Methanesulfonic acid = MSA

CAS Number: 75-75-2
EC Number: 200-898-6
Molecular Weight: 96.11
Linear Formula: CH3SO3H

Methanesulfonic acid (MSA) is a strong organic acid. 
The chemical oxidation of dimetyl sulfide in the atmosphere leads to the formation of MSA in large quantities. 
MSA undergoes biodegradation by forming CO2 and sulphate. 
Methanesulfonic acid is considered a green acid as Methanesulfonic acid is less toxic and corrosive in comparison to mineral acids.
The aqueous MSA solution has been considered a model electrolyte for electrochemical processes.

Applications of Methanesulfonic acid:
Methanesulfonic acid may be used:
Methanesulfonic acid is used as a catalyst to produce linear alkylbenzenes by the addition reaction between long-chain olefins and benzene.
Methanesulfonic acid is used to prepare polyaniline (PANI)/graphene composites with enhanced thermal and electrical properties.
Methanesulfonic acid is used as a catalyst for the transformation of glucose/xylose mixtures to levulinic acid and furfural.

Methane Sulfonic Acid finds application in Pharmaceutical & Agrochemical synthesis.
Methanesulfonic acid is used as Solvent and is also used as catalyst in Esterification, Polymerisation and Alkylation Reactions. 
Methanesulfonic acid can be used as excellent eco-friendly cleaning agent in house hold and industrial cleaners.
Methanesulfonic acid also find application in Electroplating and Metal Surface Treatment. 
Methanesulfonic acid is also an excellent Rust & Scale removing agent.
Methanesulfonic acid is used as an acid catalyst in organic reactions because Methanesulfonic acid is a non-volatile, strong acid that is soluble in organic solvents.
Methanesulfonic acid is convenient for industrial applications because Methanesulfonic acid is liquid at ambient temperature, while the closely related p-toluenesulfonic acid (PTSA) is solid. 
However, in a laboratory setting, solid PTSA is more convenient. 
Methanesulfonic acid can be used in the generation of borane (BH3). 
By reacting methanesulfonic acid with NaBH4 in an aprotic solvent such as THF or DMS, the complex of BH3 and the solvent is formed. 
Methanesulfonic acid is considered a particularly suitable supporting electrolyte for electrochemical applications, were stands as an environmentally friendly alternative to other acid electrolytes used in plating processes. 
Methanesulfonic acid is also the electrolyte of choice in zinccerium (see cerium(III) methanesulfonate) and lead-acid (methanesulfonate)flow batteries.

Methanesulfonic acid (MsOH) or methanesulphonic acid (in British English) is a colorless liquid with the chemical formula CH3SO3H. 
Methanesulfonic acid is the simplest of the alkylsulfonic acids. 
Salts and esters of methanesulfonic acid are known as mesylates (or methanesulfonates, as in ethyl methanesulfonate). 
Methanesulfonic acid is hygroscopic in its concentrated form. 
Methanesulfonic acid may be considered an intermediate compound between sulfuric acid (H2SO4), and methylsulfonylmethane ((CH3)2SO2), effectively replacing an –OH group with a –CH3 group at each step. 
This pattern can extend no further in either direction without breaking down the –SO2– group. 
Methanesulfonic acid can dissolve a wide range of metal salts, many of them in significantly higher concentrations than in hydrochloric or sulfuric acid.

Methanesulfonic acid (MSA), the simplest alkanesulfonic acid, is a hygroscopic colorless liquid or white solid, depending on whether the ambient temperature is greater or less than 20 ºC.
Methanesulfonic acid is very soluble in water and oxygenated solvents, but sparingly soluble in most hydrocarbons. 
In aqueous solution, Methanesulfonic acid is a strong acid (completely ionized).
MSA’s acidity and solubility properties make Methanesulfonic acid industrially valuable as a catalyst in organic reactions, particularly polymerization. 
In many applications, Methanesulfonic acids advantage over concentrated sulfuric acid is that Methanesulfonic acid has similar acid strength but is not an oxidant.

Methanesulfinic acid (MSIA) is an important intermediate in the oxidation of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) in the marine boundary layer. 
The oxidation of MSIA by ozone in the gas phase to form methanesulfonic acid (MSA) was investigated using theoretical calculations in this paper. 
Three pathways can be found for the reaction of MSIA with ozone. 
The highest energy barrier is 13.02 kcal mol−1 in the most favorable pathway. 
By comparing the reaction rate of MSIA + O3 with that of MSIA + OH, Methanesulfonic acid can be concluded that the oxidation of MSIA by O3 to form MSA is of minor significance relative to Methanesulfonic acids oxidation by OH radical in the gas phase. 
This study can provide some information for the theoretical and experimental studies in the significantly heterogeneous and aqueous-phase oxidation of MSIA by O3.

Methanesulfonate electroplating solution
Methanesulfonic acid is a caustic chemical, briefly referred to as MSA. 
Methanesulfonic acid has broad application prospect in the field of electroplating and has proved to be an excellent alternative of fluoride boric acid or phenolsulfonic acid.
Methanesulfonate electroplating solution has been applied to tin and tin-lead alloy plating, the product features are as follows:
1. The bright pure tin electroplating of the methanesulfonic acid type with the coating crystal being meticulous, even and exhibiting bright silver-white. 
Methanesulfonic acid has excellent weldability, being suitable in the electronics profession.
2. The plating solution has a high plating rate, a wide range of current density, faster deposition rate, and excellent deep plating capacity.
3. After the standard aging test or long-term storage, Methanesulfonic acid can still maintain good welding performance.
4. Methanesulfonic acid contains no fluorine boric acid with easy wastewater treatment, low corrosion, being environmentally friendly.

Chemical properties of Methanesulfonic acid:
Methanesulfonic acid appears as colorless or slightly brown oily liquid, appearing as solid at low temperatures. 
Methanesulfonic acid has a melting temperature of 20 °C, the boiling point of 167 °C (13.33 kPa), 122 °C (0.133 kPa), the relative density of 1.4812 (18 ℃) and refractive index 1.4317 (16 ℃). 
Methanesulfonic acid is soluble in water, alcohol and ether, insoluble in alkanes, benzene and toluene. 
Methanesulfonic acid will not subject to decomposition in boiling water and hot alkaline solution. 
Methanesulfonic acid also has strong corrosion effect against the metal iron, copper and lead.

Uses of Methanesulfonic acid:
Methanesulfonic acid is a raw material for medicine and pesticide. 
Methanesulfonic acid can also be used as dehydrating agent, curing accelerator for coating, treating agent for fiber, solvent, catalysis, and esterification as well as polymerization reaction.
Methanesulfonic acid can be used as solvent, alkylation, catalyst of esterification and polymerization, also used in medicine and electroplating industry. 
Methanesulfonic acid can also be applied to oxidation.

Production method of Methanesulfonic acid:
Methanesulfonic acid can be obtained through the nitrate oxidation of thiocyanate methyl. 
Nitric acid and negative water are heated carefully to 80-88 °C with fractional addition of methyl thiocyanate and the temperature being automatically rose to about 105 ℃.
After the reaction becomes mild, the reaction was heated to 120 ° C and reacted for 5 hours to obtain a crude product. 
The crude product was diluted with exchanged water and adjusted to pH 8-9 by addition of 25% barium hydroxide solution and filtered. 
The filtrate is condensed to until crystalline precipitation. 
The crystal is washed by methanol to remove the nitrate to obtain the barium methanesulfonate. 

Methanesulfonic acid is then added to the exchanged water to boiling, add sulfuric acid for decomposition while Methanesulfonic acid is hot, filter and the filtrate was concentrated under vacuum to no water to obtain the finished product.
Another method is that the methyl isothiourea sulfate is successively subject to chlorination, oxidation and hydrolysis to derive the finished product. 
Methyl isothiourea sulfate was added to the water; and the chlorine is sent into at 20-25 ° C to until phenomenon such as solution color is turned into yellow; oil layer emerges in the bottom of the bottle; the temperature drop and large number of residual chlorine is discharged from the exhaust pipe; this indicates the end point of the reaction. 
The reaction solution was extracted with chloroform. 
After drying, the extract was distilled at 60-62 ° C under normal pressure to remove the chloroform, and then further subject to distillation under reduced pressure. 
Collect the 60-65 °C (2.67 kPa) fraction was to obtain the methanesulfonyl chloride. 
Add the base drop wise under stirring to 80 ℃ hot water and maintain the heat hydrolysis for about 2h, to until the reaction liquid droplets completely disappear. 
The reaction solution was concentrated under reduced pressure to a syrupy form, diluted with water, and concentrated under reduced pressure to until no more water was distilled off to obtain methanesulfonic acid.

Chemical Properties of Methanesulfonic acid:
Methanesulfonic acid is a colourless or light yellow liquid having a melting point of 20° C, is a strong acid acting corroding but not oxidizing.
Methanesulfonic acid is used in the electroplating industry and for organic syntheses, in particular as a catalyst for alkylations, esterifications, and polymerizations. 
Beyond that, methanesulfonic acid is used as a starting material for the preparation of methanesulfonyl chloride.

Uses of Methanesulfonic acid:
Polymerization catalyst.
Methanesulfonic acid has been developed as an esterification catalyst in place of sulfuric acid for the synthesis of resins in paints and coatings. 
One of the major advantages of methanesulfonic acid over sulfuric acid is that Methanesulfonic acid is not an oxidizing species.

Definition of Methanesulfonic acid:
ChEBI: An alkanesulfonic acid in which the alkyl group directly linked to the sulfo functionality is methyl.

Preparation of Methanesulfonic acid:
Methanesulfonic acid is produced predominantly by oxidizing methylthiol or dimethyl disulfide using nitric acid, hydrogen peroxide, chlorine or by employing electrochemical processes.

Physical properties of Methane Sulphoic Acid
Methane sulphonic acid is a clear colourless liquid available as a 70% solution in water and anhydrous form. 
The structure of methane sulphonic acid lends itself to many catalytic reactions, due to Methanesulfonic acids high acid strength (pKa= -1.9) and low molecular weight (96.0 g/mol).

Methane Sulphonic Acid is Green Acid Catalysts
Methanesulfonic acid is easy to handle methane sulphonic acid as liquid and can be recyclized.
Methanesulfonic acid has low LD50 and biodegradable forming sulphate and CO2.
Methane sulphonic acid is considered to be natural product and is part of the natural sulphur.
Methanesulfonic acid is less corrosive and toxic than other mineral acids.
Due to these properties methane sulphonic acid making an environmentally benign material.

Linear Formula: CH3SO3H
CAS Number: 75-75-2
Molecular Weight: 96.11
Beilstein/REAXYS Number: 1446024
EC Number: 200-898-6
MDL number: MFCD00007518
PubChem Substance ID: 24870726

Methanesulfonic acid is used as an acid catalyst in organic reactions because Methanesulfonic acid is a non-volatile, strong acid that is soluble in organic solvents. 
Methanesulfonic acid is convenient for industrial applications because Methanesulfonic acid is liquid at ambient temperature, while the closely related p-toluenesulfonic acid (PTSA) is solid. 
However, in a laboratory setting, solid PTSA is more convenient.
Methanesulfonic acid can be used in the generation of borane (BH3) by reacting methanesulfonic acid with NaBH4 in an aprotic solvent such as THF or DMS, the complex of BH3 and the solvent is formed.

Solutions of methanesulfonic acid are used for the electroplating of tin and tin-lead solders. 
Methanesulfonic acid is displacing the use of fluoroboric acid, which releases corrosive and volatile hydrogen fluoride.
Methanesulfonic acid is also a primary ingredient in rust and scale removers.
Methanesulfonic acid is used to clean off surface rust from ceramic, tiles and porcelain which are usually susceptible to acid attack.

Preferred IUPAC name: Methanesulfonic acid
Other names: Methylsulfonic acid, MSA

Quality Level: 200
vapor density: 3.3 (vs air)
vapor pressure: 1 mmHg ( 20 °C)
assay: ≥99.0%
refractive index: n20/D 1.429 (lit.)
bp: 167 °C/10 mmHg (lit.)
mp: 17-19 °C (lit.)
solubility: water: soluble 1,000 g/L at 20 °C
density: 1.481 g/mL at 25 °C (lit.)
SMILES string: O=S(O)(C)=O
InChI: 1S/CH4O3S/c1-5(2,3)4/h1H3,(H,2,3,4)

Methanesulfonic acid (MSA) was used as catalyst for the electrophilic addition of long-chain olefins such as 1-dodecene to benzene. 
The influence of the temperature, the ratios of the reactants, the amount of MSA, and the stirring of the reaction mixture were investigated. 
After a 3 h reaction time at 80 °C, a selectivity to the phenyldodecanes of more than 90% was obtained at 98% dodecene conversion. 
MSA could be recycled at least five times after a treatment with water and dichloromethane and a subsequent water removal. 
The presence of water in the reaction mixture was found to be detrimental for the activity of MSA. 
The inhibitory products formed during the reaction, as well as the crude organic phase, have been proved also as responsible for MSA deactivation. 
This method represents an environmentally benign alkylation route, because MSA could easily be separated from the reaction mixture via decantation and because Methanesulfonic acid could be reused. 
In addition to that, MSA is biodegradable.

CAS Number: 75-75-2 
ChemSpider: 6155 
ECHA InfoCard: 100.000.817
EC Number: 200-898-6
PubChem CID: 6395
UNII: 12EH9M7279 
CompTox Dashboard (EPA): DTXSID4026422 
Chemical formula: CH4O3S
Molar mass: 96.10 g·mol−1
Appearance: Clear, colourless liquid
Density: 1.48 g/cm3
Melting point: 17 to 19 °C (63 to 66 °F; 290 to 292 K)
Boiling point: 167 °C (333 °F; 440 K) at 10 mmHg, 122 °C/1 mmHg
Solubility in water: miscible
Miscible with methanol, diethyl ether.
Immiscible with hexane
log P: -2.424 
Acidity (pKa): −1.9

Methane sulphonic acid, also known as methanesulfonic acid or mesylic acid. 
Methanesulfonic acid is widely used as an acid catalyst and solvent in organic reactions in biological and agricultural industry. 
Methanesulfonic acid is also a key ingredient in plating various metals to print circuit board manufacture in electric industry. 
Besides, Methane sulphonic acid is popularly used in textile treatment, and the production of plastics and polymers.

Synonyms: Methanesulfonic acid, Methanesulphonic acid, Mesylate, Methylsulfonate, Methane sulfonic acid, MSA
INCI: Methane Sulphonic Acid
Chemical Formula: CH3SO3H
CAS Number: CAS 75-75-2

Methylsulfonic acid
Methanesulphonic acid
Kyselina methansulfonova
Mesylic acid
Mesic acid
NSC 3718

Methanesulfonic acid (CH3SO3H, MSA) is one of the major organosulfur acids formed from the photochemical oxidation of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) produced by oceanic phytoplankton. 
MSA can react with metal halides (e.g. sodium chloride) in ambient aerosols to form methanesulfonate salts (e.g. sodium methanesulfonate, CH3SO3Na). 
While the formation processes of MSA and Methanesulfonic acids salts are reasonably well understood, their subsequent chemical transformations in the atmosphere are not fully resolved. 
MSA and Methanesulfonic acids salts accumulate near the aerosol surface due to their surface activities, which make them available to heterogeneous oxidation at the gas-aerosol interface by oxidants such as hydroxyl (OH) radicals. 
In this work, the compositional changes of aerosol comprised of MSA and Methanesulfonic acids sodium salt (CH3SO3Na) are measured following heterogeneous OH oxidation. 
An aerosol flow tube reactor is coupled with a soft atmospheric pressure ionization source (Direct Analysis in Real Time, DART) and a high-resolution mass spectrometer at a relative humidity (RH) of 90 %. 
Aerosol mass spectra reveal that MSA and CH3SO3Na can be detected as methanesulfonate ion (CH3SO3⁻) with minimal fragmentation in the negative ionization mode. 

Kinetic measurements show that OH oxidation with MSA and CH3SO3Na has an effective OH uptake coefficient of 0.45 ± 0.14 and 0.20 ± 0.06, respectively, revealing that MSA reacts with OH radical faster than Methanesulfonic acids sodium salt. 
One possibility for the difference in reactivity of these two compounds is that CH3SO3Na is more hygroscopic than MSA. 
The increase in the coverage of water molecules at the surface of CH3SO3Na might reduce the reactive collision probability between CH3SO3⁻ and OH radicals, resulting in a smaller reaction rate. 
MSA and CH3SO3Na dissociate to form CH3SO3⁻, which tends to fragment into formaldehyde (HCHO) and a sulfite radical (SO3•−) upon oxidation. 
Formaldehyde partitions back to the gas phase owing to Methanesulfonic acids high volatility, and SO3•− can initiate a series of chain reactions involving various inorganic sulfur radicals and ions in the aerosol phase. 
Overall, the fragmentation and SO3•−-initiated chemistry are the major processes controlling the chemical evolution of MSA and Methanesulfonic acids sodium salt aerosols during heterogeneous OH oxidation.

Methanesulfonic acid, 98%
Methanesulfonic acid, 99%, extra pure
CCRIS 2783
Kyselina methansulfonova [Czech]
HSDB 5004
Methanesulfonic acid, pure, 70% solution in water
EINECS 200-898-6
BRN 1446024
metanesulfonic acid
methansulfonic acid
methansulphonic acid
methylsulphonic acid

Methane sulfonic acid is a strong organic acid used in numerous applications ranging from chemical and biofuel synthesis to industrial cleaning and metal surface treatment in the electronics industry. 
The expansion is in line with the trend for top-performance and at the same time environmentally friendly technologies in various industries. 
BASF’s proprietary process enables the production of MSA – a high-purity methane sulfonic acid. 
Lutropur MSA is a sustainable alternative to other acids such as sulfuric, phosphoric or acetic acid. 
As part of the natural sulfur cycle MSA is readily biodegradable. 
Further benefits in practical applications come, for example, from Methanesulfonic acids nonoxidizing nature, the high solubility of Methanesulfonic acids salts and the absence of color and odor.    

Methanesulfonic acid/SiO2 (1 mL/0.3 g) was found to be as an expeditious mixture in the synthesis of 2-substituted aromatic and aliphatic benzothiazoles at 140 °C using carboxylic acids. 
After a simple workup, benzothiazoles were obtained in good yields. 
Simplicity, use of widely available and diverse carboxylic acids, and easy handling of the reaction conditions are among the benefits of the method.

Chemical Formula: CH3SO3H
CAS Number: CAS 75-75-2
Molar Weight: 96.10 g/mol
Specific Gravity: 1.35
Melting Point: 17-19 °C
Boiling Point: 167 °C
Flash Point: >110 °C

-Oil & Gas
-Coatings & Construction

Concentrations of aerosol methanesulfonic acid (MSA) and non-sea-salt (nss) sulfate were measured at six island stations in the Pacific Ocean to investigate regional and seasonal patterns of organosulfur emissions and the origin of nss sulfate over the Pacific. 
The mean MSA concentrations, in μg/m3, at the stations were: Shemya, 0.097±0.098; Midway, 0.029±0.021; Fanning, 0.044±0.012; American Samoa, 0.026±0.012; New Caledonia, 0.021±0.009; Norfolk, 0.024±0.019. 
The extremely high MSA levels found at Shemya indicate a major source of organosulfur emissions in the western North Pacific. 
Significant seasonal trends in MSA were observed, with higher MSA occurring during warm months. 
The amplitude of the seasonal variation was greatest at higher latitude stations. 
At Fanning and American Samoa, which have minimal input of continental material, there is a significant positive correlation between MSA and nss sulfate. 
MSA/nss sulfate ratios at other Pacific stations exhibit greater variability, which may be related to variations in: the input of continentally derived sulfate, the composition of oceanic organosulfur emissions, and atmospheric reaction pathways.

Methylsulfonic Acid

Methanesulfonic acid (MSA, 70 wt %) is widely used in electrochemical systems and is an excellent catalyst for the esterification, alkylation, and condensation of organic compounds.
Lower reaction temperatures are required when using MSA rather than titanate catalysts, and purer, more colorless products can be obtained using MSA than those produced using sulfuric or para-toluenesulfonic acid as the catalyst. 
Anhydrous MSA is also particularly well suited for pharmaceutical applications and as a catalyst for aromatic alkylation. 
The current commercial process for the synthesis of MSA involves chlorine oxidation of methylmercaptan.
While this process is highly productive, Methanesulfonic acid produces six moles of HCl per mole of MSA, resulting in a coupling of the demand for the primary product and the byproduct.
As an alternative Methanesulfonic acid is interesting to consider a direct methane sulfonation route using SO3 or SO2 and O2 as the sulfonating agent. 
Sen and co-workers and, more recently, we have shown that a compound such as K2S2O8 can be used as a free radical initiator to sulfonate methane with SO3 in fuming sulfuric acid.

Formula: CH₃SO₃H
MW: 96.11 g/mol
Boiling Pt: 166…168 °C/10 mm
Melting Pt: 19…20 °C
Density: 1.481
Flash Pt: 156 °C(312 °F)
Storage Temperature: Ambient
MDL Number: MFCD00007518
CAS Number: 75-75-2
EINECS: 200-898-6
UN: 3265
ADR: "8",III
Merck Index: 13,05981

MCAT 1201
Mesic acid

Methane sulphonic acid is an alkanesulphonic acid and its chemical formula is CH3SO3H. 
MSA is a strong acid having pKa= 1.9 and completely ionized in 0.1 M in an aqueous solution and has small affinity to oxidize organic compounds, less corrosive and toxic than other mineral acids. 
MSA is also biodegradable and not evolve toxic gases. 
Therefore MSA is considered as green acid. 
Therefore Methanesulfonic acids use in organic synthesis attracts many chemists to use in organic synthesis. 
In this review we described the MSA catalyzed organic transformation.

methyl sulfonic acid
methyl-sulfonic acid
methane-sulfonic acid
methane sulphonic acid
ammonium methanesulphonate
EC 200-898-6
Methane Sulfonic Acid 99%
4-04-00-00010 (Beilstein Handbook Reference)
Methanesulfonic acid, 99.5%
Methanesulfonic acid, anhydrous

Since methanesulfonic acid (MSA), does not cause sulfonation of aromatic rings, Methanesulfonic acid was used at elevated temperatures to prepare 1-indanones and 1-tetralones through cyclization of 3-arylpropanoic and 4-arylbutanoic acids. 
The twelve ketones which were prepared from MSA-catalyzed cyclization of 3 and 4-aryl substituted carboxylic acids are pesented in a table, along with their yields, time and temperature. 
Studies under a variety of temperatures, concentrations and reaction times show that 30 min. to 3 hours is needed for cyclization depending on the reactivity of the starting material. 
The use of neat MSA as a substitute for Friedel-Crafts catalyst was not promising. 
Trial studies in which m-xylene was treated with acetic acid in the presence of anhydrous MSA at 110/sup 0/C for 3 hours gave low yields of acetylation product (ca. 30%), and gas chromatography analysis of the product showed unreacted m-xylene.

Internal Tracking Number: 5843
Substance Type: Chemical Substance
Systematic Name: Methanesulfonic acid
IUPAC Name: Methanesulfonic acid
CAS Number: 75-75-2
EPA Registry Name: Methanesulfonic acid
Molecular Weight: 96.11
Molecular Formula: CH4O3S

Melting point:17-19 °C (lit.)
Boiling point:167 °C/10 mmHg (lit.)
Density 1.475-1.485 g/mL at 20 °C 1.481 g/mL at 25 °C (lit.)
vapor density 3.3 (vs air)
vapor pressure 1 mm Hg ( 20 °C)
refractive index n20/D 1.429(lit.)
Flash point:>230 °F
storage temp. 2-8°C
solubility water: soluble1,000 g/L at 20°C
form Solution
pka-2.6(at 25℃)
color brown
Specific Gravity1.48 (18/4℃)
Water Solubility Miscible with water. 
Slightly miscible with benzene and toluene. 
Immiscible with paraffins.
λmaxλ: 240-320 nm Amax: <0.4
Sensitive Light Sensitive & Hygroscopic
Merck 14,5954
BRN 1446024
Moisture sensitive. 
Incompatible with amines, bases, water, common metals. 
Releases a substantial amount of heat when diluted with water (add acid to water with care if diluting).

DTXSID4026422Methanesulfonic acid, HPLC grade
Methanesulfonic acid, >=99.0%
Methane Sulfonic Acid, 70% Solution
Methanesulfonic acid, >=99.0%, ReagentPlus(R)
Methanesulfonic acid, for HPLC, >=99.5% (T)
Methanesulfonic acid solution, 70 wt. % in H2O
Methanesulfonic acid, Vetec(TM) reagent grade, 98%
Methanesulfonic acid solution, 4 M (with 0.2% (w/v) tryptamine)
Methanesulfonic acid concentrate, 0.1 M CH3SO3H in water (0.1N), eluent concentrate for IC
Methanesulfonic acid, PharmaGrade, Manufactured under appropriate GMP controls for pharma or biopharmaceutical production

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