SUCCINIC ACID


Succinic acid (/səkˈsɪnɪk/) is a dicarboxylic acid with the chemical formula (CH2)2(CO2H)2.
The name derives from Latin succinum, meaning amber. 
In living organisms, succinic acid takes the form of an anion, succinate, which has multiple biological roles as a metabolic intermediate being converted into fumarate by the enzyme succinate dehydrogenase in complex 2 of the electron transport chain which is involved in making ATP, and as a signaling molecule reflecting the cellular metabolic state.
It is marketed as food additive E363. Succinate is generated in mitochondria via the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA). 
Succinate can exit the mitochondrial matrix and function in the cytoplasm as well as the extracellular space, changing gene expression patterns, modulating epigenetic landscape or demonstrating hormone-like signaling.
As such, succinate links cellular metabolism, especially ATP formation, to the regulation of cellular function. 
Dysregulation of succinate synthesis, and therefore ATP synthesis, happens in some genetic mitochondrial diseases, such as Leigh syndrome, and Melas syndrome, and degradation can lead to pathological conditions, such as malignant transformation, inflammation and tissue injury.

Succinic acid is one of the most promising platform chemicals with various potential applications (e.g., food and beverages, pharmaceuticals, polymers, paints, cosmetics, inks).

EC / List no.: 203-740-4
CAS no.: 110-15-6
Mol. formula: C4H6O4


AMBER ACID
ASUCCIN
BUTANEDIOIC ACID
1,4-BUTANEDIOIC ACID
DIHYDROFUMARIC ACID
1,2-ETHANEDICARBOXYLIC ACID
KATASUCCIN
SUCCINIC ACID
WORMWOOD
WORMWOOD ACID


Succinic acid is a non-hygroscopic acidulant of relatively low acid strength. 
Its apparent taste characteristics are very similar to the other acidulants of this type; there is some evidence that it has a rather slow taste build-up, which is an advantage when it is used as an acidulant in certain foods. 
It gives a much greater latitude in the formulation of powdered foods and beverages, since it has a much greater solubility in water at room temperatures than the other non-deliquescent acids.

Succinic acid is one of the natural acids found in foods such as broccoli, rhubarb, sugar beets, fresh meat extracts, various cheeses, and sauerkraut. 
All of these products have very distinct and marked flavours, which may be due in part to a flavour enhancement by the small amounts of succinic acid naturally present. 
This would suggest that succinic acid might have some interesting effects on various flavours that cannot be duplicated with other food acids.

Succinic acid, also known as ethylenesuccinate or butanedionic acid, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as dicarboxylic acids and derivatives. 
These are organic compounds containing exactly two carboxylic acid groups. 
Succinic acid is a very hydrophobic molecule, practically insoluble (in water), and relatively neutral. 
Succinic acid exists in all living species, ranging from bacteria to humans. 
Succinic acid is a potentially toxic compound.


What is Succinic Acid (E363) in Food? 

Succinic acid or butanedioic acid, a naturally occurring dicarboxylic acid that can be used as an acidulant and flavouring agent in food with the European food additive number E363. 
This ingredient is commonly used in industrial applications instead of in food. 
Generally, when used in food, it is safe, natural or synthetic, vegan, halal, kosher and gluten-free. 


Physical properties
Succinic acid is a white, odorless solid with a highly acidic taste
In an aqueous solution, succinic acid readily ionizes to form its conjugate base, succinate (/ˈsʌksɪneɪt/). 
As a diprotic acid, succinic acid undergoes two successive deprotonation reactions:

(CH2)2(CO2H)2 → (CH2)2(CO2H)(CO2)− + H+
(CH2)2(CO2H)(CO2)− → (CH2)2(CO2)22− + H+
The pKa of these processes are 4.3 and 5.6, respectively. 
Both anions are colorless and can be isolated as the salts, e.g., Na(CH2)2(CO2H)(CO2) and Na2(CH2)2(CO2)2. 
In living organisms, primarily succinate, not succinic acid, is found.

As a radical group it is called a succinyl (/ˈsʌksɪnəl/) group.

Like most simple mono- and dicarboxylic acids, it is not harmful but can be an irritant to skin and eyes.

Production and common reactions
Commercial production
Historically, succinic acid was obtained from amber by distillation and has thus been known as spirit of amber. 
Common industrial routes include hydrogenation of maleic acid, oxidation of 1,4-butanediol, and carbonylation of ethylene glycol. 
Succinate is also produced from butane via maleic anhydride.
Global production is estimated at 16,000 to 30,000 tons a year, with an annual growth rate of 10%.

Genetically engineered Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae are proposed for the commercial production via fermentation of glucose.

Chemical reactions
Succinic acid can be dehydrogenated to fumaric acid or be converted to diesters, such as diethylsuccinate (CH2CO2CH2CH3)2. 
This diethyl ester is a substrate in the Stobbe condensation. 
Dehydration of succinic acid gives succinic anhydride.
Succinate can be used to derive 1,4-butanediol, maleic anhydride, succinimide, 2-pyrrolidinone and tetrahydrofuran.

Applications
In 2004, succinate was placed on the US Department of Energy's list of top 12 platform chemicals from biomass.

Precursor to polymers, resins, and solvents
Succinic acid is a precursor to some polyesters and a component of some alkyd resins.
1,4-Butanediol (BDO) can be synthesized using succinic acid as a precursor.
The automotive and electronics industries heavily rely on BDO to produce connectors, insulators, wheel covers, gearshift knobs and reinforcing beams.
Succinic acid also serves as the bases of certain biodegradable polymers, which are of interest in tissue engineering applications.

Acylation with succinic acid is called succination. Oversuccination occurs when more than one succinate adds to a substrate.

Food and dietary supplement
As a food additive and dietary supplement, succinic acid is generally recognized as safe by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
Succinic acid is used primarily as an acidity regulator in the food and beverage industry.
It is also available as a flavoring agent, contributing a somewhat sour and astringent component to umami taste.
As an excipient in pharmaceutical products, it is also used to control acidity[21] or as a counter ion.
Drugs involving succinate include metoprolol succinate, sumatriptan succinate, Doxylamine succinate or solifenacin succinate

Preferred IUPAC name: Butanedioic acid
Other names: Succinic acid;  1,4-Butanedioic acid
CAS Number: 110-15-6 

Chemical formula: C4H6O4
Molar mass: 118.088 g·mol−1
Melting point: 184–190 °C 
Boiling point: 235 °C 
Solubility in water    58 g/L (20 °C)[2] or 100 mg/mL[3]
Solubility in Methanol    158 mg/mL[3]
Solubility in Ethanol    54 mg/mL[3]
Solubility in Acetone    27 mg/mL[3]
Solubility in Glycerol    50 mg/mL[3]
Solubility in Ether    8.8 mg/mL[3]
Acidity (pKa): pKa1 = 4.2
pKa2 = 5.6
Magnetic susceptibility (χ): -57.9·10−6 cm3/mol

Succinic acid accounts for up to the 90% of the nonvolatile acids produced during alcoholic fermentation 

Succinic acid, derived from fermentation of glucose, has a market as a speciality chemical in industries producing food and pharmaceutical products, surfactants and detergents, green solvents and biodegradable plastics, and ingredients to stimulate animal and plant growth


Succinic acid is a naturally occurring four-carbon dicarboxylic acid with the molecular formula C4H6O4 that is produced by liquefied petroleum gas. 
However, petroleum gas is expensive and thus succinic acid (SA) is generated by different microbes. 
SA is naturally formed by most living cells as an outcome of anaerobic digestion. 
It is a common organic acid, which can be used in many food, chemical, and pharmaceutical industries as a precursor to generate many chemicals such as solvents, perfumes, lacquers, plasticizer, dyes, and photographic chemicals. 
Succinic acid is also used as an antibiotic and curative agent. 
It also finds application as a surfactant, ion chelator, and as an additive in various industries


Precursor to polymers, resins, and solvents
Succinic acid is a precursor to some polyesters and a component of some alkyd resins.
1,4-Butanediol (BDO) can be synthesized using succinic acid as a precursor.
The automotive and electronics industries heavily rely on BDO to produce connectors, insulators, wheel covers, gearshift knobs and reinforcing beams.
Succinic acid also serves as the bases of certain biodegradable polymers, which are of interest in tissue engineering applications.

Acylation with succinic acid is called succination. Oversuccination occurs when more than one succinate adds to a substrate.

Food and dietary supplement
As a food additive and dietary supplement, succinic acid is generally recognized as safe by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
Succinic acid is used primarily as an acidity regulator in the food and beverage industry. 
It is also available as a flavoring agent, contributing a somewhat sour and astringent component to umami taste.
As an excipient in pharmaceutical products, it is also used to control acidity[21] or as a counter ion.
Drugs involving succinate include metoprolol succinate, sumatriptan succinate, Doxylamine succinate or solifenacin succinate.


succinic acid
butanedioic acid
110-15-6
Amber acid
Asuccin
Wormwood acid
Dihydrofumaric acid
Katasuccin
Bernsteinsaure
ethylenesuccinic acid
1,2-Ethanedicarboxylic acid
1,4-Butanedioic acid
Wormwood
Butandisaeure
Acidum succinicum
Butanedionic acid
Kyselina jantarova
Butane diacid
Ethylene dicarboxylic acid
Spirit of amber
Bernsteinsaure [German]
Kyselina jantarova [Czech]
MFCD00002789
Ammonium succinate
HSDB 791
UNII-AB6MNQ6J6L
succ
NSC 106449
C4H6O4
AI3-06297
Succinic acid, 99%
EINECS 203-740-4
AB6MNQ6J6L
BRN 1754069
E363


1,2-Ethanedicarboxylate
1,2-Ethanedicarboxylic acid
1,4-Butanedioate
1,4-Butanedioic acid
Amber acid
Asuccin
butanedioic acid, ion(2-)
Dihydrofumarate
Dihydrofumaric acid
Katasuccin
Succinate
Wormwood acid
Acide butanedioique
Acide succinique
Acidum succinicum
Bernsteinsaeure
Butandisaeure
Butanedionic acid
e363
Ethylenesuccinic acid
HOOC-CH2-CH2-COOH
Spirit OF amber
Butanedionate
Ethylenesuccinate
2-Acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucose
D-GlcNAc
N-Acetyl-D-glucosamine
N-Acetylchitosamine
N Acetyl D glucosamine
2 Acetamido 2 deoxy D glucose
2 Acetamido 2 deoxyglucose
2-Acetamido-2-deoxyglucose
Acetylglucosamine
1,2 Ethanedicarboxylic acid
1,4 Butanedioic acid
Potassium succinate
Succinate, ammonium
Butanedioic acid
Succinate, potassium
Ammonium succinate


CHEBI:15741
C4-beta-polymorph
NSC25949
Succinicum acidum
NCGC00159372-02
NCGC00159372-04
Succinellite
ethylenedicarboxylic acid
acide succinique
Sal succini
Acid of amber
DSSTox_CID_3602
WLN: QV2VQ
Succinic acid, ACS reagent
DSSTox_RID_77102
DSSTox_GSID_23602
SIN
Ethylene succinic acid
Ethanedicarboxylic acid
Bernsteinsaeure
sodium succinate (anhydrous)
succinate, 9
acide butanedioique
CAS-110-15-6
Succinic acid [NF]
Succinic acid (8CI)
Butanedioic acid (9CI)
succinic-acid
Butanedioic acid diammonium salt
Salt of amber
1cze
Butanedioic acid?
Nat.Succinic Acid
1,4-Butanedioate
succinic acid group
Succinic acid, 6
Succinic acid, FCC
Succinic Acide,(S)
Succinic Acid (SA)
Succinic acid, natural
4lh2
1,2-Ethanedicarboxylate
Substrate analogue, 11
Succinic acid, ACS grade
bmse000183
bmse000968
CHEMBL576
EC 203-740-4
HOOC-CH2-CH2-COOH
A 12084
4-02-00-01908 (Beilstein Handbook Reference)
KSC175Q2B
Succinic acid 110-15-6
ACMC-20995h
GTPL3637
DTXSID6023602
BDBM26121
CTK0H5820
KS-00000UER
HMS3885O04
ZINC895030
HY-N0420
STR02803
Tox21_111612
Tox21_201918
Tox21_303247
ANW-16131
BBL002473
LMFA01170043
NSC-25949
NSC106449
s3791
SBB040562
STK387105
Succinic acid, >=99%, FCC, FG
Succinic acid, BioXtra, >=99.0%
AKOS000118899
Tox21_111612_1
CCG-266069
DB00139
LS40373
MCULE-5889111640
NSC-106449
SuccinicAcid(IndustrialGrade&FoodGrade)
4-$l^{1}-oxidanyl-4-oxobutanoic acid
Succinic acid, ACS reagent, >=99.0%

Succinic acid, also called Butanedioic Acid, a dicarboxylic acid of molecular formula C4H6O4 that is widely distributed in almost all plant and animal tissues and that plays a significant role in intermediary metabolism. 
It is a colourless crystalline solid, soluble in water, with a melting point of 185–187° C (365–369° F).


Succinic acid was first obtained as a distillation product of amber (Latin: succinum), for which it is named. 
The common method of synthesis of succinic acid is the catalytic hydrogenation of maleic acid or its anhydride, although other methods are being used and investigated. 
Succinic acid has uses in certain drug compounds, in agricultural and food production, and in manufacturing.

LEARN MORE in these related Britannica articles:
oxidation of alcohols
carboxylic acid: Polycarboxylic acids
With succinic acid, the two COOH groups combine with the loss of a water molecule to produce succinic anhydride. 
Glutaric acid, with five carbon atoms, behaves similarly to yield glutaric anhydride. 
These reactions produce five- and six-membered rings, respectively, which are in general the easiest ring…


Succinic acid was first obtained as a distillation product of amber (Latin: succinum), for which it is named. 
The common method of synthesis of succinic acid is the catalytic hydrogenation of maleic acid or its anhydride, although other methods are being used and investigated. 
Succinic acid has uses in certain drug compounds, in agricultural and food production, and in manufacturing.


Succinic Acid
SA producing organisms also produce other acids like lactic acid and acetic acid along with succinic acid which makes the purification of SA from a mixture of other acids costly and inefficient.


Succinic and malic acids and their derivatives are commonly used chemicals and are closely associated with our everyday life in the forms of food ingredients, acidulants, cosmetic products, detergents, herbicides, lubricants, biodegradable polymers, record films, clothes fibers, rubbers, and pharmaceuticals. 
Although succinic and malic acids are mostly produced through the petrochemical processes, their biotechnological production has been drawing much attention due to the environmental concerns and the unstable and increasing oil prices. 
In this article, both chemical and biotechnological processes for the production of succinic and malic acids are described. 
Focus is given on the metabolic engineering strategies for the development of the production strains. 
Also, production and applications of their major derivatives are reviewed. 
Finally, future directions in the development of strains and bioprocesses are discussed.


Succinic acid's production and use in the manufacturing of lacquers, dyes, and esters for perfumes and in foods as a sequestrant, buffer, and neutralizing agent may result in its release to the environment through various waste streams. 
If released into water, succinic acid is not expected to adsorb to suspended solids and sediments in the water column. 
The potential for bioconcentration of succinic acid in aquatic organisms is low. 
If released into the atmosphere, succinic acid is expected to exist in both the particulate and vapor phases in the ambient atmosphere. 
Vapor-phase succinic acid will be degraded in the atmosphere by reaction with photochemically-produced hydroxyl radicals with an estimated half-life of about 5.8 days.


In the bioeconomy era, succinic acid will be established as a key platform chemical for industrial applications. 
Succinic acid can be used as an intermediate for various end-products due to the presence of two functional carboxylic groups

Recovery of Succinic Acid
The downstream processing for the purification of succinic acid is critical for the cost of production. 
Separation of by-products (acetic, formic, lactic and pyruvic acids) and the need for recovery of the free acid from its salt form, in which it normally exists in the broth due to the addition of the buffering agent for pH control, are the main steps which can be very costly and not always efficient.

1,2-Ethanedicarboxylic acid
1,4-Butanedioic acid
110-15-6 [RN]
203-740-4 [EINECS]
4-02-00-01908 [Beilstein]
Acide butanedioique [French]
Acide succinique [French] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
Acido succinico [Italian]
ácido succínico [Spanish]
Ácido succínico [Portuguese]
acidum succinicum [Latin]
Bernsteinsaeure [German]
Bernsteinsäure [German] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
Butanedioic acid [ACD/Index Name]
HOOC-CH2-CH2-COOH [Formula]
Kyselina jantarova [Czech]
MFCD00002789 [MDL number]
QV2VQ [WLN]
Succinic acid [ACD/IUPAC Name] [Wiki]
Succinic acid
Ηλεκτρικό οξύ [Modern Greek (1453-)]
Янтарная кислота [Russian]
コハク酸 [Japanese]
琥珀酸 [Chinese]
14493-42-6 [RN]
152556-05-3 [RN]
21668-90-6 [RN]
61128-08-3 [RN]
acidum succinicum
amber acid
asuccin
Bernsteinsaeure
Bernsteinsaure
Butandisaeure
BUTANE DIACID
BUTANEDIOICACID
CpeE protein
DB00139
Dihydrofumaric acid
Ethanedicarboxylic acid
Ethylene dicarboxylic acid
Ethylene succinic acid
FMR
fum
Fumaric acid [Wiki]
http://www.hmdb.ca/metabolites/HMDB0000254
https://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi/searchId.do?chebiId=CHEBI:15741
Katasuccin
Kyselina jantarova
MAE
Maleic acid [Wiki]
Sal succini
STR02803
Succinellite
Succinic acid 100 µg/mL in Acetonitrile
succinic acid(free acid)
Succinic acid, ACS grade
SUCCINIC-D4 ACID
succunic acide
Wormwood acid


1,2-Ethanedicarboxylic acid
1,4-Butanedioic acid
Acidum succinicum
Amber acid
Asuccin
Bernsteinsaure
Butandisaeure
Dihydrofumaric acid
DL-Malic acid
Ethylene dicarboxylic acid
Ethylenesuccinic acid
Katasuccin
Kyselina jantarova
Succinate
Succinic acid
Succinic acid
succinic acid

Succinicum acidum
Wormwood acid
CAS names
Butanedioic acid

IUPAC names
1,4-Butanedioic acid
Butanedioic Acid
Butanedioic acid
butanedioic acid
Butanedioic acid
Butanedionic aci
Ethanedicarboxylic acid
Succinic
SUCCINIC ACID
Succinic Acid
Succinic acid
succinic acid
Succinic Acid
Succinic acid
succinic acid

Trade names
Biosuccinium™
Succinic acid
Succinic Acid 99,7


1,2-Ethanedicarboxylic acid    
Acide butanedioique    
Acide succinique    
Acidum succinicum    
Amber acid    
Asuccin


External Descriptors    
C4-dicarboxylic acid (CHEBI:15741 )
alpha,omega-dicarboxylic acid (CHEBI:15741 )
Dicarboxylic acids (LMFA01170043 )

    
Succinate;
Succinic acid;
Butanedionic acid;
Ethylenesuccinic acid

Succinic acid (butanedioic acid) is a dicarboxylic acid that occurs naturally in plant and animal tissues. 
The chemical is also known as “Spirit of Amber.” When it was first discovered, it was extracted from amber by pulverizing and distilling it using a sand bath. 
It was primarily used externally for rheumatic aches and pains.

Almost infinite esters can be obtained from carboxylic acids. 
Esters are produced by combining an acid with an alcohol and removal of a water molecule. 
Carboxylic acid esters are used in a variety of direct and indirect applications.

Lower chain esters are used as flavoring base materials, plasticizers, solvent carriers and coupling agents. 
Higher chain compounds are used as components in metalworking fluids, surfactants, lubricants, detergents, oiling agents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, textile treatments and emollients.

Esters are also used as intermediates for the manufacture of a variety of target compounds. 
The almost infinite esters provide a wide range of viscosity, specific gravity, vapor pressure, boiling point, and other physical and chemical properties for the proper application selections.

succinic acid is used as a flavoring agent for food and beverages. 
Producing five heterocyclic compounds, it is used as an intermediate for dyes, perfumes, lacquers, photographic chemicals, alkyd resins, plasticizers, metal treatment chemicals, and coatings. 
It is also used in the manufacture of medicines for sedatives, antispasmers, antiplegm, antiphogistic, anrhoers, contraceptives, and cancer-curing.

This four carbon dicarboxylic acid has uses in a number of industries including polymers (clothing fibres), food, surfactants and detergents, flavors and fragrances and as a starting material for any number of chemicals including adipic acid, N-methyl pyrrolidinone, 2-pyrrolidinone, succinate salts, 1,4-butanediol, maleic anhydride, tetrahydrofuran and gamma-butyrolactone, which are used in the pharmaceutical industry. 
Succinic acid has many uses in the pharma industry – too many to mention, but some examples are as a starting material for active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), as an additive in formulation, succinic acid monoethyl ester has been used as an insulinotropic agent, and the compound has also been used as a cross linker in drug control release polymers.

The estimated 2010 worldwide use of succinic acid is around 20,000 to 30,000 tonnes per year and this is on the increase by around 10 per cent a year. 
It occurs naturally in plant and animal tissues. 
The chemical plays a significant role in intermediary metabolism (Krebs cycle) in the body. 
The Krebs cycle (also known as citric acid cycle) is a sequence process of enzymatic reaction in which a two-carbon acetyl unit is oxidized to carbon dioxide and water to provide energy in the form of high-energy phosphate bonds.

Succinic acid is a colorless crystalline solid with a melting point of 185-187° C. 
It is soluble in water, slightly dissolves in ethanol, ether, acetone and glycerine. 
It does not dissolve in benzene, carbon sulfide, carbon tetrachloride or oil ether.

Carboxylic acids can yield acyl halides, anhydrides, esters, amides, and nitriles for applications in the drug, agriculture, food products, and other industries.

Succinic acid, derived from fermentation of agricultural carbohydrates, has a specialty chemical market in industries producing food and pharmaceutical products, surfactants and detergents, green solvents and biodegradable plastics, and ingredients to stimulate animal and plant growth.

Succinic acid was traditionally produced synthetically from fossil oil or by an expensive distillation of amber. 
During the last decade, new methods of production through biotechnological processes have been developed industrially (so-called bio-succinic acid). 
Looking for more natural ingredients, the cosmetics market now has access to a new affordable plant-based ingredient.

Bio-succinic acid: A new natural potent multifunctional agent​

Succinic acid is an aliphatic dicarboxylic acid (diacid) described by the empirical formula C4H6O4, and is naturally found in living organisms. 
This diacid is one entry pathway into the Krebs cycle that takes place inside the mitochondria found in all cells in the human body. Succinic acid provides energy required for the organism to function and is therefore involved in a variety of important biological actions.
Widely used in the food industry as a chelating agent and as a pH adjuster, succinic acid has been recognized as a safe substance for years. 
Studies also proved its antioxidant properties especially for cosmetics. 
Succinic acid is also a fully safe intermediate to manufacture derivatives like emollients, surfactants and emulsifiers used in cosmetic formulations.

Bio-succinic acid offers a wide array of cosmetic uses​

Antimicrobial agent:​ Organic acids like sorbic, benzoic and salicylic acids have been used for decades in topical application products as preservative systems, but all face a poor solubility in water. 
Bio-succinic acid is shown to have a much higher and favorable solubility in water and be an efficient and easy-to-use preservative booster. An initial investigation into the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of bio-succinic acid, carried out with salicylic acid used as a benchmark, has demonstrated that bio-succinic acid shows a decrease of microbial growth of above 99.9% at concentration as low as 0.1% against the strains of S. Mutans, P. Acnes and G. Vaginalis, thus outperforming salicylic acid effects (3).
Anti-acne treatment:​ Bio-succinic acid can be used in as an efficient alternative for salicylic acid or as a booster for other anti-acne ingredients. 
New studies are ongoing to prove an activity against more strains, which could extend its use in cosmetics.
Antioxidant activity:​ 
Bio-succinic acid is able to reduce intensity of the lipid peroxidation, and therefore may act as an anti-pollution agent and improve cosmetic product stability.

Collagen degradation inhibitor:​ 
Studies in the field of oncology seem to suggest this activity, meaning that bio-succinic acid could act as an anti-aging agent.

Mitochondrial activity enhancer:​ 
Succinic acid can enhance mitochondrial activity in skin cells and may show a potential use in products with skin energizing and revitalizing effect. 
The increase in oxygen consumption may accelerate fat cell metabolism, proving useful in improving lipolysis, in anti-cellulite and slimming products.
Cell hyperproliferation prevention:​ Succinate has been shown to inhibit cell proliferation stimulating mitochondrial respiration. 
This ability may be useful in the prevention of hyperproliferation at skin level, e.g., in psoriasis or hyperkeratosis prevention.


"Succinic Acid" is distributed widely through the natural world, where it is contained in bivalves, fossils, seaweed, lichen, bacteria and so on. 
It was discovered in the year 1550 when Dr.Agricola with Germany distilled amber. 
"Succinic Acid" is useful, non-toxic, stable and harmless to the human body. 
It is generated in a citric acid cycle (succinic acid dehydrate enzyme) and a succinic acid-glycine cycle through the process of metabolism and eventually becomes energy. 
Succinic Acid is industrially produced by hydrogenation of Maleic Anhydride. 
Succinic Acid of ATAMAN CHEMICALS has not only been used as food additives but also biodegradable polymers, bath additives, plating agents, photochemicals and so on.

Succinic acid production by anaerobic fermentation is a green biotechnology alternative to valorize whey and lactose from dairy effluent and to reduce their impact on the environment.

Natural Succinic Acid and Disodium Succinate can be great tools for enhancing flavor profiles within finished products. 
With a label of natural flavor, both products can easily and seamlessly be incorporated into clean label applications.

How Can Succinic Acid Be Used?

At low levels succinic acid can be used to heighten all savory profiles, but at slightly elevated levels can begin to take on a briny, seafood like character. 
This distinct characteristic makes this material a valuable asset in both seafood and savory applications alike.


Suggested starting usage is 0.01% – 0.03% in finished products

Succinic Acid is a functional stand alone tool for flavor formulation and can also be further reacted to produce Disodium Succinate. 
This product is the disodium salt of Succinic Acid.

Disodium Succinate or DSS is a flavor enhancer for use in foods. 
Disodium Succinate is used within the food and flavor industry due to its incredible salt, umami, and mouthfeel enhancement capabilities. 
Its known to boost MSG like mouthfeel, as well as I&G or HVP. When used at low levels, DSS is a great synergy tool and can enhance flavors in a variety of different applications.

Disodium Succinate is commonly found in many shellfish, including crab, shrimp and lobster, and due to our bio based fermentation procedure can be labeled out as natural flavor.

Suggested starting usage is 0.01% – 0.03% in finished products.

Succinic acid, also known as butanoic acid, is widely applicated in the food industry, pharmaceuticals, agriculture and as a precursor of many chemical compounds including: adipic acid, 1,4-butanediol tetrahydrofuran N-methyl pyrrodidinone, 2-pyrrolidinone, succinate salts and gamma butyrolactone. 
The biotechnological production of succinic acid is an interesting alternative, presenting an economic advantage when compared with the chemical process. 
In addition, the agroindustrial residue glycerol can be used to obtain succinic acid by a fermentative process. 
Glycerol is a by-product of the production of biodiesel and with the increase in production of biodiesel in Brazil, a large volume of glycerol has accumulated in the industries' manufacturing biofuels. 
The biological production of succinic acid from glycerol is an attractive process, since it produces a high added-value compound from this by-product while decreasing environmental pollution. 
Some bacteria have the potential to produce succinic acid from glycerol, amongst which the strains of Actinobacillus succinogenes. 
Up to now, no economically interesting technology for the production of acid succinic has been developed in Brazil. 
The biotechnological conversion of the industrial by-product glycerol into acid succinic using cells of Actinobacillus succinogenes would allow for the production of a high added-value product, contributing to a reduction in the excessive volume of glycerol on the market, and would indirectly make the biodiesel production a process more complete. 
This work studied the succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes using glucose, sugar cane molasses, xylose, glycerol P.A. and glycerol from the biodiesel industry as substrate. 
The fermentative process was conducted at temperature 37°C, agitation 150rpm in different time periods (24, 48, 72, 96 hours) using free cells. 
The best result was observed in glycerol from biodiesel as substrate 1.62 g L-1 in 48 hours of fermentation.


What is Succinic Acid (E363) in Food? 

Succinic acid or butanedioic acid, a naturally occurring dicarboxylic acid that can be used as an acidulant and flavouring agent in food with the European food additive number E363. 
This ingredient is commonly used in industrial applications instead of in food. 
Generally, when used in food, it is safe, natural or synthetic, vegan, halal, kosher and gluten-free. 


Natural Source
The natural source of succinic acid is mainly from amber (a famous one is baltic amber), which is formed from pinus resin after being buried in the ground for a long time. 
The content of succinic acid is around 3-8% in amber.

It can also be naturally found in broccoli, rhubarb, beets, asparagus, fresh meat extracts, sauerkraut and cheese.

It is naturally present in almost all plant and animal tissues. 
Like citric acid and fumaric acid, it plays an important role in metabolic processes and may be involved in the net synthesis of glucose, other sugars and fatty acids in the Citric Acid Cycle in the human body (2). 

How is Succinic Acid Made?
Succinic acid was first obtained from amber by distillation, so it is also known as amber acid. 
Currently, there are two common manufacturing processes, one is the traditional chemical synthesis from petroleum-derived raw materials, another is biological-based fermentation from carbohydrates. 

Chemical Synthesis
It is mainly commercially produced from maleic anhydride, obtained by oxidation of n-butane or butadiene. 
There are mainly two steps in the process, maleic anhydride is catalytic hydrogenated to succinic anhydride and then reacted with water to form succinic acid.

Food grade succinic acid can be used as an acidulant and flavoring agent in food and beverage to regulate acidity. 
However, it is not commonly used in food compared with other acidulants, such as citric acid and malic acid. 


It can be used as a raw material to synthesis following ingredients:
Starch Sodium octenyl succinate  (E1450)
Starch aluminum Octenyl succinate (E1452)
Disodium succinate
Vitamin E calcium succinate
Ferrous succinate
Succinate monoglyceride

 

Succinic acid or butanedioic acid, a naturally occurring dicarboxylic acid that can be used as an acidulant and flavouring agent in food with the European food additive number E363. 
This ingredient is commonly used in industrial applications instead of in food. 
Generally, when used in food, it is safe, natural or synthetic, vegan, halal, kosher and gluten-free. 


Natural Source
The natural source of succinic acid is mainly from amber (a famous one is baltic amber), which is formed from pinus resin after being buried in the ground for a long time. 
The content of succinic acid is around 3-8% in amber.

It can also be naturally found in broccoli, rhubarb, beets, asparagus, fresh meat extracts, sauerkraut and cheese.

It is naturally present in almost all plant and animal tissues. 
Like citric acid and fumaric acid, it plays an important role in metabolic processes and may be involved in the net synthesis of glucose, other sugars and fatty acids in the Citric Acid Cycle in the human body. 

How is Succinic Acid Made?
Succinic acid was first obtained from amber by distillation, so it is also known as amber acid. 
Currently, there are two common manufacturing processes, one is the traditional chemical synthesis from petroleum-derived raw materials, another is biological-based fermentation from carbohydrates. 

Chemical Synthesis
It is mainly commercially produced from maleic anhydride, obtained by oxidation of n-butane or butadiene. 
There are mainly two steps in the process, maleic anhydride is catalytic hydrogenated to succinic anhydride and then reacted with water to form succinic acid.

The following is the flow chart:

succinic acid chemical manufacturing process

Succinic acid can also be made by hydrogenation of fumaric acid.

Bio-based Fermentation
There was a brief fermentation-based manufacturing process used by the manufacturer BioAmber in 2014. 
A gene-modified Pichia sp. strain of Saccharomycetaceae yeast (Pichia sp.) was utilized and biomass as the substrate for the production of succinic acid. 

European Commission mentioned that bacteria strains isolated from the rumen and industrial microorganisms (such as Escherichia coli or Saccharomyces cervisiae) can be used in the fermentation of glucose from starch, sugar crops and lignocellulosic materials. 

Specification
Appearance

Colourless or white, odourless crystalline powder or granular with a sour taste.  

Other names

Amber acid 
Ethylenesuccinic acid
1,4-butanedioic acid
CAS number

110-15-6

Chemical formula

C4H6O4

Molecular weight

118.09

Melting point

185.0-190.0 °C

Structure
succinic acid chemical structure
Image Source

Properties
Solubility
In water: it is polar and freely soluble in water, with the solubility, 1g/13ml at 25°C.

In organic solvents: soluble in Ethanol (5.4g/100ml) and glycerol (5.0g/100ml), not soluble in ether and petroleum ether.

PKa
It is a weak diprotic acid that has undergoes two dissociations and so follows two PKa, PKa1 4.2 and PKa2 5.6, respectively. 

PH
PH value 3.65 with a concentration of 1 mmol/L at 25°C and 3.12 with a concentration of 10 mmol/L. 

What are the Uses of Succinic acid?
Food
Food grade succinic acid can be used as an acidulant and flavoring agent in food and beverage to regulate acidity. 
However, it is not commonly used in food compared with other acidulants, such as citric acid and malic acid. 

It can be used as a raw material to synthesis following ingredients:

Starch Sodium octenyl succinate  (E1450)
Starch aluminum Octenyl succinate (E1452)
Disodium succinate
Vitamin E calcium succinate
Ferrous succinate
Succinate monoglyceride
Supplement
The main reason succinic acid can be used as a supplement is that it participates in the citric acid cycle or krebs cycle that helps to restore a healthy metabolism. 
Succinic acid can be used for symptoms caused by menopause such as hot flashes and irritability. It can also help reduce fatigue and improve brain performance


Industrial Applications
Its main commercial applications are as an intermediate for the manufacturing of several chemicals, such as 1,4-butanediol (BDO), tetrahydrofuran (THF), γ-butyrolactone (GBL), and polybutylene succinate (PBS) which are used to make polyurethanes, biodegradable polyesters, and other special products that are used in plastics, nylons, paints, solvents, adhesives, pharmaceuticals, dyes, rubber, pesticides, and other industries. 

Succinic acid is a dibasic acid and contains two active methylene groups that can be used to produce a lot of complex organic compounds for its reaction characteristics of halogenation, dehydration, esterification, sulfonation, acylation, oxidation, reduction, etc. 

Cosmetics
This diacid functions as a buffering, and masking agent in cosmetic and personal care products. 
Bio-succinic acid has the functions of antimicrobial property, anti-acne treatment, antioxidant activity and others when used in cosmetics.

EFSA
Succinic acid (E363) is listed in Commission Regulation (EU) No 231/2012 as an authorised food additive and categorized in “Additives other than colours and sweeteners”.

Approved uses
The following food may contain E363 with the maximum uses range from 3000-6000mg/kg:

Flavoured fermented milk 
Soups and broths 
Flavoured drinks in powder form for home preparation of drinks
Desserts


Succinic acid (C4H6O4) is produced from petroleum feedstock or from bio-based resources. 
Generally, it is created from maleic anhydride process. 
It extensively used as an acidifier to enhance the taste of food such as relishes, beverages, and sausages. 
In addition, increasing demand for high-performance elastomers, cements, and coatings applications has increase the use of succinic acid


WHAT OTHER NAMES IS SUCCINATE KNOWN BY?
Acide d'Ambre, Acide Butanedioïque, Acide Éthylène Dicarboxylique, Acide Succinique, Amber, Amber Acid, Ammonium Succinate, Butanedioic Acid, Esprit Volatil de Succin, Oil of Amber, Sel Volatil de Succin, Spirit of Amber, Succinato, Succinic Acid, Succinum.


E363 - Succinic acid
Additive: E363 - Succinic acid

Succinic acid -- is a dicarboxylic acid with the chemical formula -CH2-2-CO2H-2. 
The name derives from Latin succinum, meaning amber. 
In living organisms, succinic acid takes the form of an anion, succinate, which has multiple biological roles as a metabolic intermediate being converted into fumarate by the enzyme succinate dehydrogenase in complex 2 of the electron transport chain which is involved in making ATP, and as a signaling molecule reflecting the cellular metabolic state. 
Succinate is generated in mitochondria via the tricarboxylic acid cycle -TCA-, an energy-yielding process shared by all organisms. 
Succinate can exit the mitochondrial matrix and function in the cytoplasm as well as the extracellular space, changing gene expression patterns, modulating epigenetic landscape or demonstrating hormone-like signaling. 
As such, succinate links cellular metabolism, especially ATP formation, to the regulation of cellular function. 
Dysregulation of succinate synthesis, and therefore ATP synthesis, happens in some genetic mitochondrial diseases, such as Leigh syndrome, and Melas syndrome, and degradation can lead to pathological conditions, such as malignant transformation, inflammation and tissue injury. 

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