SORBITAN MONOLAURATE


Sorbitan Monolaurate, also known as sorbitan laurate, is a mix of esters from the fatty acid lauric acid used as a food additive emulsifier to keep water and oils mixed.

Sorbitan monolaurate is a mixture of esters formed from the fatty acid lauric acid and polyols derived from sorbitol, including sorbitan and isosorbide.
As a food additive, Sorbitan monolaurate is designated with the E number E493.

Preferred IUPAC name: (2Ξ)-2-[(2R,3R,4S)-3,4-Dihydroxyoxolan-2-yl]-2-hydroxyethyl dodecanoate
Other names: Dodecanoic acid [2-[(2R,3R,4S)-3,4-dihydroxy-2-tetrahydrofuranyl]-2-hydroxyethyl] ester, alkamuls s 20, glycomul lC, sorbitan laurate, Span 20, E493

CAS Number: 1338-39-2

Sorbitan monolaurate is Emulsifier for foods, Antistatic agent for plastics of safety food additives. 
Food use : for whipped cream, coffee cream, emulsifier of caramel, suitable emulsion and foaming agent for flour paste. 
Antistatic agent : high security product for food additives grade.

Non-ionic, lipophillic (Oil loving) surfactant. 
Used for preparing water in oil emulsions, Water dispersible emulsifier which exhibits antifoam properties, used to retard starch crystallization in jellies, lubricant antistat, process aid in PVC resin manufacture. 
Used as an Emulsifiers & dispersants for pigments and for the preparations of Cosmetics & Pharmaceuticals.

EC / List no.: 215-663-3
CAS no.: 1338-39-2
Mol. formula: C18H34O6

Properties
Chemical formula: C18H34O6
Molar mass: 346.464 g·mol−1
Density: 1.032 g/cm3
Solubility in water: insoluble


The additive sorbitan monolaurate consists of sorbitol (and its anhydrides) esterified with fatty acids derived from coconut oil. 
Sorbitan monolaurate  is currently authorised in the European Union and it is intended to be used as a technological additive (functional group of emulsifiers), in feedingstuffs for all animal species, at a maximum concentration of 85 mg/kg complete feed


Sorbitan monolaurate (E 493) is approved as a food additive (Commission Regulation (EU) No 1129/2011) in a wide range of commonly consumed foods (up to 10 g/kg), including dietary food supplements (quantum satis). 
Sorbitan stearate (E 491), sorbitan tristearate (E 492), sorbitan oleate (E 494), sorbitan palmitate (E 495) and sorbitol (E 420) are authorised as food additives in the EU.

Sorbitan laurate (Span 20) is a mixture of the partial esters of sorbitol and its mono- and dianhydrides with edible lauric acid. 
Sorbitan monolaurate is an excipient. 
Sorbitan laurate is a non-ionic surfactant that is widely used as an emulsifier and stabilizer in pharmaceutical formulations, food and cosmetic industries. 
As a food additive, Sorbitan laurate is designated with the E number E493. 
Span 20 finds application in topical preparations. 
Sorbitan laurate is soluble in many fatty compositions and solvents and dispersible in water, dilute acids and alkalis. Recommended topical usage levels of 0.5-5%.


Sorbitan laurate is an Emulsifiers for foods. 
Sorbitan laurate enables good form protection of whipped cream. It is suitable emulsifier and dispersant for mayonnaise.

SYNONYMS: Sorbitan laurate
DEFINITION: A mixture of the partial esters of sorbitol and its mono- and dianhydrides with edible lauric acid
C.A.S. number: 1338-39-2
Structural formula: Contains lauric acid esterified with polyols derived from sorbitol


DESCRIPTION: Amber-coloured oily viscous liquid, light cream to tan beads or flakes or a hard, waxy solid with a slight odour
FUNCTIONAL USES: Emulsifier, stabilizer 

Solubility: Dispersible in hot and cold water 

E493 (Sorbitan Monolaurate) (SML)

PRODUCT NAME: Sorbitan Monolaurat (E493)

SYNONYMOUS: SML; Sorbitan Esters

CLASS:Emulsifier

DESCRIPTION AND INGREDIENTS: It is a mixture of partial esters of sorbitol and anhydrides and vegetable lactic acid. 
It may have free fatty acids and sorbitol, isosorbide esters.

APPEARANCE : Cream yellowish bead solid powders and characteristic smell.

SOLUBILITY : It cannot be decomposed in water.

INTENDED USAGE:

Sorbitan Mono laurate is lipophilic surfactant substance
Sorbitan Mono laurate is generally used as an emulsifer together with polysorbates. 
Sorbitan Mono laurate is used to change crystallization of the oils.

USAGE AREA :

Ø  Fine bakery products
Ø  Fine bakery products, decoration and coating materials
Ø  Baker’s yeasts
Ø  Oil emulsions
Ø  Milk and cream mixtures
Ø  Gel marmelades
Ø  Tahini halva varieties
Ø  Cocoa based candies
Ø  Chocolates
Ø  Liquid mixtures of fruits and vegetables
Ø  Sweets
Ø  Sugar based candies
Ø  Food supplements

Sorbitan monolaurate
Span 20
Sorbitan laurate
UNII-6W9PS8B71J
6W9PS8B71J
Arlacel 20
(R)-2-((2R,3R,4S)-3,4-dihydroxytetrahydrofuran-2-yl)-2-hydroxyethyl dodecanoate
Glycomul L
Glycomul LC
Alkamuls SML
Armotan ML
Dehymuls SML
Lonzest SML
Texnol SPT
Arlacel-20
Montane 20
Alkamuls S 20
Sorgen 90
Kemotan S 20
Radiasurf 7125
Sorbitan, monolaurate
Emasol 110
Emasol L 10
Nonion LP 20R
Nonion LR 20R
Rheodol SP-L 10
Sorbon S 20
Disponil SML 100
Value SP 20
Ionet S 20
Atmer 100
Emsorb 2515
Emasol L 10(F)
Nissan Nonion LP 20R
Sorbitan laurate [INN]
Sorbitan, monododecanoate
L 250 (ester)
Anhydrosorbitol monolaurate
Lauric acid sorbitan ester
Rheodol Super SP-L 10
Emasol Super L 10(F)
CCRIS 709
Sorbitan lauric acid monoester
Sorbitani lauras [INN-Latin]
NRF 201
Sorbitan, esters, monododecanoate
SP-L 10
Laurate de sorbitan [INN-French]
EINECS 215-663-3
Laurato de sorbitano [INN-Spanish]
Sorbitani lauras
1,4-anhydro-6-O-dodecanoyl-D-glucitol
1,4-Anhydro-D-glucitol, 6-dodecanoate
Laurate de sorbitan
Laurato de sorbitano
L 250
SCHEMBL3833
CHEMBL3706389
DTXSID9027609
Sorbitan monolaurate [USAN:NF]
Sorbitan monolaurate. (Compound usually contains also associated fatty acids.)
ZINC8214457
S0059
EC 215-663-3
[(2R)-2-[(2R,3R,4S)-3,4-dihydroxyoxolan-2-yl]-2-hydroxyethyl] dodecanoate

Sorbitan laurate

sorbitan laurate
Sorbitan monolaurate
sorbitan monolaurate

CAS names
Sorbitan, monododecanoate

IUPAC names
(2R)-2-[(2R,3R,4S)-3,4-dihydroxyoxolan-2-yl]-2-hydroxyethyl dodecanoate
1,4-anhydro-6-O-dodecanoyl-D-glucitol
1,4-anhydro-6-O-dodecanoyl-D-glucitol
Dodecanoic acid [2-[(2R,3R,4S)-3,4-dihydroxy-2-tetrahydrofuranyl]-2-hydroxyethyl] ester
Esterification products of D-glucitol with C8 – C16 (even-numbered) and C18 unsaturated fatty acids
NONION LP-20R
SML
sorbitan laurate
Sorbitan laurate
sorbitan laurate
Sorbitan monododecanoate
Sorbitan MonoLaurate
Sorbitan MonoLaurate
Sorbitan Monolurate (SML)

Trade names
ALKAMULS S-20
Kosteran-L/1
Mosselman sorbitan monolaurate
RADIAMULS SORB 2125K
RADIASURF 7124
RADIASURF 7125
SABOFOG ML
SABONOL ML
SABOSORB ML
Sorbitan laurate
Sorbitan mono laurate
SPAK-20


Sorbitan esters, polysorbates and other esters of fatty acids
Sorbitan esters or Span derive from the esterification of dehydrated sorbitol with fatty acids.
The esterification of the hydroxyl groups of sorbitol with fatty acids produces molecules varying in their degree of esterification and in their HLB. 
For example, sorbitan monolaurate and sorbitan monostearate exhibit HLB numbers of 8.6 and 4.7, respectively. 
They can be used to stabilize o/w and w/o emulsions respectively.

Sorbitan esters can react with ethylene oxide to give the polyoxyethylene derivatives, usually referred as polysorbates or Tweens. 
Sorbitan mono-laurate, monostearate, tristearate and mono-oleate form, respectively, poly-sorbate 20, polysorbate 60, polysorbate 65 and polysorbate 80. 
These non-ionic, water-soluble molecules exhibit a wide range of hydrophobicity, surface activity, HLB numbers and emulsifying properties. 
Polysorbate 20 and 60 with HLB numbers of 16.7 and 14.9, respectively, can stabilize o/w emulsions. 
Polysorbate 65 with an HLB of 10.5 is the most lipophilic; it exhibits low surface activity and emulsifying power.

Polysorbates, especially Tweens, are widely used in model systems. 
They are food additives approved for use in food in the European Union with restricted usages (1000–5000 mg/kg depending on the food category). 
Their effective use in food applications is in fact limited as a result of consumer perception of synthetic molecules, environmental issues and cost. 
They also have been reported to affect taste and aroma. 
Other polyol esters of fatty acids, such as polyglycerol esters (PGE) and propylene glycol monostearate (PGMS) and the water-dispersible anionic sodium stearoyl lactylate (SSL), can also be used as food emulsifiers according to the food regulations.


31.3.2.2 Plasticizer and surfactant selection considerations
The addition of a plasticizer to facilitate the melt-extrusion process is well established in the plastics and pharmaceutical industries. 
Plasticizers are able to lower the glass transition temperature and the melt viscosity of polymer. 
For example, 5–10 % triethyl citrate was required in the formulation to minimize degradation of troglitazone when Resulin was developed. 
Surfactants such as sorbitan monolaurate and vitamin E TPGS are present in ASDs of several commercial products. 
These surfactants are present to modify the precipitation and crystallization behavior of ASDs in aqueous environment. 
These surfactants have demonstrated plasticizing effects.

Synonyms:
     alkamuls SML
1,4-    anhydro-D-glucitol, 6-dodecanoate
     anhydrosorbitol monolaurate
     crill 1
     dehymuls SML
[2-[(2R,3S,4R)-3,4-    dihydroxyoxolan-2-yl]-2-hydroxyethyl] dodecanoate
     emasol L-10V
     emasol O-10V
     glycomul L K
     ionet S-20
     kaopan SP-L-10
     lauric acid sorbitan ester
     lonzest SML
     lubricit SML-H
     lubricit SML-K
     ml-33-F
     monemul - 20
     montane 20
     nikkol SL-10
     sorbirol L
     sorbitan lauric acid monoester
     sorbitan monododecanoate
     sorbitan monolaurate
     sorbitan, monododecanoate
     sorbitan, monolaurate


Sorbitan Monolaurate (USP-NF, BP, Ph. Eur.) pure, pharma grade
Sorbitan Laurate, Sorbitan Monododecanoate, Span20
Assay (as polyols): 39.0-45.0 %

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CODE
146101
CAS
1338-39-2
MOLECULAR FORMULA
C18H34O6
MOLAR MASS
346.52 g/mol


Sorbitan monolaurate is mainly used as an emulsifier, wetting agent and lubricant


Sorbitan Groups ATAMAN offers:
Sorbitan Monolaurate
Sorbitan Monopalmitate
Sorbitan Monostearate
Sorbitan Monooleate
Sorbitan Tristearate

Ethoxylated Sorbitan Groups
Polyoxyethylene Sorbitan Monolaurate
Polyoxyethylene Sorbitan Monopalmitate
Polyoxyethylene Sorbitan Monostearate
Polyoxyethylene Sorbitan Tristearate
Polyoxyethylene Sorbitan Monooleate


The MONTANE grades have an HLB (Hydrophilic / Lipophilic Balance) range from 1.8 to 8.6.
They are compatible with all surfactants and with electrolytes.
They are not sensitive to pH variation.

Trade Name    Chemical Name    HLB
MONTANETM 20    Sorbitan monolaurate    8.6
MONTANETM 40    Sorbitan monopalmitate    6.7
MONTANETM 60    Sorbitan monostearate    4.7
MONTANETM 65    Sorbitan tristearate    2.1
MONTANETM 70    Sorbitan isostearate    4.3
MONTANETM 80    Sorbitan monooleate    4.3
MONTANETM 83    Sorbitan sesquioleate    3.7
MONTANETM 85    Sorbitan trioleate    1.8

Applications include:

Emulsifying, dispersing and solubilising agent for preparations for both internal and external use. 
Preparation of o/w type emulsions
Preparation of w/o type emulsifiers. 
Emulsifier of mineral oils and fats in o/w emulsions.
Solubiliser for water insoluble substances: vitamins, essential oils, fragrances, tannins, medicines, etc. 
Wetting agent. Preparation of o/w viscous milks and non-irritant gels and shampoos.
Solubilisation of essential oils.
Preparation of water-free pomades.


Applications include:

Emulsifier for the preparation of w/o emulsions. 
Emollient creams. 
Preparation of oil absorption bases (w/o). 
Formation of w/o type pomades, or o/w type.
Reabsorption agent. 
Emulsifier for insecticides. 
Non toxic anti-foaming agent.


E493
Emulsifiers, Stabilisers, Thickeners and Gelling Agents.
Sorbitan monolaurate is a lipophilic surface active agent. 
It is often used as an emulsifier in combination with polysorbates. 
It is also used to modify crystallisation of fats.

Within the EU sorbitan monolaurate is permitted in bakery products, toppings and coatings, marmalade, fat emulsions, milk and cream analogues,beverage whiteners, liquid tea concentrates and liquid fruit and herbal infusion concentrates, edible ices, emulsified sauces, dietary food supplements, chewing gum, dietetic foods intended for special medical purposes.

Abstract
The additive sorbitan monolaurate consists of sorbitol (and its anhydrides) esterified with fatty acids derived from coconut oil. 
It is intended to be used as a technological additive, functional group: emulsifier, in feedingstuffs for all animal species, at a maximum concentration of 85 mg/kg complete feed. 
The EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP) concluded that sorbitan monolaurate is safe for all animal species at the proposed maximum content of 85 mg/kg complete feed and that the use of sorbitan monolaurate in animal nutrition is not expected to pose a risk for the consumer under the proposed conditions of use. 
Users are unlikely to be exposed to sorbitan monolaurate via inhalation. 
Sorbitan monolaurate is irritant to skin and eyes and it is not considered a skin sensitiser. 
Owing the lack of data, the FEEDAP Panel cannot conclude on the safety of the additive for the environment. 
Sorbitan monolaurate is authorised for use as a food additive with the function of emulsifier. 
The technological effect underlying its use as a food additive could reasonably be expected to be seen when used in feed.


Sorbitan monolaurate is currently authorised as a technological additive, functional group (c) emulsifier, for all animal.

Sorbitan monolaurate (E 493) is approved as a food additive (COMMISSION REGULATION (EU) No 1129/2011)3 in a wide range of commonly consumed foods (up to 10 g/kg), including dietary food supplements (quantum satis).

E-numbers

The use of food additives within the EU must follow strict rules and regulations.


According to EU labelling legislation, emulsifiers must always be declared on the labels of products where they are used, either by their name or their corresponding E-number. The use of an E-number means the additive has undergone a stringent safety evaluation by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), has been found safe for use and has been authorised by the European Commission. The E-number is attached to each category of emulsifiers or other food additives and is part of an international code of recognition.

Food emulsifier E-numbers:
E 322: Lecithins 
E 431: Polyoxyethylene (40) stearate
E 432: Polyoxyethylene sorbitan monolaurate (Polysorbate 20)
E 433: Polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate (Polysorbate 80)
E 434: Polyoxyethylene sorbitan monopalmitate (Polysorbate 40)
E 435: Polyoxyethylene sorbitan monostearate (Polysorbate 60)
E 436: Polyoxyethylene sorbitan tristearate (Polysorbate 65)
E 442: Ammonium phosphatides
E 470a: Sodium, potassium and calcium salts of fatty acids
E 470b: Magnesium salts of fatty acids
E 471: Mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids
E 472a: Acetic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids
E 472b: Lactic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids
E 472c: Citric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids
E 472e: Mono- and diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids
E 472f: Mixed acetic and tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids
E 473: Sucrose esters of fatty acids
E 474: Sucroglycerides
E 475: Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids
E 476: Polyglycerol polyricinoleate
E 477: Propane-1,2-diol esters of fatty acids
E 479b: Thermally oxidised soya bean oil interacted with mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids
E 481: Sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate
E 482: Calcium stearoyl-2-lactylate
E 491: Sorbitan monostearate
E 492: Sorbitan tristearate
E 493: Sorbitan monolaurate
E 494: Sorbitan monooleate
E 495: Sorbitan monopalmitate

E 322: Lecithins

Within the EU lecithins are generally permitted for use in foodstuffs. Lecithins are used principally as emulsifiers, antispattering agents and as synergists for antioxidants.
Applications include:
• Baked goods, e.g. bread, cakes, biscuits
• Confectionery, e.g. chocolate, chewing gum, toffees
• Dairy products, e.g. imitation creams, desserts, edible ices
• Fats, e.g. margarines, spreads, shortenings
• Starch, e.g. mashed potatoes, pasta
• Salad dressings and sauces
• Instant drinks

E 431: Polyoxyethylene (40) stearate

Within the EU polyoxyethylene (40) stearate is only permitted in wine in accordance with Regulation (EEC) No 1873/84 authorising the offer or disposal for direct human consumption of certain imported wines which may have undergone oenological processes not provided for in Regulation (EEC) No 337/79. (5)

E 432: Polyoxyethylene sorbitan monolaurate (Polysorbate 20)

Polyoxyethylene sorbitan monolaurate is a strongly hydrophilic surface active agent. It is used as an emulsifier, often in combination with sorbitan esters, and its structure also enables it to fulfil other functions, such as the modification of fat crystallisation. Within the EU polyoxyethylene sorbitan monolaurate is permitted in:
• Fine bakery wares
• Fat emulsions for baking purposes
• Milk and cream analogues
• Edible ices
• Desserts
• Sugar confectionery
• Emulsified sauces
• Soups
• Chewing gum
• Dietary food supplements
• Dietetic foods intended for special medical purposes
• Dietetic formulae for weight control
• Carriers and solvents for colours, fat-soluble antioxidants and antifoaming agents

E 433: Polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate (Polysorbate 80)

Polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate is a strongly hydrophilic surface active agent. It is used as an emulsifier, often in combination with sorbitan esters. Its structure also enables it to fulfil other functions, such as the modification of fat crystallisation. Within the EU polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate is permitted in (6):
• Fine bakery wares
• Fat emulsions for baking purposes
• Milk and cream analogues
• Edible ices
• Desserts
• Sugar confectionery
• Emulsified sauces
• Soups
• Chewing gum
• Dietary food supplements
• Dietetic foods intended for special medical purposes
• Dietetic formulae for weight control
• Carriers and solvents for colours, fat-soluble antioxidants and antifoaming agents

E 434: Polyoxyethylene sorbitan monopalmitate (Polysorbate 40)

Polyoxyethylene sorbitan monopalmitate is a strongly hydrophilic surface active agent. It is used as an emulsifier, often in combination with sorbitan esters, and its structure also enables it to fulfil other functions, such as the modification of fat crystallisation. Within the EU polyoxyethylene sorbitan monopalmitate is permitted in:
• Fine bakery wares
• Fat emulsions for baking purposes
• Milk and cream analogues
• Edible ices
• Desserts
• Sugar confectionery
• Emulsified sauces
• Soups
• Chewing gum
• Dietary food supplements
• Dietetic foods intended for special medical purposes
• Dietetic formulae for weight control
• Carriers and solvents for colours, fat-soluble antioxidants and antifoaming agents

E 435: Polyoxyethylene sorbitan monostearate (Polysorbate 60)

Polyoxyethylene sorbitan monostearate is a strongly hydrophilic surface active agent. It is used as an emulsifier, often in combination with sorbitan esters, and its structure also enables it to fulfil other functions, such as the modification of fat crystallisation. Within the EU polyoxyethylene sorbitan monostearate is permitted in:
• Fine bakery wares
• Fat emulsions for baking purposes
• Milk and cream analogues
• Edible ices
• Desserts
• Sugar confectionery
• Emulsified sauces
• Soups
• Chewing gum
• Dietary food supplements
• Dietetic foods intended for special medical purposes
• Dietetic formulae for weight control
• Carriers and solvents for colours, fat-soluble antioxidants and antifoaming agents

E 436: Polyoxyethylene sorbitan tristearate (Polysorbate 65)

Polyoxyethylene sorbitan tristearate is a strongly hydrophilic surface active agent. It is used as an emulsifier, often in combination with sorbitan esters, and its structure also enables it to fulfil other functions, such as the modification of fat crystallisation. Within the EU polyoxyethylene sorbitan tristearate is permitted in:
• Fine bakery wares
• Fat emulsions for baking purposes
• Milk and cream analogues
• Edible ices
• Desserts
• Sugar confectionery
• Emulsified sauces
• Soups
• Chewing gum
• Dietary food supplements
• Dietetic foods intended for special medical purposes
• Dietetic formulae for weight control
• Carriers and solvents for colours, fat-soluble antioxidants and antifoaming agents

E 442: Ammonium phosphatides

Ammonium phosphatides are used to control the viscosity of molten chocolate as a flavour-free substitute for soya lecithin. Within the EU ammonium phosphatides are permitted in:
• Cocoa and chocolate products as defined in Directive 73/241/EEC including fillings
• Confectionery based on these products

E 470a: Sodium, potassium and calcium salts of fatty acids

Within the EU sodium, potassium and calcium salts of fatty acids are generally permitted for use in foodstuffs. Sodium, potassium and calcium salts of fatty acids are used either alone or together with other fatty acid based emulsifiers, either by direct addition or, as a result of the manufacturing process, as co-emulsifiers.
Applications include:
• Baked goods, e.g. bread, cakes, biscuits, rusks
• Confectionery, e.g. chewing gum, toffees, sugar confectionery
• Dairy products, e.g. imitation creams, desserts, edible ices
• Fats, e.g. margarines, spreads, shortenings
• Starch, e.g. mashed potatoes, pasta
• Salad dressings and sauces

E 470b: Magnesium salts of fatty acids

Within the EU magnesium salts of fatty acids are generally permitted for use in foodstuffs. Magnesium salts of fatty acids are used as anticaking and binding agents. In addition, they can also be used together with other fatty acid based emulsifiers, either by direct addition or, as a result of the manufacturing process, as co-emulsifiers.
Applications include:
• Baked goods, e.g. bread, cakes, biscuits
• Confectionery, e.g. chewing gum, toffees, sugar confectionery
• Dairy products, e.g. milk powders, desserts, edible ices
• Fats, e.g. margarines, spreads, shortenings
• Starch, e.g. mashed potatoes, pasta
• Salad dressings and sauces
• Instant drinks

E 471: Mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids

Within the EU mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids are generally permitted for use in foodstuffs. Mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids are used principally as emulsifiers, starch-complexing agents and aerating agents and they are widely used.
Applications include:
• Baked goods, e.g. bread, cakes
• Confectionery, e.g. chewing gum, toffees, caramels
• Dairy products, e.g. imitation creams, desserts, edible ices
• Fats, e.g. margarines, shortenings
• Starch, e.g. mashed potatoes, pasta

E 472a: Acetic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids

Within the EU acetic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides are generally permitted for use in foodstuffs. Acetic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides have excellent aerating and foam stabilising properties. They are also used as lubricants and release agents.
Applications include:
• Topping powders
• Chewing gum base
• Coatings
• Cakes

E 472b: Lactic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids

Within the EU lactic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides are generally permitted for use in foodstuffs. Lactic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides are used to improve aeration and foam stability as well as texture and volume.
Applications include:
• Topping powders
• Non-dairy creams
• Dairy and recombined creams
• Fine bakery wares
• Shortening
• Chocolate compounds

E 472c: Citric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids

Within the EU citric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids are generally permitted for use in foods. The product is widely used within the food industry, e.g. as an emulsifier, stabiliser, antispattering agent, flour improver, protein-binding agent and as a synergist for antioxidants. The following should only be considered as typical major applications:
• In fats for stabilising, also as synergists for antioxidants
• In baking fat emulsions, bakery margarines and shortening for stabilising
• In flour for improving the baking performance of ready-to-use flours
• In bread dough or other yeast doughs for improving baking performance
• In margarine as emulsifiers and antispattering agents
• In mayonnaise, salad dressings, sauces etc. as emulsifiers and stabilizers
• In sausages for enhancing the binding effects of meat
• In low-calorie food for fats, shortenings and baking fat emulsions with high water content to lower the fat intake
• In chocolate for controlling flow properties

E 472e: Mono- and diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids

Within the EU mono- and diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides are generally permitted for use in foodstuffs. Mono- and diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides are used as dough conditioners for all baked products, particularly yeast-leavened products, white bread and rusks, and in ready-mixed flours, particularly for use in the .all-in. method. Other applications include:
• Beverage whiteners
• Cream analogues
• Chewing gum
• Meat and poultry products
• Emulsified sauces
• Canned coffee or tea
• Carriers or solvents for colours and food antioxidants

E 472f: Mixed acetic and tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids

Within the EU mixed acetic and tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides are generally permitted for use in foodstuffs. Mixed acetic and tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides are used as dough conditioners for all baked products, particularly yeast-leavened products, white bread and rusks, and in ready-mixed flours, particularly for use in the .all-in. method.
Other applications include:
• Beverage whiteners
• Cream analogues
• Chewing gum
• Meat and poultry products
• Emulsified sauces
• Canned coffee or tea
• Carriers or solvents for colours and food antioxidants

E 473: Sucrose esters of fatty acids

Sucrose esters of fatty acids are used, for instance, as aerating and starch complexing agents. They are also used to improve fat dispersion and stability. Within the EU sucrose esters of fatty acids are permitted in:
• Canned liquid coffee
• Heat-treated meat products
• Fat emulsions for baking purposes
• Fine bakery wares
• Beverage whiteners
• Edible ices
• Chewing gum
• Sugar confectionery
• Desserts
• Cream analogues
• Sterilised cream
• Sauces
• Soups and broths
• Fresh fruits, surface treatment
• Non-alcoholic aniseed-based drinks
• Non-alcoholic coconut and almond drinks
• Spirituous beverages (excluding wine and beer)
• Powders for the preparation of hot beverages
• Dairy-based drinks
• Dietary food supplements
• Dietetic foods intended for medical purposes
• Carriers and solvents for colours and fat-soluble antioxidants

E 474: Sucroglycerides

Sucroglycerides are used, for instance, as aerating and starch-complexing agents. They are also used to improve fat dispersion and stability. Within the EU sucroglycerides are permitted in:
• Canned liquid coffee
• Heat-treated meat products
• Fat emulsions for baking purposes
• Fine bakery wares
• Beverage whiteners
• Edible ices
• Chewing gum
• Sugar confectionery
• Desserts
• Cream analogues
• Sterilised cream
• Sauces
• Soups and broths
• Fresh fruits, surface treatment
• Non-alcoholic aniseed-based drinks
• Non-alcoholic coconut and almond drinks
• Spirituous beverages (excluding wine and beer)
• Powders for the preparation of hot beverages
• Dairy-based drinks
• Dietary food supplements
• Dietetic foods intended for medical purposes
• Carriers and solvents for colours and fat-soluble antioxidants

E 475: Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids

Polyglycerol esters are widely used in foods as aerating agents, crystal modifiers, starch-complexing agents, dough conditioners, humectants, defoaming agents and anti-spattering agents. Within the EU polyglycerol esters of fatty acids are permitted in:
• Fine bakery wares
• Emulsified liqueurs
• Egg products
• Beverage whiteners
• Chewing gum
• Fat emulsions
• Milk and cream analogues
• Sugar confectionery
• Granola-type breakfast cereals
• Desserts
• Dietary food supplements
• Dietetic foods intended for special medical purposes
• Dietetic formulae for weight control intended to replace total daily food intake or an individual meal
• Carriers and solvents for colours and fat-soluble antioxidants

E 476: Polyglycerol polyricinoleate

Polyglycerol polyricinoleate is used principally as a viscosity modifier. It is also used to maintain stable emulsions of oil and water systems at high water content. Within the EU polyglycerol polyricinoleate is permitted in :
• Spreadable fats as defined in Annexes A, B and C of Regulation (EC) No 2991/94 having a fat content of 41% or less
• Similar spreadable products with a fat content of less than 10% fat
• Dressings
• Cocoa-based confectionery, including chocolate

E 477: Propane-1,2-diol esters of fatty acids

The product imparts excellent aerating and foam stabilising properties. Within the EU propane-1,2-diol esters of fatty acids are permitted in:
• Fine bakery wares
• Fat emulsions for baking purposes
• Milk and cream analogues
• Beverage whiteners
• Edible ices
• Sugar confectionery
• Desserts
• Whipped dessert toppings other than cream
• Dietetic foods intended for special medical purposes
• Dietetic formulae for weight control

E 479b: Thermally oxidised soya bean oil interacted with mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids

The product provides excellent frying and anti-spattering properties. Within the EU thermally oxidised soya bean oil interacted with mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids is permitted in:
• Fat emulsions for frying purposes

E 481: Sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate

Sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate is used principally in bakery applications to increase the softness and crumb structure of bread and rolls and maintain softness during storage. It is also used in coffee creamers to ensure good dispersion and whitening power and in fine bakery wares as a fat replacer.
Within the EU sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate is permitted in:
• Fine bakery wares
• Quick-cook rice
• Breakfast cereals
• Emulsified liqueur
• Spirits with less than 15% alcohol by volume
• Fat emulsions
• Desserts
• Sugar confectionery
• Chewing gum
• Beverage whiteners
• Powders for the preparation of hot beverages
• Cereal- and potato-based snacks
• Minced and diced canned meat products
• Dietetic foods
• Bread

E 482: Calcium stearoyl-2-lactylate

Calcium stearoyl-2-lactylate is used principally in bakery applications to increase the softness and crumb structure of bread and rolls and maintain softness during storage. It is also used in fine bakery wares as a fat replacer.
Within the EU calcium stearoyl-2-lactylate is permitted in:
• Fine bakery wares
• Quick-cook rice
• Breakfast cereals
• Emulsified liqueur
• Spirits with less than 15% alcohol by volume
• Fat emulsions
• Desserts
• Sugar confectionery
• Chewing gum
• Beverage whiteners
• Powders for the preparation of hot beverages
• Cereal- and potato-based snacks
• Minced and diced canned meat products
• Dietetic foods
• Bread

E 491: Sorbitan monostearate

Sorbitan monostearate is a lipophilic surface-active agent. It is often used as an emulsifier in combination with polysorbates. It is also used to modify crystallisation of fats. Within the EU sorbitan monostearate is permitted in:
• Fine bakery wares
• Toppings and coatings for fine bakery wares
• Fat emulsions
• Milk and cream analogues
• Beverage whiteners
• Liquid tea concentrates and liquid fruit and herbal infusion concentrates
• Edible ices
• Desserts
• Sugar confectionery
• Emulsified sauces
• Dietary food supplements
• Yeast for baking
• Chewing gum
• Dietetic foods intended for special medical purposes
• Dietetic formulae for weight control
• Carriers and solvents for colours and anti-foaming agents

E 492: Sorbitan tristearate

Sorbitan tristearate is a lipophilic surface-active agent. It is often used as an emulsifier in combination with polysorbates. It is also used to modify crystallisation of fats. Within the EU sorbitan tristearate is permitted in:
• Fine bakery wares
• Toppings and coatings for fine bakery wares
• Fat emulsions
• Milk and cream analogues
• Beverage whiteners
• Liquid tea concentrates and liquid fruit and herbal infusion concentrates
• Edible ices
• Desserts
• Sugar confectionery
• Cocoa-based confectionery, including chocolate
• Emulsified sauces
• Dietary food supplements
• Yeast for baking
• Chewing gum
• Dietetic foods intended for special medical purposes
• Dietetic formulae for weight control
• Carriers and solvents for colours and anti-foaming agents

E 493: Sorbitan monolaurate

Sorbitan monolaurate is a lipophilic surface active agent. It is often used as an emulsifier in combination with polysorbates. It is also used to modify crystallisation of fats. Within the EU sorbitan monolaurate is permitted in:
• Fine bakery wares
• Toppings and coatings for fine bakery wares
• Jelly marmalade
• Fat emulsions
• Milk and cream analogues
• Beverage whiteners
• Liquid tea concentrates and liquid fruit and herbal infusion concentrates
• Edible ices
• Desserts
• Sugar confectionery
• Emulsified sauces
• Dietary food supplements
• Yeast for baking
• Chewing gum
• Dietetic foods intended for special medical purposes
• Dietetic formulae for weight control
• Carriers and solvents for colours and anti-foaming agents

E 494: Sorbitan monooleate

Sorbitan monooleate is a lipophilic surface-active agent. It is often used as an emulsifier in combination with polysorbates. It is also used to modify crystallisation of fats. Within the EU sorbitan monooleate is permitted in:
• Fine bakery wares
• Toppings and coatings for fine bakery wares
• Fat emulsions
• Milk and cream analogues
• Beverage whiteners
• Liquid tea concentrates and liquid fruit and herbal infusion concentrates
• Edible ices
• Desserts
• Sugar confectionery
• Emulsified sauces
• Dietary food supplements
• Yeast for baking
• Chewing gum
• Dietetic foods intended for special medical purposes
• Dietetic formulae for weight control
• Carriers and solvents for colours and anti-foaming agents

E 495: Sorbitan monopalmitate

Sorbitan monopalmitate is a lipophilic surface-active agent. It is often used as an emulsifier in combination with polysorbates. It is also used to modify crystallisation of fats. Within the EU sorbitan monopalmitate is permitted in:
• Fine bakery wares
• Toppings and coatings for fine bakery wares
• Fat emulsions
• Milk and cream analogues
• Beverage whiteners
• Liquid tea concentrates and liquid fruit and herbal infusion concentrates
• Edible ices
• Desserts
• Sugar confectionery
• Emulsified sauces
• Dietary food supplements
• Yeast for baking
• Chewing gum
• Dietetic foods intended for special medical purposes
• Dietetic formulae for weight control
• Carriers and solvents for colours and anti-foaming agents

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