagglomerated carbon black from the by-product tail gas, which comprises mainly nitrogen and water vapour.
The fluffy black from the bag filter is mixed with water to form wet granules that are dried in a rotary dryer and bagged or pelleted (Wang et al., 2003).
Preferred feedstocks for the oil-furnace process are heavy fuel oils such as catalytic cracker residue (after removal of residual catalyst), ethylene cracker residues and distilled heavy coal-tar fractions.
Other specifications of importance are absence of solid materials, moderate-to-low sulfur content and low alkali metal content (Wang et al., 2003).
(ii) Thermal black Thermal black is made by the thermal decomposition of natural gas, coke-oven gas or liquid hydrocarbons in the absence of air or flames.
Its economic production requires inexpensive natural gas. Today, it is among the most expensive of the carbon blacks that are regularly used in rubber goods.
Because of its unique physical properties, it is used in some rubber and plastics applications such as O-rings and seals, hose, tyre inner liners, Vbelts, other mechanical goods and in cross-linked polyethylene for electrical cables (Wang et al., 2003).
The thermal black process, which dates from 1922, is cyclic and uses two refractorylined cylindrical furnaces or generators.
While one generator is heated to about 1300 °C 58 IARC MONOGRAPHS VOLUME 93 with a burning mixture of air and hydrogen off-gas, the other pre-heated generator is fed with natural gas which ‘cracks’ to form carbon black and hydrogen.
The effluent gas, which comprises approximately 90% hydrogen, carries the carbon black to a quench tower where water sprays lower its temperature before it enters the bag filter.
The carbon black collected from the filters is screened, hammer-milled and then bagged or pelleted (Wang et al., 2003).
(iii) Lampblack The lampblack process is the oldest and most primitive carbon black process that is still being carried out.
The ancient Egyptians and Chinese employed techniques similar to modern methods that collect the lampblack by deposition on cool surfaces.
Basically, the process consists of burning various liquid or molten raw materials in large, open, shallow pans under brick-lined flue enclosures with a restricted air supply.
The smoke from the burning pans passes through low-velocity settling chambers from which the carbon black is cleared by motor-driven ploughs.
In more modern installations, the carbon black is separated by cyclones and filters. Lampblacks have similar properties to the small-surface area oil-furnace blacks.
Production is small, and is mostly carried out in Europe. The main use of lampblack is in paints, as a tinting pigment in which a blue tone is desired and in some special applications in the rubber industry (Wang et al., 2003).
(iv) Acetylene black The high carbon content of acetylene (92%) and its exothermic decomposition to carbon and hydrogen make it an attractive raw material for conversion to carbon black.
Acetylene black is made by a continuous decomposition process at atmospheric pressure and 800–1000 °C.
Acetylene is fed into reactors where, at temperatures above 800 °C, the exothermic reaction is self-sustaining and requires cooling by water to maintain a constant reaction temperature. The carbon black-laden hydrogen stream is then cooled followed by separation of the carbon from the hydrogen tail gas.
Acetylene black is very fluffy with a bulk density of only 19 kg/m3 , is difficult to compact and resists pelletization.
Commercial grades are compressed to various bulk densities of up to 200 kg/m3 .
The unique features of acetylene black result in high electrical and thermal conductivity, low moisture adsorption and high liquid absorption (Wang et al., 2003).
(v) Channel black Between the First and the Second World Wars, the channel black process produced most of the carbon black used worldwide for rubber and pigment applications.
The last channel black plant in the USA was closed in 1976. The demise of channel black was caused by environmental problems, cost, smoke pollution and the rapid development of oil-furnace process grades that were equal or superior to channel black products, particularly for use in synthetic rubber tyres (Wang et al., 2003).
The name channel black derived from the steel channel irons used to collect carbon black deposited by small flames of natural gas that impinged on their surface iron channels.
Today, coal-tar fractions are used as raw material in addition to natural gas and, CARBON BLACK 59 in modern installations, channels have been replaced by water-cooled rollers.
The carbon black is scraped off the rollers, and the off-gases from the steel box-enclosed rollers are passed through bag filters where additional carbon black is collected.
The oils used in this process must be vapourized and conveyed to the large number of small burners by means of a combustible carrier gas, such as coke-oven gas.
The yield of rubber-grade carbon black is 60% and that of high-quality colour grades is 10–30%.
The characteristics of carbon blacks from roller process impingement are basically similar to those of channel blacks.
The grades of smaller particle size are used as colour (pigment) carbon blacks and the larger (~30 nm) grade is used in rubber (Wang et al., 2003).
(b) Capacity, production and consumption of carbon black Carbon black is produced worldwide. Table 1.8 presents world capacity for carbon black production.
The consumption of carbon black in western Europe over the past decade rose to 1509 thousand tonnes in 2000 but has steadily declined since then to 1397 thousand tonnes in 2004.
Production capacities were sharply reduced during this time of lower demand, from 1455 thousand tonnes in 2000 to 1273 thousand tonnes in 2004 (see Table 1.9) (Auchter, 2005).
Trends in production of carbon black in central and eastern European countries over a similar time period are presented in Table 1.10.
As in western Europe, consumption (and also production and capacity) of carbon black in the USA peaked in 2000.
Table 1.11 provides an overview of carbon black supply and demand in the USA since 1971.
There are currently five producers of furnace black in the USA, one of which also makes thermal black.
In addition, two manufacture bone black and another produces lampblack (Auchter, 2005).
There are eight producers of carbon black in Japan; the seven producers of furnace black represent 97% of total capacity and one company produces acetylene black.
Japanese supply of and demand for carbon black since 1991 are summarized in Table 1.12.
Annual capacity of producers of carbon black in other countries in Asia and the East (as of January 2005) was estimated to be 3.25 million tonnes, including Australia (87 000 tonnes), China (1 381 000 tonnes), India (584 000 tonnes), Indonesia (135 000 tonnes), Malaysia (100 000 tonnes), the Philippines (1000 tonnes), Republic of Korea (620 000 tonnes), Singapore (12 000 tonnes), Taiwan, China (110 000 tonnes) and Thailand (220 000 tonnes) (Auchter, 2005).
1.2.2 Use The primary use of carbon black is in rubber products, particularly in tyres, but also in many other automotive and non-automotive rubber applications.
Carbon black also is used in paint, plastics, paper, inks, ceramics and other minor applications.
Carbon black is used to reinforce rubber—that is, to increase the resistance of rubber to abrasion, tear, fatigue and flexing.
It also improves the tensile strength and processing characteristics of many elastomers (natural and synthetic).
Consumption of carbon black worldwide is highly dependent on the rubber industry, which typically accounts for 89– 91% of total consumption (Auchter, 2005).
The major use for carbon black in elastomers is in tyre manufacture (automobile, truck, bus, agricultural, aircraft and industrial), retread rubber and inner tubes.
Carbon black typically comprises 20–40% of the tyre by weight.
Other automotive applications of carbon black include its use in elastomers for wire and cable, belts, hoses, O-rings, insulation stripping, shock and motor mounts and other such products.
Carbon black is used in elastomers in applications other than automotive, including hoses, conveyor belts, roofing, covers for wire and cable, coated fabrics, gaskets, packaging, gloves, footwear, floor mats, tape, hard rubber products, pontoons and toys (Auchter, 2005).
Plastics are the largest non-elastomer use for carbon black.
In addition to use as a colourant, carbon black is frequently used as an effective stabilizer of ultraviolet light, an additive for controlling electrical conductivity or a strength-imparting filler.
The printing ink industry consumes almost one-third of the special industrial (nonrubber) carbon blacks produced in the USA.
The grade and concentration used depend on the type and quality of the ink and are selected for factors such as the required degree of colour, gloss, tone, viscosity, tack and rheological properties. Carbon black content of inks ranges from 5 to 22%.
Carbon black is used as a colourant for tinting and pigmentation in all types of paints and coatings.
Relatively small quantities are added to some industrial formulations (e.g. primers and floor finishes) to impart electrical conductivity.
CARBON BLACK 63
The production of carbon paper is the principal use of carbon black in the paper industry.
Other uses are in photograph albums, leatherboard, wrapping and bag papers, in backing paper for photographic film and in highly conductive and electrosensitive papers.
Miscellaneous other applications of carbon black are in dry-cell batteries, photocopy toners and magnetic tapes