PECTIN

CAS Number: 9000-69-5
EC Number: 232-553-0    
E number: E440 

Pectin is a unique fiber found in fruits and vegetables.
Pectin is a soluble fiber known as a polysaccharide, which is a long chain of indigestible sugars. 
When Pectin is heated in the presence of liquid, pectin expands and turns into a gel, making Pectin a great thickener for jams and jellies.
Pectin also gels in your digestive tract after ingestion, a function that provides numerous health benefits.
Most pectin products are made from apples or citrus peels, both of which are rich sources of this fiber.
This article reviews what pectin is, Pectins nutritional content and health benefits, and how to use Pectin.

Uses of Pectin:
Pectin is a fiber and contains almost no calories or nutrients. 
Pectin’s a key ingredient in jams and jellies and used as a soluble fiber supplement.

Pectin is a natural and commercially produced essential ingredient in preserves, like jellies and jams. 
Without pectin, jellies and jams won't gel. 
Pectin is a type of starch, called a heteropolysaccharide, that occurs naturally in the cell walls of fruits and vegetables and gives them structure.
When combined with sugar and acid, Pectin is what makes jams and jellies develop a semisolid texture when they cool. 
Some fruits, like apples and quince, and the rinds, seeds, and membranes of citrus are naturally very high in pectin. 
Commercial pectins are usually made from citrus rinds. 
Pectin is sold as a dry powder and in liquid form and can be expensive.

Pectin is a high-molecular-weight carbohydrate polymer which is present in virtually all plants where Pectin contributes to the cell structure. 
The term pectin covers a number of polymers which vary according to their molecular weight, chemical configuration, and content of neutral sugars, and different plant types produce pectin with different functional properties. 
The word ‘pectin’ comes from the Greek word pektos which means firm and hard, reflecting pectin's ability to form gels.
The gelling properties of pectin have been known for centuries, but the isolation of commercial pectin only started at the beginning of the twentieth century. 
In this document we highlight the chemistry, origin and production, and the functional properties of pectin.

Pectin is a "gum" found naturally in fruits that causes jelly to gel. 
Tart apples, crab apples, sour plums, Concord grapes, quinces, gooseberries, red currants and cranberries are especially high in pectin.
Apricots, blueberries, cherries, peaches, pineapple, rhubarb and strawberries are low in pectin. 
Underripe fruit has more pectin than fully ripe fruit. 
Jellies and jams made without added pectin should use 1/4 underripe fruit (LSBU). 
Pectins are mainly used as gelling agents, but can also act as thickener, water binder and stabilizer. 
Many recipes call for the addition of pectin.

Pectin is available commercially either in powdered or liquid form. 
These two forms are not interchangeable, so use the type specified in the recipe. 
Powdered pectin is mixed with the unheated fruit or juice. 
Liquid pectin is added to the cooked fruit and sugar mixture immediately after it is removed from the heat. 
When making jellies or jams with added pectin, use fully-ripe fruit.

Pectin is used as a viscosifier in beverages and soft drinks, and high-ester pectins may be used as a mouth-feel improver. 
This use has been widely developed for juice drinks with a reduced juice content or sugar-free soft drinks.
Low-concentration pectin solutions can be considered Newtonian and show a low viscosity. 
This is of great relevance for the use of pectin in fruit beverages and soft drinks as the concentration used rarely exceeds 0.5%. 

Indeed, the clean mouth feel imparted by pectin compared with the tendency towards a slimy mouth feel with some other gums could be related to the low viscosity of pectin solutions at the shear rate applied in the mouth. 
This property makes pectin an ideal choice when trying to replace the mouth feel lost by the reduction in sugar content.
As most juice beverages and soft drinks contain calcium, pectin with a high degree of esterification is usually recommended to minimize the calcium sensitivity of the pectin and avoid any risk of gelling. 
A slight gelling of the product changes the rheology of the solution, resulting in undesirable pseudoplastic behavior. 
For this reason, the most commonly used pectin is of the rapid setting type. 
Pectin manufacturers usually offer rapid-set pectins standardized to a viscosity instead of gelling properties, so as to guarantee a consistent performance in a beverage application.

Pectin is a carbohydrate found mostly in the skin and core of raw fruit. 
In nature, Pectin functions as the structural "cement" that helps hold cell walls together. 
In solution, pectin has the ability to form a mesh that traps liquid, sets as it cools, and, in the case of jam, cradles suspended pieces of fruit.
Pectin needs partners, namely acid and sugar, to do the job of gelling properly. 
Acid helps extract pectin from fruit during gentle simmering and helps the gelling process, which will not take place unless the mixture is fairly acidic. 
If fruits (such as apricots) aren't sufficiently tart, a recipe will call for added lemon juice.

Pectin is a very important part of making jams. 
Pectin's not often that I'd make some without adding pectin. 
Here's a list of high pectin fruits that have enough pectin in them to make jam without adding pectin:
Apples, sour
Blackberries, sour
Crabapples
Cranberries
Currants
Gooseberries
Grapes (Eastern Concord)
Lemons
Loganberries
Plums (not Italian)
Quinces

Pectin is a heteropolysaccharide commercially derived from the cell wall of higher plants. 
Pectin is composed of partially methylated polygalacturonic acid units linked in the positions 1-4. 
The carboxylic group of the constituents of pectin can exist in the form of esters, free acids, ammonium, potassium or sodium salts or as acid amides.
Under the FDA regulation, pectin qualifies as a GRAS (generally recognized as safe) food substance. 
This status allows pectin to be used with no limitations.

Anything else needs pectin to be added. 
I often hear (erroneously) that strawberries are a high pectin fruit and adding pectin isn't needed. 
If you have under ripe berries you might be able to get away with it, but under ripe berries taste bad. 
Under ripe fruit often has higher pectin content than it's ripe version. 
When I preserve jam made of these fruits, I always add pectin:
Apricots
Blueberries
Figs
Grapes (Western Concord)
Guavas
Peaches
Pears
Plums (Italian)
Raspberries
Strawberries

What is Pectin?
Pectin is an extract from apples (with a tiny amount of citric acid and dextrose as binders) and doesn't change the flavor a bit.  
If you want to be specific, the University of California tell us it is n extract from "apple pomace and citrus peels". 
Pectin just helps thicken, allows you to use less sugar and less cooking! 
So unless you have a severe corn or apple allergy, there shouldn't be anything unsafe nor unnatural about it, there are demonstrated health benefits to pectin, see this page.
Most pectin you buy at the supermarket is produced in Europe and imported to the U.S.. 
Pectin has a limited shelf life; usually you don't want to keep it from year to year, as it's ability to gel will decrease.
After the jam has been heated and starts to cool, a gel starts to form.

Where can I find pectin?
Pectin is found naturally found in plants. 
Pectin exists primarily in plant cell walls and helps bind cells together.
Some fruits and vegetables are more pectin-rich than others. 
For example, apples, carrots, oranges, grapefruits, and lemons contain more pectin than cherries, grapes, and other small berries with citrus fruits containing the most pectin.
These natural sources of pectin are then processed to create the liquid and powdered pectin used in our home kitchens and by the food and medical industries. 
There are different types of pectin depending on the ingredients people combine pectin with and the desired outcome (e.g., a thick jelly or a thinner medication). 
When using pectin at home, Pectin’s important to note and use the pectin called for in your recipes.

Why is pectin important?
Pectin in fruits and vegetables helps provides necessary dietary fiber in our diets. 
This fiber aids in our health and digestion.
Pectin's important to note that pectin derived from fruits and used as a thickener for jams, jellies, and other foods does not provide the same dietary fiber as eating whole fruits and vegetable. 
Additionally, high-sugar jams and jellies should not replace a well-rounded, fiber-rich diet.
Manufacturers use pectin in some cosmetics as a safe and natural thickener and binder. 
Pectin also has medical applications and is used in some pharmaceutical and medical devices due to its unique gelling and binding composition.

Pectin is the substance which occurs naturally in the apples, berries and other fruits. 
Pectin was introduced in 1825 by Henri Braconnot. 
Pectin is produced as white to light brown powder that is extracted from citrus fruits. 
Pectin is used as gelling agent in foods especially jams and jellies. 
Pectin is also added to sweets, medicines, dessert fillings and fruit drinks. 
Pectin is the water soluble carbohydrate which is available on the intercellular tissues and cell walls of certain plants.  
Pectin helps to lower the low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels.  
Pectin helps to provide relief from diarrhea and slow down the passage of food from intestine. 
Other common names for pectin are Acide Pectinique, Apple Pectin, Acide Pectique, Citrus Pectin, Grapefruit Pectin, Fruit Pectin, MCP, Lemon Pectin, Modified Citrus Pectin, Pectine, Pectina, Pectine d’Agrume Mod and Pectine de Pomme.

Pectin is a fiber found in fruits. 
Pectin is used to make medicine.
People use pectin for high cholesterol, high triglycerides, and to prevent colon cancer and prostate cancer. 
Pectin is also used for diabetes and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). 
Some people use pectin to prevent poisoning caused by lead, strontium, and other heavy metals.
Pectin was used for years in combination with kaolin (Kaopectate) to control diarrhea. 
However, in April 2003, the FDA found ruled that scientific evidence does not support the use of pectin for diarrhea. 
Since April 2004, pectin has not been permitted as an anti-diarrhea agent in over-the-counter (OTC) products. 
As a result, Kaopectate no longer contains pectin and kaolin.
Some people apply pectin to the skin to protect raw or ulcerated mouth and throat sores.

Pectin is a component of the cell walls of plants that is composed of acidic sugar-containing backbones with neutral sugar-containing side chains. 
Pectin functions in cell adhesion and wall hydration, and pectin crosslinking influences wall porosity and plant morphogenesis. 
Despite Pectins low abundance in the secondary cell walls that make up the majority of lignocellulosic biomass, recent results have indicated that pectin influences secondary wall formation in addition to its roles in primary wall biosynthesis and modification. 
This mini-review will examine these and other recent results in the context of biomass yield and digestibility and discuss how these traits might be enhanced by the genetic and molecular modification of pectin. 
The utility of pectin as a high-value, renewable biomass co-product will also be highlighted.

Pectin is an interesting little ingredient. 
From simple jams and jellies, to high-end pastry and everything in between, pectin allows for fruit-based desserts and dessert components to have that perfect gel texture. 
The name sounds like something you would find on the periodic table – though not scientific, pastry chefs would agree that it is an important element in many successful dishes.

What Is Pectin?
Pectin is a naturally occurring, water-soluble fiber and gelling agent that can be found in most fruits and plants. 
The official definition of pectin, according to Merriam-Webster, is “a substance in some fruits that makes fruit jellies thick when the fruit is cooked.” 
Pectin comes in many forms such as powder, liquid and sheets.
Fruits with high pectin content, such as apples, oranges, berries and plums, can be used as a substitute for these commercial forms. 
Commercial pectin, sold in grocery stores and markets, is commonly made with extracted pectin from apples or citrus peels.

Protopectin – in hard immature fruits like green apples or the peel of citrus fruits
Pectin – as the fruit matures protopectin becomes soluble pectin, which is used in making jelly
Pectic acid – if fruit becomes overripe or a jelly is cooked too long, the pectin converts to pectic acid
There are two different classifications of pectin, high-methoxyl (HM) and low-methoxyl (LM). 
The HM type is further divided into two types – rapid-set and slow-set. 
Popular Science’s article “Pectin: Not Just for Jelly,” states, “Rapid-set HM pectin is often used for jellies that have ingredients suspended inside the gel structure, such as chunky marmalades or hot pepper jelly, while slow-set HM pectin is often used for clear jellies like apricot or grape.” 
LM pectin works well in conjunction with locust bean gum and is often used to produce low- or no-sugar jellies.

How Does It Work?
Pectin comes in many forms and therefore has differences in how each form works. 
When dealing with the powder form, which is the most common, the powder must be dissolved in water and quickly stirred so that it does not create lumps, which can cause an improper gelling of the mixture. 
The powder form can also be mixed with other water-soluble powders like sugar or salt and then mixed with the liquid ingredients for easier production. 
The liquid form of pectin dissolves easily in water and with more consistent results, but does have its own disadvantages. 

Pectin, whether powder or liquid, requires the ancillary ingredients used in recipes to have high sugar content or else the pectin will not thicken or gel properly. 
This could also allow yeast and mold to grow in the mixture. 
The recipe must also contain a certain calcium and acid content which are balanced accordingly, as adding the ingredients later in the process will cause the gelling efficiency of the pectin to decline.

The Difference Between Pectin and Gelatin
Pectin and gelatin have similar applications at a basic level – to create a gel texture; however they differ greatly in other uses and foundations. 
Pectin is a water-soluble fiber derived from non-animal byproducts, whereas gelatin is a protein derived from animals. 
This makes Pectin possible to create vegetarian and vegan recipes using pectin, providing the other ingredients are also non-animal byproducts. 
Some pectin are also unique because of their ability to return to a liquid state if the product is reheated, while gelatin will not. 
The most significant difference between gelatin and pectin would be how they are used in recipes. 
Pectin has more specific uses, while gelatin can be used in a wider variety of applications, but does not yield the same results.

What Is Pectin Used For?
Pastry chefs describe pectin as an essential ingredient for enhancing the quality of fruit-based jellies and dessert components because of the smooth texture it creates in the final product.
While pectin is used most commonly in jams, jellies, marmalades and desserts, pectin can also be used to stabilize acidic protein drinks, such as yogurt. 
“Using pectin will also improve the mouth-feel and the pulp stability in juice-based drinks and as a fat substitute in baked goods,” says Colin D. 
May in Science Direct’s article “Industrial Pectins: Sources, Production And Applications.” 
May also states that pectin’s applications range from desserts to dairy products, soft drinks and even pharmaceuticals. 
Pectin can also be found in the medical industry because of the fiber content, which can aid in curing gastrointestinal illnesses.

Other Name(s):
Acide Pectinique
Acide Pectique
Apple Pectin
Citrus Pectin
Fruit Pectin
Grapefruit Pectin
Lemon Pectin
MCP

Pectins are dietary fibers with different structural characteristics. 
Specific pectin structures can influence the gastrointestinal immune barrier by directly interacting with immune cells or by impacting the intestinal microbiota. 
The impact of pectin strongly depends on the specific structural characteristics of pectin; for example, the degree of methyl-esterification, acetylation and rhamnogalacturonan I or rhamnogalacturonan II neutral side chains. 
Here, we review the interactions of specific pectin structures with the gastrointestinal immune barrier. 
The effects of pectin include strengthening the mucus layer, enhancing epithelial integrity, and activating or inhibiting dendritic cell and macrophage responses. 
The direct interaction of pectins with the gastrointestinal immune barrier may be governed through pattern recognition receptors, such as Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 or Galectin-3. 
In addition, specific pectins can stimulate the diversity and abundance of beneficial microbial communities. 
Furthermore, the gastrointestinal immune barrier may be enhanced by short-chain fatty acids. 
Moreover, pectins can enhance the intestinal immune barrier by favoring the adhesion of commensal bacteria and inhibiting the adhesion of pathogens to epithelial cells. 
Current data illustrate that pectin may be a powerful dietary fiber to manage and prevent several inflammatory conditions, but additional human studies with pectin molecules with well-defined structures are urgently needed.

Modified Citrus Pectin
Pectina
Pectine
Pectine d'Agrume
Pectine d'Agrume Modifiée
Pectine de Citron
Pectine de Fruit
Pectine de Pamplemousse
Pectine de Pomme
Pectinic Acid.

Pectin (PEK-tin) is a mixture, not a compound. 
Mixtures differ from compounds in a number of important ways. 
The parts making up a mixture are not chemically combined with each other, as they are in a compound. 
Also, mixtures have no definite composition, but consist of varying amounts of the substances from which they are formed.

Pectin in an essential ingredient when making jams and jellies. 
Pectin’s a carbohydrate found in the skins and cores of most raw fruits. 
Pectin is what cements the fruit’s cell walls together. 
When pectin is dissolved in a solution, it forms a mesh that traps liquids. 
When pectin is heated with the correct amount of sugar and acid it forms a gel, giving jams and jellies their texture.
Pectin is sold as a powders and a liquid in the canning section of most grocery stores. 
Pectin makes jam and jelly-canning simple and consistent. 
The downside is that many commercial pectins require you to add a large amount of sugar in order for it to set properly. 
For the average home preserver, knowing the relative levels of natural pectin in fruits will help you make jams and jellies without buying the commercial stuff, and avoid an overly sweet end result.

Chemically, pectin is a polysaccharide, a very large molecule made of many thousands of monosaccharide units joined to each other in long, complex chains. 
Monosaccharides are simple sugars. 
The most familiar monosaccharide is probably glucose, the sugar from which the human body obtains the energy it needs to grow and stay healthy. 
The monosaccharides in pectin are different from and more complex than glucose.

Nutrition
Pectin provides little nutrition.
Pectin is a structural acidic heteropolysaccharide contained in the primary and middle lamella and cell walls of terrestrial plants. 
Pectins main component is galacturonic acid, a sugar acid derived from galactose. 
Pectin was first isolated and described in 1825 by Henri Braconnot.
Pectin is produced commercially as a white to light brown powder, mainly extracted from citrus fruits, and is used in food as a gelling agent, particularly in jams and jellies. 
Pectin is also used in dessert fillings, medicines, sweets, as a stabiliser in fruit juices and milk drinks, and as a source of dietary fibre.
One fluid ounce (29 grams) of liquid pectin contains:
Calories: 3
Protein: 0 grams
Fat: 0 grams
Carbs: 1 gram
Fiber: 1 gram

Powdered pectin has a similar nutrient content.
Neither the liquid nor powdered form contain significant amounts of vitamins or minerals, and all of its carbs and calories come from fiber.
That said, some products called pectin dry mixes contain added sugar and calories. 
These mixes can also be used to make jams and jellies.

Uses
Pectin is primarily used in food production and home cooking as a thickener.
Pectin’s added to commercially produced and homemade jams, jellies, and preserves. 
Pectin may likewise be added to flavored milk and drinkable yogurt as a stabilizer.
For home kitchen use, pectin is sold as a white or light-brown powder or a colorless liquid.
Pectin is also used as a soluble fiber supplement, which is often sold in capsule form. 
Soluble fiber may help relieve constipation, lower cholesterol and triglyceride levels, improve blood sugars, and promote a healthy weight (5Trusted Source).
Finally, this fiber is a key component of time-release coatings used in some medications.

Pectin Uses
Pectin is used to thicken recipes that include low-pectin fruits. 
Some fruits, especially very ripe ones, have relatively little pectin. 
Strawberries and raspberries, for example, are easily squashed, demonstrating how they are low in the "glue" that helps build the fruit's structure. 
For these fruits, without added pectin, making a properly set jelly or jam may require adding lots of sugar, cooking for excessively long times, or both, which results in a jam or jelly that tastes less like the fruit.
To find out how much pectin is in the fruit, combine 1 tablespoon of grain alcohol and 1 teaspoon of the fruit's juice. 
If Pectin sets up firm, Pectin's high in pectin. 
If the mixture becomes a loose, gelatinous mass, Pectin's medium on the pectin scale. 
If Pectin doesn't set at all or forms slivers of gel, Pectin's low in pectin.
Pectin can also be used in other dishes that require food to gel or thicken and as a fat substitute in some baked goods.

Pectins are a family of complex polysaccharides that contain 1,4-linked α-D-galactosyluronic acid residues. 
Pectins account for ~30% of the primary walls of dicotyledenous and non-graminaceous monocotyledenous plants and for between 5 and 10% of the walls of grasses. 
Pectins are also likely to be present in the walls of ferns, lycopods, and bryophytes. 
The presence of pectin in algal walls needs to be substantiated. 
There is no evidence that bacteria or fungi produce pectin.

Benefits
Supplementing with pectin may offer several potential health benefits.
Improves blood sugar and blood fat levels.
Some studies in mice have noted that pectin lowered blood sugar levels and improved blood-sugar-related hormone function, which could help manage type 2 diabetes .
However, studies in humans have not observed the same powerful effects on blood sugar control.
Pectin may also improve blood fat levels by binding with cholesterol in your digestive tract to keep Pectin from being absorbed, which could lower your risk of heart disease.
In one study in 57 adults, those who received 15 grams of pectin per day experienced up to a 7% reduction in LDL (bad) cholesterol compared with a control group.
Studies have also demonstrated the cholesterol and blood-fat-lowering properties of these supplements.
However, more research in humans is needed to better understand how pectin affects blood sugar and fat levels.

Pectin is the glue of the plant world. 
Consisting of long chains of polysaccharide molecules that bond together to form a gummy paste, pectin helps hold together the walls of plant cells, much as mortar holds up the bricks in a house. 
The pectin content in fruits varies depending on the type of fruit and the fruit’s ripeness.
You can also buy liquid or powdered pectin, which is made by extracting pectin from fruits. 
This commercial pectin can be used to thicken preserves made with low-pectin fruits, such as strawberries or peaches, or to make jellies from thin fruit juices. 
Food manufacturers use commercial pectin to make gummy candies and to improve the mouth-feel of low-fat yogurts and baked goods.

Pectin is a type of water-soluble fiber found in a variety of fruits and vegetables. 
Commercially, Pectin’s used to make jams and jellies because it turns into a sticky gel-like compound when combined with water. 
Pectin’s sticky properties also contribute to your health by attaching to cholesterol-rich bile within your intestines and carrying it out of your body. 
Citrus fruits and apples are particularly rich sources of pectin.

Pectin occurs in varying accounts in all plants and fruits. 
Pectin is not found in animal tissues. 
The skins, cores, and peels are a particularly rich source of pectin. 
During ripening, those substances convert naturally to pectin, but this conversion can be forced by long cooking, as in traditional methods of making jellies. 
Pectin is necessary to cook the fruit to extract the pectin. 
Jams and jellies have been produced for many years, and through experience our grandmothers knew that products made from apple, currant, and quince, turned out better than those made from other fruits. 
They stood over a hot, boiling pot, patiently stirring fruits until they cooked them down to a thicker consistency. 
Today, this process can be shortened by adding powdered pectin. 
What they did not know that those fruits were very rich in gelling pectin. 
They mixed pectin rich fruits or fruit extracts with fruits which do not set jams well, for example strawberry with gooseberry or with red currant. 
Extracts of apple peels and cores were also used for "difficult to set" jams.

Liquid or powdered pectin is a useful ingredient in the jam and jelly makers arsenal. 
If you have ever experienced a jam or jelly that just won’t seem to set then you may want to consider using pectin in your next attempt at making it.

Without pectin, jellies and jams won't gel, so Pectin's an essential ingredient. 
Unlike gelatin, which is made from animal parts, pectin comes from fruit. 
As a result, any food with pectin listed as an ingredient is both vegetarian and vegan. 
You can make all the jams, jellies and confectionaries you want without using sugar. 
Simply sweeten to your taste with any sweetener: sugar, honey, agave, maple syrup, frozen juice concentrate, stevia, xylitol, Sucanat, concentrated fruit sweetener, or Splenda and other artificial sweeteners.
Pectin is used in confectionery products such as candies for Pectins ability to stabilize soluble solids, as well as in puddings, fruit toppings and pie fillings.
Low methoxyl (LM) pectin, must be combined with calcium instead of sugar to create a set. 
So that our low methoxyl pectin is good for low- or no-sugar preserves. 
Pectin is especially important in low sugar diets for diabetics.
Low methoxyl pectin is used for those that want to decrease the amount of sugar used in making jam or jelly. 
This product creates a gel in the absence of sugar and acid for a quality product.

Pectin was first isolated in the 1820s, and shown to be the key to making jams and jellies. 
Commercial jam producers sought further supplies of pectin source materials. 
In Germany, apple juice producers started to dry the pomace residue left after pressing juice for sale to jam makers, who would cook the pomace in water with or without fruit juice to make a jellying juice. 
The first commercial production of a liquid pectin extract was recorded in 1908 in Germany, and from that time on there was rapid growth in the pectin industry in the United States and in Europe, followed recently by Brazil and Mexico.

Pectin should be noted that Pectin is impossible to make totally sugarless jam or jelly even with low sugar/no sugar pectin. 
The jam will gel fine, sugar substitutes will provide sweetness, but fruit contains Pectins own natural sugar, which will remain. 
Nevertheless, such products are the answer to diabetics and people on low calorie diets. 
The flavor of those products may not be exactly the same, but Pectin comes pretty close.

Pectin occurs in fruit in three forms:
Protopectin - hard immature fruits like green apples or the peel of citrus fruits.
Pectin - as the fruit matures protopectin becomes a soluble pectin, which is used in making jelly.
Pectin acid - if fruit becomes over-ripe or a jelly is cooked too long, the pectin converts to pectic acid.
The amount of pectin in fruit is rather small. 
Under ripe fruit contains more pectin than mature fruit but lacks the fully developed flavor. 
Only few fruits contain enough pectin and acid to produce quality jelly by cooking alone. Most fruit juices are very low in pectin.
During jelly production we usually add in extra pectin. 
This extra pectin is in a form of tasteless powder which is commercially produced by extracting pectin from citrus fruit or apples. 
Pectin is graded according to its jellifying strength and is used for making jams, jellies, marmalades and preserves. 
Powdered pectin does not easily dissolve in solutions which contain more than 25% sugar and Pectin is best to dissolve pectin first in water, or natural juice.

Pectin is a gelling agent. 
Pectin creates bonds with water (pectin-water) and with itself (pectin-pectin). 
Pectin-pectin bond gives the gel the strength and pectin-water bond gives jelly its softness. 
A different proportion between those two types of bonds give jam or jelly a different texture.

Pectin is one of the most versatile stabilizers available. 
Pectins gelling, thickening and stabilizing attributes makes it an essential additive not only in jams and jellies but in the production of many other food products, as well as in pharmaceutical and medical applications. 
The FDA recognizes pectin as GRAS (generally recognized as safe). 
Pectin may be used in all non-standardized foods.

Pectin is a type of soluble fiber that your body cannot absorb or digest. 
Pectin is found in the cells of all plants, but fruit skins and cores are especially high in pectin. 
Apples and citrus fruits are also naturally rich in pectin, particularly if they are underripe. 
Pectin is used to thicken jams and jellies, changing them from syrupy to spreadable. 
To make pectin powder at home, make pectin using green apples — as they are readily available — and dehydrate the pectin to make a powder.

The amount of pectin will vary from fruit to fruit. 
Underripe fruit generally has higher levels of pectin. 
The pectin is higher in the skins and cores of the fruit rather than the flesh. 
According to the National Center for Home Preservation, some fruits that contain high levels of pectin are:
Apples, sour
Blackberries, sour
Crabapples
Cranberries
Currants
Gooseberries
Grapes (Eastern Concord)
Lemons
Loganberries
Plums (not Italian)
Quinces
Using one of these fruits to make your homemade pectin will give you better results.

This wide range of applications explains the need for many different types of commercial pectins, which display different gelation characteristics and are sold according to their application, for example:
Rapid set pectin - traditionally used for jams and marmalades (pH 3.0-3.4)
Slow set pectin - used for jellies and for some jams and preserves, especially using vacuum cooking at lower temperatures. 
Also important for higher sugar products like bakery and biscuit jams, sugar confectionery, etc. (pH 2.8-3.2)

Low methyl ester and amidated pectins - used in a wide range of lower sugar products, reduced sugar preserves, fruit preparations for yogurts, dessert gels and toppings, and savory applications such as sauces and marinades. 
Can also be used in low acid high sugar products such as preserves containing low acid fruits (figs, bananas) and confectionery. 
Low methoxyl pectin (LMP) can gel at higher pH levels and has lower sugar requirements so Pectin is of special interest to people on low calorie diets. 
Pectin is also used as a fat replacer in meat, poultry, and fish products as well as in making low fat sausages.

Fractionated pectin – also known as modified citrus pectin – is a complex polysaccharide obtained from the peel and pulp of citrus fruits. 
Pectin's rich in galactoside residues – molecules that have an affinity for binding to certain types of unwanted cells. 
These galactoside residues will preferentially bind to the lectins on the cell membranes of the unwanted cell, in turn preventing the attachment of the unwanted cell to a normal cell, thus inhibiting the growth of the unwanted cell. 
Because Thorne's Fractionated Pectin Powder is a powder, Pectin can be taken in higher amounts for those desiring to do so. 
Pectin provides nutritional support for oncology patients and for liver detoxification.

Stabilizing pectins - used for stabilizing acidic protein products such as yogurts, whey and soya drinks against heat processing. 
Pectins can stop the milk protein in yogurt from curdling with heat, so heat treated long life yogurt drinks can be made.

Pectin is available from online suppliers, in health food stores and in local supermarkets. 
The grading system is based on the parts of sugar (water also present) that will be gelled by one part of pectin. 
For example, one part of 100 grade pectin gels 100 parts of sugar. 
One part of 150 grade pectin will gel 150 parts of sugar.

Pectin’s strength is determined on how ripe a fruit is when the pectin is extracted. 
The riper a fruit is, the less is found in the fruit. 
Very sour fruits such as under ripe citrus fruits have high levels of pectin. 
Thus creating a different pectin with enhanced properties. 
These properties include; constant gelling strength, heat resistance and the ability to rapidly dissolve. 
This kind has also been found to have anti-metastatic properties, therefore is included in a lot of health products.

Pectin is very commonly used in fillings, sweets, fruit juices, medicine, or as a source of dietary fibre. 
Normally, Pectin is a white to light brown powder that is extracted from fruits, vegetables, and seeds and is used as a thickening substance and stabiliser in food.

Decreases colon cancer risk
In test-tube studies, pectin has killed colon cancer cells.
In addition, this fiber helps decrease inflammation and cellular damage that can trigger colon cancer cell formation — thereby reducing the risk of colon cancer.
Researchers theorize that pectin can decrease colon cancer risk by binding with and inhibiting the absorption of galectin-3, high levels of which are associated with an increased risk of colon cancer.
Test-tube studies have also shown that pectin killed other types of cancer cells, including breast, liver, stomach, and lung cancer cells.
However, more research is needed to understand whether and how pectin affects cancer in humans.

How Much Pectin to Use?
How much pectin you will need in your recipe is a tricky question. 
Pectin really depends on the fruit you are using. 
However, even fruit known to have high levels of pectin can vary from season to season. 
The best way Pectin to follow a recipe from a reliable source and test your jams and jellies at various stages during the cooking process. 
The National Center for Home Preserving has a comprehensive guide on how to test your jams and jellies.

Promotes a healthy weight
Pectin may also promote a healthy body weight.
In human studies, increased fiber intake has been linked to a decreased risk of overweight and obesity. 
Pectin’s believed that this is because fiber is filling, and most high fiber foods are lower in calories than low fiber foods like refined grains.
Additionally, animal studies have demonstrated that pectin supplements promoted weight loss and fat burn in rats with obesity.
Specifically, one study in rats found that pectin promoted fullness and decreased calorie intake to a greater extent than a high protein diet. 
Similar studies have noted that pectin increased the levels of satiety — or fullness — hormones in mice.

Helps with gastrointestinal issues
As a soluble fiber with unique gelling properties, pectin aids digestion in many ways.
Soluble fibers turn into gel in your digestive tract in the presence of water. 
As such, they soften the stool and speed the transit time of material through the digestive tract, reducing constipation.
Also, soluble fiber is a prebiotic — a food source for the healthy bacteria living in your gut.
In a 4-week study in 80 people with slow-transit constipation, those who consumed 24 grams of pectin daily had higher populations of healthy bacteria in their gut and fewer symptoms of constipation than a control group.
Additionally, some animal studies have revealed that these supplements improve the health of gut bacteria, which can decrease inflammation and improve gastrointestinal symptoms.
Furthermore, this unique fiber may form a protective barrier around the gut lining to prevent harmful bacteria from entering your body.

Pectin is a naturally-occurring thickening agent that is most often used by adding Pectin to jams, jellies and similar products to help them gel and thicken. 
Pectin creates a thick, clear set when Pectin gels. 
Pectin is a carbohydrate (a polysaccharide) found in and around the cell walls of plants, and helps to bind those cells together. 
All fruit has pectin in Pectin, but the amount varies widely. 
Apples and oranges contain the most pectin, and the pectin from both fruits is used commercially to thicken many different types of products. 
Pectin generally needs a high sugar content and some acid, such as citric acid, to activate, and some commercially available pectins include citric acid as an ingredient to help ensure that consumers get their desired result when working with their products.
Pectin can be bought at the grocery store in both powder and liquid forms, and Pectin can also be introduced to a recipe by adding fruit that has a high natural pectin content, such as apples or plums.
Gelatin and pectin both produce clear gels with a high sheen, but the products are not the same. 
Pectin is a water-soluble fiber, while gelatin is a protein derived from animals. 
Pectin is used almost exclusively in high-sugar products, like jams. 
Gelatin, on the other hand, is used in a much wider variety of foods, including mousses, marshmallows and frostings because gelatin sets in a cool environment and does not require that specific ingredients be included to activate it.

Benefits of Pectin
Pectin is a type of carbohydrate - specifically a polysaccharide -- that’s found in the cell walls of plants, especially the leaves, roots and fruits. 
Pectin acts mainly to bind plant cells together. 
Pectin content varies widely among plants and even within the same plant over time. 
In general, pectin is broken down by enzymes as fruit ripens and becomes softer. 
Pectin and other dietary fibers do not contribute significantly to nutrition -- primarily because your intestines can’t digest them very well - but they do contribute to health. 
Pectin consumption impacts blood cholesterol levels and it help regulates blood glucose levels. 
Pectin also helps remove toxins such as lead and mercury from your body.

Citrus Fruit
The fruits containing the most pectin are citrus fruits, especially grapefruits, lemons and oranges. 
The majority of the pectin resides in the citrus peel, but the pulp also contains some. 
You'd need to eat a equivalent of 6 grapefruits to get a significant amount of pectin — however, you can easily get more from each grapefruit by using the peel via zest. 
Use citrus zest to add flavor to homemade salad dressings and marinades, or add Pectin to plain yogurt of cottage cheese.

Apples
Apples are also an excellent source of pectin. 
In practical terms, apples are often a better source than citrus fruit because most people eat the apple skins, which is where a significant proportion of the pectin resides. 
In contrast, the vast majority of people remove and discard the pectin-rich peel from citrus fruit. 
The amount of pectin in apple pulp ranges widely, from 0.14 to 1.15 percent of weight. 
Variety, growing conditions and ripeness affect pectin content.

Other Good Fruit Sources
A number of other fruits are very good sources of pectin - assuming you eat them with their skin - and these include all berries, peaches, apricots, cherries and grapes. 
Berries particularly notable for their pectin content include strawberries, blackberries, raspberries and dewberries. 
Bananas are also a good source, especially if you don’t let them get too ripe or soft before eating them.

Are there different types of pectin?
Yes. There are two main types of commercial pectin on the market: HM (high methoxyl) and LM (low methoxyl). 
HM pectin is the most widely available, even though Pectin isn’t always labeled as such. 
More often, you’ll see labels for the two subsets of HM pectin: rapid set and slow set.

Pectin is a naturally occurring carbohydrate in fruit that is concentrated in the fruit’s skin and the core. 
When cooked, Pectin solidifies to a gel, causing fruit preserves to set.
Fruit uses Pectin to build cell walls with. 
Generally, unripe fruit will have more Pectin than ripe fruit.

Rapid-set pectin works best when you want to suspend solid ingredients within a jelly, while slow set works best for clear jellies made from clarified fruit juices such as grape juice. 
Pull out the LM pectin when you want to make low-sugar and no-sugar jams and jellies or to make no-cook freezer preserves. 
LM pectin is often labeled “light” or for “low sugar or no sugar recipes.”

The most common variety that you will see in stores, high methoxyl pectin, is often referred to as either “fast-set” or “slow-set,” this type of pectin is used in most traditional canning recipes for jellies and jams. 
Fast-set is used for chunky mixtures, while slow-set is best for clear, smooth jellies. 
The other type of pectin, low methoxyl, is a good alternative for sugar-free preservation. 
Instead of sugar, calcium is used for that final set. 
This kind of pectin is often marketed as “light” or “sugar-free.” 

Fruits that are high in Pectin include Apples, Blackberries, Cape Gooseberries, Crab Apples, Cranberries, Gooseberries, Grapes, Medlars, Plums and Quince. 
Any citrus fruit peel is also very high in Pectin. 
Sometimes you will see recipes combining ripe and unripe fruit together. 
That is done for a reason. 

Fruit which is just underripe or just ripe contains the highest level of Pectin that the fruit is going to reach; past that, the Pectin levels will decrease. 
However, the flavour won’t be as developed in the unripe fruit: that will come from the fruit that is ripe.
Fruits that are low in Pectin include Apricots, Blueberries, Cherries, Peaches, Pears, Raspberries, Rhubarb and Strawberries.
When dissolved and let cool, Pectin forms invisible strands that hold liquid in. 
Acid (such as lemon juice) helps draw even more Pectin out of fruit when Pectin is heated. 
Water is attracted to sugar. 

Adding sugar causes some water to be drawn to the sugar molecules, leaving the Pectin molecules free to more easily get at and bind with each other, setting the preserve.
Pectin is available to consumers as an “extract” under the brand names of Certo, in North America and the UK, and SureJell in America, both are made by Kraft. 
Certo in the UK is made from apple Pectin that comes from apples that were pressed for other purposes, such as juice or cider. 
The pressed apples are filtered, concentrated, and have preservative added. 
Pectin comes as a liquid in bottles. 

Pectin is the most common type of pectin and is labeled as either rapid-set or slow-set. 
The gel strength of pectin remains high due to the increase in the degree of methylation; however, any further increase in the degree of methylation, i.e., more than 70%, leads to a decrease in its gel strength. 
Pectins are widely used in the production of jams and jellies, as they are used for thickening the product.

In North America, Certo is made from citrus peel (in 2004, Kraft says Lime peel, in fact), and is available as a liquid in bottles and as a powder in boxes. 
Powdered Pectin contains some type of sugar, such as dextrose or sucrose. 
The liquid Pectin tends to be used in jellies; the powdered tends to be used in jams and preserves. 
Apple Pectin is somewhat available in North America, but really only to commercial processors.
Pectin that doesn’t have much added sugar will probably still require you to make up for the sugar when you do your recipe, but lower-sugar Pectin does allow for recipes to cater to different types of fruit, as opposed to a high-sugar Pectin that blasts all types of fruit equally with sugar. 
If you add commercial Pectin to a recipe that didn’t originally call for Pectin, you have to use more sugar, often twice as much as originally called for, to give the Pectin something to react with.
Commercial Pectin is expensive. 

Some people who have access to “free” fruit — either because they have grown Pectin, or it has been dumped on them by desperate neighbours who can’t cope with the bounty of their own garden, or “bargain fruit” when it’s available in the fall by the bushels for a song, find that they end up spending way more on Pectin. 
But for the rest of us, who have to buy our fruit at normal prices, using commercial Pectin can be a no-brainer. 
Pectin does basically help to guarantee you good jam results, which can be important if you consider how expensive fruit is and how awful Pectin would be if it all went to waste in a preserve that went wrong.
Some people feel that Pectins that are added at the end of the cooking are better, as then no Pectin gets destroyed while the fruit is being boiled.

SUMMARY
Pectin may improve blood sugar and blood fat levels, kill cancer cells, promote a healthy weight, and improve digestion. 
However, more research in humans is needed.

Pectin is soluble in cold water. Once dissolved Pectin forms a viscous solution. 
When used in powder form, Pectin must be dispersed rapidly as Pectin easily forms lumps encased in a thin gel layer. 
This outer layer makes the lumps very difficult to dissolve and eliminate from your final product. 
The best ways to utilize pectin in Pectins powdered form is by shearing Pectin into your mixture using a standing blender, or by combining Pectin with other soluble powders, like sugar or salt, before whisking Pectin into your liquid ingredients. 
Pectin dissolves much more slowly in high-sugar solutions, so those can also be whisked into a syrup, which can then be diluted and gelled.
Pectin used for cooking is divided into two categories, high-methoxyl (HM) and low-methoxyl (LM). 

HM pectin is most commonly used to create fruit preserves. 
It requires the presence of sugar and specific levels of acidity. 
The amount of acid in your base solution will directly affect the setting time of the pectin. 
There are two types of HM pectin: rapid-set and slow-set. 
Rapid-set HM pectin is often used for jellies that have ingredients suspended inside the gel structure, such as chunky marmalades or hot pepper jelly, while slow-set HM pectin is often used for clear jellies like apricot or grape.
LM pectin requires the presence of calcium to activate the gelling process. 
Gelation is affected by many factors. 

Advantages of commercial pectin
Commercially prepared pectin is a natural and safe product. 
Pectin is an extract from apples or citrus fruits and being tasteless Pectin doesn't change the flavor. 
Pectin just helps thicken, and offers many advantages:
Drastically shortens cooking time. 
This results in more product as there is lesser amount of evaporated water. 
These two advantages greatly offset the initial cost of pectin. 
Allows for making jellied products from fruits that are pectin poor. 
Juice from such fruits will not produce jelly, unless a commercial pectin is added. 
The final product displays a much lighter color as due to a shorter cooking process, there is no time for sugar to caramelize. 
Some pectins allow for using a small amount to no sugar.
The disadvantage of commercial pectin, at least for home production, is that each brand of pectin contains Pectins own proprietary instructions and recipes for making jellied products. 
This locks a customer to a particular brand of pectin and many home jam makers don't know how to make jellied products without added pectin anymore.

There are minimum levels of calcium needed to create a gel. 
Above that level, the gel strength will increase rapidly, until it reaches maximum saturation, after which point adding additional calcium will cause the gel strength to decline. 
A sequestrant can be used to control the availability of the calcium present; as sequestrant levels increase, the system will gel less easily and at lower temperatures. 
A general rule of thumb for pH is that as acidity decreases, pectin with a higher reactivity level will be needed to form a gel. 
LM pectin is often used to produce low- or no-sugar jellies. 
Pectins have a complementary relationship with dairy products and are able to utilize whey as a source of calcium, enhancing their innate capabilities for gelation, emulsification, and the ability to produce stable foams.

Pectin is a substance found in plant cell walls that is commonly used as a food ingredient. 
Pectin helps foods gel and stabilize. 
In baking, pectin is a polysaccharide that is used as a fat and/or sugar replacer to create lower calorie foods and bakery jams.

Pectin is a soluble fiber found in most plants. 
Pectin is most abundant in:
Apples
Plums
The peel and pulp of citrus fruits
In food, Pectin is most commonly used to thicken jams, jellies, and preserves.

Pectin is a natural fiber found in most plants. 
Fruits like apples and oranges are particularly high in pectin, with the highest concentrations in the skins, cores and seeds. 
Boiling two pounds of tart green apples (slightly under-ripe apples work best) with four cups of water and one tablespoon of lemon juice for half an hour, then straining through cheesecloth before boiling further to reduce the volume by half will result in an effective homemade liquid pectin.

Liquid vs Powdered – Use only the type called for in your recipe.  
Powdered and liquid pectin are not interchangeable in recipes.  
The preserving books seem to confirm that the reason they may not be interchangeable is that the liquid version is always added after boiling but most types of powdered are added to the raw fruit or juice.  
After looking in many cookbooks, most recipes call for liquid pectin.

Uses
Pectin can be used to form a gel and add texture. 
Pectin can add viscosity and mouthfeel to beverages and stabilize their ingredients. 
Pectin can even be used as a soluble fiber. 
Pectin can be used in jams, jellies, marmalades, gummy candies, yoghurt, syrup, fruit preparations, dairy drinks, beverages, bread, frozen desserts and many other applications.

Gelatin vs. Pectin
Both gelatin and pectin are used as thickening agents, although they come from different sources. 
Gelatin is obtained from collagen in beef bones, meaning Pectin's not vegan, unlike pectin. 
Gelatin also doesn't require sugar or heat to thicken, making Pectin suitable for use in savory dishes too. 

Pectin is found naturally occurring in various forms of plant life, where Pectin helps to bind cells together. 
In spite of the fact that Pectin is widely occurring, there are only a few specific sources used to manufacture pectin for food purposes. 
Traditionally apple peels and cores were the primary source of pectin for making jellies and preserves. 
The liquid extract was preserved with sulfur dioxide and sold in bulk. 
As the commercial industry grew, so did the need for a more stable and easily transportable source of pectin. 
Citrus peels, a by-product of the juice industry, became a major resource for manufacturing solid pectin products. 
Pectin derived from apple and citrus sources are admirably suited to our culinary purposes.

The human body cannot digest pectin in its natural form. 
But an altered form of pectin, known as modified citrus pectin (MCP), has properties that allow it to be digested.

Pectin may have a potential role in cancer care. 
In a small study of men with prostate cancer for whom standard treatment had failed, MCP appeared to slow the growth of their cancer.
Larger, better designed studies are needed before any conclusions are drawn about MCP's potential as an anticancer agent.
Pectin has also been used to try to treat heavy metal toxicity, which can result from exposure to lead, mercury, arsenic, and other elements. 
Some people believe that MCP can help the body excrete such poisonous substances. 
But little unbiased research exists to support such claims.

Why do people take MCP?
People take MCP for a variety of reasons. 
Some research suggests that pectin, like other soluble fibers such as those found in oatmeal and in psyllium husks, can help lower LDL "bad" cholesterol. 
But the effect is a small one. 
If you have high cholesterol, soluble fibers such as pectin may help to lower Pectin, but they usually can't do the job on their own.

Much of the information we know about pectin is based on animal studies. 
Pectin has also been used to control diarrhea, and some evidence points to its effectiveness for treating very young children. 
The FDA, though, decided in 2003 that the available evidence does not support such a use. 
The following year Pectin banned the use of pectin in over-the-counter diarrhea medications.

SUMMARY
Pectin supplements may cause gas or bloating in some people. 
If you are allergic to apples or citrus, avoid these supplements.

Pectin is an important polysaccharide with applications in foods, pharmaceuticals, and a number of other industries. 
Its importance in the food sector lies in its ability to form gel in the presence of Ca2+ ions or a solute at low pH. 
Although the exact mechanism of gel formation is not clear, significant progress has been made in this direction. 
Depending on the pectin, coordinate bonding with Ca2+ ions or hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions are involved in gel formation. 
In low-methoxyl pectin, gelation results from ionic linkage via calcium bridges between two carboxyl groups belonging to two different chains in close contact with each other. 
In high-methoxyl pectin, the cross-linking of pectin molecules involves a combination of hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions between the molecules. 
A number of factors--pH, presence of other solutes, molecular size, degree of methoxylation, number and arrangement of side chains, and charge density on the molecule--influence the gelation of pectin. 
In the food industry, pectin is used in jams, jellies, frozen foods, and more recently in low-calorie foods as a fat and/or sugar replacer. 
In the pharmaceutical industry, Pectin is used to reduce blood cholesterol levels and gastrointestinal disorders. 
Other applications of pectin include use in edible films, paper substitute, foams and plasticizers, etc. 
In addition to pectolytic degradation, pectins are susceptible to heat degradation during processing, and the degradation is influenced by the nature of the ions and salts present in the system. 
Although present in the cell walls of most plants apple pomace and orange peel are the two major sources of commercial pectin due to the poor gelling behavior of pectin from other sources. 
This paper briefly describes the structure, chemistry of gelation, interactions, and industrial applications soft pectin.

How to add pectin to your diet
One way to add pectin to your diet is to eat more foods that are high in this fiber, such as apples.
Nearly all fruits and vegetables contain some pectin, so eating a variety of plant foods is an excellent way to boost your intake.

However, although most jams and jellies are made with pectin, eating more jam or jelly is not a good way to include more pectin in your diet. 
Jams and jellies contain only small amounts of the fiber and are high in sugar and calories. 
Thus, they should be eaten in moderation.

In addition, you can purchase pectin in supplement form, usually as capsules. 
These supplements are often made from apples or citrus peels.

SUMMARY
Eating more fruits and vegetables or taking a supplement are good ways to boost your pectin intake. 
Jams and jellies should be eaten in moderation, as they are high in sugar and calories.

Amidated LM pectin (LMA) is pectin that has been treated with ammonia, which moderates the bonds formed between the amide groups and the calcium ions. 
LMA is also more tolerant of fluctuations in the levels of calcium present in the base solution. 
Amidated LM pectin requires less calcium than conventional LM pectin to gel. 
Pectin is more thermally reversible than untreated LM pectin and has the ability to re-form after shearing.
From a culinary standpoint, we like pectin because Pectin creates gels with a smooth, creamy texture and great flavor release. 
Pectin can be used to create fruit and vegetable terrines, water gels, and low-sugar and low-fat applications.
All that and Pectin’s a vegetarian product. 
We’ve included a couple of recipes using LM pectin and LMA pectin so that you can begin experimenting with the possibilities.

The bottom line
Pectin is a soluble fiber with a powerful gelling ability.
Pectin’s commonly used to thicken and stabilize jams and jellies.
Pectin has many potential health benefits, more research in humans is needed to better understand how it affects health.
Eating a variety of fruits and vegetables is a great way to boost your pectin intake.

SUMMARY
Pectin is a soluble fiber found in fruits and vegetables, especially apples and citrus peels. 
Pectin’s a strong gelling agent used to thicken jams and jellies.

Biology
In plant biology, pectin consists of a complex set of polysaccharides (see below) that are present in most primary cell walls and are particularly abundant in the non-woody parts of terrestrial plants.
Pectin is a major component of the middle lamella, where it helps to bind cells together, but is also found in primary cell walls. 
Pectin is deposited by exocytosis into the cell wall via vesicles produced in the golgi.
The amount, structure and chemical composition of pectin differs among plants, within a plant over time, and in various parts of a plant. 
Pectin is an important cell wall polysaccharide that allows primary cell wall extension and plant growth.

During fruit ripening, pectin is broken down by the enzymes pectinase and pectinesterase, in which process the fruit becomes softer as the middle lamellae break down and cells become separated from each other.
A similar process of cell separation caused by the breakdown of pectin occurs in the abscission zone of the petioles of deciduous plants at leaf fall.
Pectin is a natural part of the human diet, but does not contribute significantly to nutrition. 
The daily intake of pectin from fruits and vegetables can be estimated to be around 5g if approximately 500g of fruits and vegetables are consumed per day.
In human digestion, pectin binds to cholesterol in the gastrointestinal tract and slows glucose absorption by trapping carbohydrates. 
Pectin is thus a soluble dietary fiber. 

In non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice pectin has been shown to increase the incidence of diabetes.
A study found that after consumption of fruit the concentration of methanol in the human body increased by as much as an order of magnitude due to the degradation of natural pectin (which is esterified with methyl alcohol) in the colon.
Pectin has been observed to have some function in repairing the DNA of some types of plant seeds, usually desert plants.
Pectinaceous surface pellicles, which are rich in pectin, create a mucilage layer that holds in dew that helps the cell repair Pectins DNA.
Consumption of pectin has been shown to slightly (3-7%) reduce blood LDL cholesterol levels. 
The effect depends upon the source of pectin; apple and citrus pectins were more effective than orange pulp fibre pectin.
The mechanism appears to be an increase of viscosity in the intestinal tract, leading to a reduced absorption of cholesterol from bile or food.
In the large intestine and colon, microorganisms degrade pectin and liberate short-chain fatty acids that have positive influence on health (prebiotic effect).

Pectin is a complex carbohydrate that is found in and around the cell walls of plants. 
Pectin helps to bind those cells together while working to regulate the flow of water in between the cells. 
Pectin has come to be a kitchen staple in canning and has been commonly used for over a century, ensuring jelling and thickening for a perfect consistency. 
With this vegetarian pectin, Regal Foods offers a quality product that appeals to a wide range of customers at a great value. 
Pectin's a perfect choice for any establishment interested in making Pectins own jams and jellies!

Chemistry
Pectins, also known as pectic polysaccharides, are rich in galacturonic acid. 
Several distinct polysaccharides have been identified and characterised within the pectic group. 
Homogalacturonans are linear chains of α-(1–4)-linked D-galacturonic acid.
Substituted galacturonans are characterised by the presence of saccharide appendant residues (such as D-xylose or D-apiose in the respective cases of xylogalacturonan and apiogalacturonan) branching from a backbone of D-galacturonic acid residues.
Rhamnogalacturonan I pectins (RG-I) contain a backbone of the repeating disaccharide: 4)-α-D-galacturonic acid-(1,2)-α-L-rhamnose-(1. From many of the rhamnose residues, sidechains of various neutral sugars branch off. 

The neutral sugars are mainly D-galactose, L-arabinose and D-xylose, with the types and proportions of neutral sugars varying with the origin of pectin.
Another structural type of pectin is rhamnogalacturonan II (RG-II), which is a less frequent, complex, highly branched polysaccharide.
Rhamnogalacturonan II is classified by some authors within the group of substituted galacturonans since the rhamnogalacturonan II backbone is made exclusively of D-galacturonic acid units.
Isolated pectin has a molecular weight of typically 60,000–130,000 g/mol, varying with origin and extraction conditions.
In nature, around 80 percent of carboxyl groups of galacturonic acid are esterified with methanol. 
This proportion is decreased to a varying degree during pectin extraction.

Pectins are classified as high- vs. low-methoxy pectins (short HM-pectins vs. LM-pectins), with more or less than half of all the galacturonic acid esterified.
The ratio of esterified to non-esterified galacturonic acid determines the behaviour of pectin in food applications - HM-pectins can form a gel under acidic conditions in the presence of high sugar concentrations, while LM-pectins form gels by interaction with divalent cations, particularly Ca2+, according to the idealized ‘egg box’ model, in which ionic bridges are formed between calcium ions and the ionised carboxyl groups of the galacturonic acid.
In high-ester/high-methoxy pectins at soluble solids content above 60% and a pH-value between 2.8 and 3.6, hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions bind the individual pectin chains together. 
These bonds form as water is bound by sugar and forces pectin strands to stick together. 
These form a 3-dimensional molecular net that creates the macromolecular gel. 

The gelling-mechanism is called a low-water-activity gel or sugar-acid-pectin gel.
While low-ester/low-methoxy pectins need calcium to form a gel, they can do so at lower soluble solids and higher pH-values than high-ester pectins. 
Normally low-ester pectins form gels with a range of pH from 2.6 to 7.0 and with a soluble solids content between 10 and 70%.
The non-esterified galacturonic acid units can be either free acids (carboxyl groups) or salts with sodium, potassium, or calcium. 
The salts of partially esterified pectins are called pectinates, if the degree of esterification is below 5 percent the salts are called pectates, the insoluble acid form, pectic acid.
Some plants, such as sugar beet, potatoes and pears, contain pectins with acetylated galacturonic acid in addition to methyl esters. 
Acetylation prevents gel-formation but increases the stabilising and emulsifying effects of pectin.
Amidated pectin is a modified form of pectin. 

Here, some of the galacturonic acid is converted with ammonia to carboxylic acid amide. 
These pectins are more tolerant of varying calcium concentrations that occur in use.
To prepare a pectin-gel, the ingredients are heated, dissolving the pectin. Upon cooling below gelling temperature, a gel starts to form. 
If gel formation is too strong, syneresis or a granular texture are the result, while weak gelling leads to excessively soft gels.
Amidated pectins behave like low-ester pectins but need less calcium and are more tolerant of excess calcium. 

Also, gels from amidated pectin are thermo-reversible; they can be heated and after cooling solidify again, whereas conventional pectin-gels will afterwards remain liquid.
High-ester pectins set at higher temperatures than low-ester pectins. 
However, gelling reactions with calcium increase as the degree of esterification falls. 
Similarly, lower pH-values or higher soluble solids (normally sugars) increase gelling speeds. 
Suitable pectins can therefore be selected for jams and jellies, or for higher-sugar confectionery jellies.

Sources and production
Pears, apples, guavas, quince, plums, gooseberries, and oranges and other citrus fruits contain large amounts of pectin, while soft fruits, like cherries, grapes, and strawberries, contain small amounts of pectin.
Pectin also has several health benefits in humans. 
Included among these are Pectins ability to reduce low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels, thereby lowering cholesterol levels, and its ability to slow the passage of food through the intestine, relieving diarrhea. 
Pectins can also activate cell death pathways in cancer cells, indicating that pectins may play an important role in preventing certain types of cancer.

Typical levels of pectin in fresh fruits and vegetables are:
Apples, 1–1.5%
Apricots, 1%
Cherries, 0.4%
Oranges, 0.5–3.5%
Carrots 1.4%
Citrus peels, 30%
Rose hips, 15% 

Pectin is a soluble fiber present in most plants, but concentrated in the peel and pulp of citrus fruits such as lemons, oranges, and grapefruits, as well as apples. 
Modified Citrus Pectin (MCP) is obtained by changing pectin so Pectin may be better absorbed by the body.
Lab studies suggest pectin and MCP have various properties, but human studies are limited. 
Preliminary data suggest pectin and MCP may be helpful for treating diarrhea and lowering cholesterol. 
Pectin causes side effects such as abdominal cramps and diarrhea, and may interfere with the absorption of some types of supplements.

The main raw materials for pectin production are dried citrus peels or apple pomace, both by-products of juice production. 
Pomace from sugar beets is also used to a small extent.
From these materials, pectin is extracted by adding hot dilute acid at pH-values from 1.5 – 3.5. 
During several hours of extraction, the protopectin loses some of its branching and chain length and goes into solution. 
After filtering, the extract is concentrated in a vacuum and the pectin is then precipitated by adding ethanol or isopropanol. 
An old technique of precipitating pectin with aluminium salts is no longer used (apart from alcohols and polyvalent cations, pectin also precipitates with proteins and detergents).
Alcohol-precipitated pectin is then separated, washed, and dried. 
Treating the initial pectin with dilute acid leads to low-esterified pectins. 
When this process includes ammonium hydroxide (NH3(aq)), amidated pectins are obtained. 
After drying and milling, pectin is usually standardised with sugar, and sometimes calcium salts or organic acids, to optimise performance in a particular application.

Uses of Pectin:
The main use for pectin is as a gelling agent, thickening agent and stabiliser in food. 
The classical application is giving the jelly-like consistency to jams or marmalades, which would otherwise be sweet juices. 
Pectin also reduces syneresis in jams and marmalades and increases the gel strength of low-calorie jams. 
For household use, pectin is an ingredient in gelling sugar (also known as "jam sugar") where Pectin is diluted to the right concentration with sugar and some citric acid to adjust pH. 
In some countries, pectin is also available as a solution or an extract, or as a blended powder, for home jam making.
For conventional jams and marmalades that contain above 60% sugar and soluble fruit solids, high-ester pectins are used. 
With low-ester pectins and amidated pectins, less sugar is needed, so that diet products can be made. 

Water extract of aiyu seeds is traditionally used in Taiwan to make aiyu jelly, where the extract gels without heating due to low-ester pectins from the seeds and the bivalent cations from the water.
Pectin is used in confectionery jellies to give a good gel structure, a clean bite and to confer a good flavour release. 
Pectin can also be used to stabilise acidic protein drinks, such as drinking yogurt, to improve the mouth-feel and the pulp stability in juice based drinks and as a fat substitute in baked goods.
Typical levels of pectin used as a food additive are between 0.5 and 1.0% – this is about the same amount of pectin as in fresh fruit.
In medicine, pectin increases viscosity and volume of stool so that it is used against constipation and diarrhea. 
Until 2002, Pectin was one of the main ingredients used in Kaopectate a medication to combat diarrhea, along with kaolinite. 
Pectin has been used in gentle heavy metal removal from biological systems.
Pectin is also used in throat lozenges as a demulcent.

Pectin (E 440i) and amidated pectin (E 440ii) were re-evaluated in 2017 by the former EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient sources added to Food (ANS). 
As a follow-up to this assessment, the Panel on Food Additives and Flavourings (FAF) was requested to assess the safety of pectins (E 440i,ii) for their uses as food additives in food for infants below 16 weeks of age. 
In addition, the FAF Panel was requested to address the issues already identified during the re-evaluation of the same food additive. 
The process involved the publication of a call for data to allow the interested business operators to provide the requested information to complete the risk assessment. 
Based on the information submitted in response to the call for data, the FAF Panel considered it feasible to amend the current specifications, in particular for the toxic elements arsenic, lead, cadmium, mercury and for sulfur dioxide and to introduce new specifications for aluminium and microbiological criteria. 
Studies on neonatal piglets, clinical studies and post-marketing data were made available during the call for data. 
Due to the low internal validity of the clinical studies, the Panel concluded that a reference point could not be derived from them, but the results of the adequate piglet study could serve to derive a reference point. 
When calculating the margin of safety for pectins exposure, this was below 1 for some scenarios. 
At the maximum permitted levels (MPLs), an internal methanol dose would be produced that could lead to adverse health effects in infants below 16 weeks of age. 
The FAF Panel recommended a reduction of the MPL of pectin (E 440i) and amidated pectin (E 440ii) in food categories 13.1.5.1 and 13.1.5.2, in order to reduce the exposure to both the additives themselves and to methanol.

In cosmetic products, pectin acts as a stabiliser. 
Pectin is also used in wound healing preparations and speciality medical adhesives, such as colostomy devices.
Sriamornsak revealed that pectin could be used in various oral drug delivery platforms, e.g., controlled release systems, gastro-retentive systems, colon-specific delivery systems and mucoadhesive delivery systems, according to its intoxicity and low cost. 
Pectin was found that pectin from different sources provides different gelling abilities, due to variations in molecular size and chemical composition. 
Like other natural polymers, a major problem with pectin is inconsistency in reproducibility between samples, which may result in poor reproducibility in drug delivery characteristics.
In ruminant nutrition, depending on the extent of lignification of the cell wall, pectin is up to 90% digestible by bacterial enzymes. 
Ruminant nutritionists recommend that the digestibility and energy concentration in forages be improved by increasing pectin concentration in the forage.
In cigars, pectin is considered an excellent substitute for vegetable glue and many cigar smokers and collectors use pectin for repairing damaged tobacco leaves on their cigars.
Yablokov et al., writing in Chernobyl: 
Consequences of the Catastrophe for People and the Environment, quote research conducted by the Ukrainian Center of Radiation Medicine and the Belarusian Institute of Radiation Medicine and Endocrinology, concluded, regarding pectin's radioprotective effects, that "adding pectin preparations to the food of inhabitants of the Chernobyl-contaminated regions promotes an effective excretion of incorporated radionuclides" such as cesium-137. 
The authors reported on the positive results of using pectin food additive preparations in a number of clinical studies conducted on children in severely polluted areas, with up to 50% improvement over control groups.
During the Second World War, Allied pilots were provided with maps printed on silk, for navigation in escape and evasion efforts. 
The printing process at first proved nearly impossible because the several layers of ink immediately ran, blurring outlines and rendering place names illegible until the inventor of the maps, Clayton Hutton, mixed a little pectin with the ink and at once the pectin coagulated the ink and prevented it from running, allowing small topographic features to be clearly visible.

How to Cook With Pectin
The type of pectin being used will determine how Pectin is added to a recipe. 
High methoxyl pectin needs to be cooked to a high temperature (220 F) in combination with acid and sugar to form a gel, while low methoxyl pectin can be activated at room temperature. 
Therefore, HM pectin will be added to the hot fruit mixture early on. 
LM pectin is often mixed with a little sugar and added to the hot fruit later in the recipe. 
Liquid pectin is poured into the pot of hot fruit mixture almost at the end of cooking.
Make sure not to overcook the recipe once the pectin is added, as boiling beyond the gel point, or not stirring enough, will help break down the pectin.

What Does Pectin Taste Like?
Pectin should not add any flavor to a recipe. 
However, depending on the brand, Pectin could contribute a little bitterness. 
Homemade pectin will taste like the fruit Pectin is made from.

Pectin, which is often added to yogurt, is found in the cell walls of plants. 
Lemons, limes, oranges and grapefruits are common sources of pectin used in yogurt products. 
Pectin improves the taste and texture of yogurt by serving as a stabilizer and gelling agent and increasing the shelf life of yogurt drinks

Pectins are complex polysaccharides that contain acidic sugars and are major determinants of the cohesion, adhesion, extensibility, porosity and electrostatic potential of plant cell walls. 
Recent evidence has solidified their positions as key regulators of cellular growth and tissue morphogenesis, although important details of how they achieve this regulation are still missing. 
Pectins are also hypothesized to function as ligands for wall integrity sensors that enable plant cells to respond to intrinsic defects in wall biomechanics and to wall degradation by attacking pathogens. 
This update highlights recent advances in our understanding of the biosynthesis of pectins, how they are delivered to the cell surface and become incorporated into the cell wall matrix and how pectins are modified over time in the apoplast. 
Pectin also poses unanswered questions for further research into this enigmatic but essential class of carbohydrate polymers.

Pectin, any of a group of water-soluble carbohydrate substances that are found in the cell walls and intercellular tissues of certain plants. 
In the fruits of plants, pectin helps keep the walls of adjacent cells joined together. 
Immature fruits contain the precursor substance protopectin, which is converted to pectin and becomes more water-soluble as ripening proceeds. 
At this stage the pectin helps ripening fruits to remain firm and retain their shape.
As a fruit becomes overripe, the pectin in Pectin is broken down to simple sugars that are completely water-soluble. 
As a result, the overripe fruit becomes soft and begins to lose Pectins shape.

Pectin is a very long and branched chain of sugars found as a major building block in plants that helps them stay firm. 
Pectin is the molecule responsible for the tight connection between each cell, and is found in highest concentration in the skin of fruits. 
Pectin is pectin that is broken down as fruit ripens, causing a softening of the flesh. 
Pectin is also the gelling ingredient that makes fruit jams and jellies become solid.

Legal status
At the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee Report on Food Additives and in the European Union, no numerical acceptable daily intake (ADI) has been set, as pectin is considered safe.
In the United States, pectin is generally recognised as safe for human consumption.
In the International Numbering System (INS), pectin has the number 440. 
In Europe, pectins are differentiated into the E numbers E440(i) for non-amidated pectins and E440(ii) for amidated pectins. 
There are specifications in all national and international legislation defining its quality and regulating its use.

History
Pectin was first isolated and described in 1825 by Henri Braconnot, though the action of pectin to make jams and marmalades was known long before. 
To obtain well-set jams from fruits that had little or only poor quality pectin, pectin-rich fruits or their extracts were mixed into the recipe.
During the Industrial Revolution, the makers of fruit preserves turned to producers of apple juice to obtain dried apple pomace that was cooked to extract pectin. 
Later, in the 1920s and 1930s, factories were built that commercially extracted pectin from dried apple pomace and later citrus peel in regions that produced apple juice in both the US and Europe.
Pectin was first sold as a liquid extract, but is now most often used as dried powder, which is easier than a liquid to store and handle.

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