TALLOW ACID

EC number: 263-129-3
CAS number: 61790-37-2

Tallow Acid are a family of fatty acids derived mainly from animal fat, more particularly of bovine origin. 
These acids are a mixture of saturated fatty acids (as myristic, palmitic and stearic) and unsaturated (such as palmitoleic, oleic and linoleic).
Such acids can be marketed retaining the same fatty acid distribution of tallow, or can be performed prior to distillation partial hydrogenation that increases the stability of the product. Depending on their use and application we will opt for one or the other.
For total hydrogenation prior to distillation, animal stearic acid is obtained.

Tallow acids are animal derivatives that are used in a wide range of applications including oil field consumption, resins, industrial cleaners, personal care, and in rubber and textile industries.  
Tallow acid is a rendered form of beef or mutton fat, and is primarily made up of triglycerides. 
Tallow acid is used mainly in producing soap and animal feed.  
Tallow acid can be used for the production of bio-diesel in much the same way as oils from plants are currently used.  
Tallow Acid can help give crusts, pastries, fried foods and baked goods a crumbly texture.

Tallow Acid: Properties and applications
Tallow acids are solids at room temperature, with a white light yellowish hue, although the color depends on the type of process that is conducted.

Its freezing point is between 42 ° C (product unhydrogenated), between 45-55 ° C in case of partial hydrogenation and between 57-60 ° C in complete hydrogenation (stearic). 
Depending on its use we will opt for one or the other.
This is an acid that is applied in various fields and oleochemical industries such as: preparation of soaps, cosmetics, detergents, metal soaps, esters, among many others.

Tallow Acid is a key to the development of multiple ingredient products since it has a real and useful features. 
The oleochemicals are gaining significant ground to the chemicals because they are more efficient, economical and ecological devoting to different industries as a market of great potential media.
Tallow Acids from partially hydrogenated tallow due to the low content poli-saturated- fatty acids are particularly suitable for the polymerization of ABS, SBR and other rubbers. 
They also are intermediates in the synthesis of softeners.
Tallow Acid is one of the star ingredients in the oleochemical market since it is a very effective acid for the production of various industrial products. 
The power and relevance of oleochemicals are gaining quite a following because of the quality, efficiency, safety and profitability of this market.

Tallow acid is one of the specialists in the production and sales of tallow fatty acid in Europe. The tallow is obtained from the melting of animal fats. 
Tallow acid is derived from beef tallow.

Applications :
Tallow acid is a 100% natural source material used by multiple industries for its highly versatile physicochemical properties. 
Tallow acid in liquid form.

Some popular uses for tallow include making:
-Donuts
-Fritters
-Pie crusts
-Flour tortillas
-Mexican recipes, like fried plantains and tamales
-Cookies
-Pound cake
-Biscuits
-Fried pork, chicken and other fried meats
-Lardo
-Fried vegetables, latkes and veggie fritters

Uses of Tallow acid: CLEANSING, EMOLLIENT, EMULSIFYING, REFATTING, SKIN CONDITIONING, SURFACTANT

Tallow acids belong to the family of the fatty acids derived from animal fats. 
These fatty acids are widely used across wide range of applications such as resins, personal care products, oil field consumption, rubber, and textile production. 
Tallow acid is also used in the production of soap and animal feed.

Many items of traditional goods are produced from tallow acid, which was widely available domestically.  
Though many manufacturers have switched to vegetable based raw materials, tallow has historically been used to manufacture bar soap.  
Other common products containing tallow acid include:
-Candles
-Lubricants
-Resins
-Industrial cleaner
-Other personal care items such as shaving cream
-Rubber
-Textile applications
-Plastics
-Food applications

Tallow Acid is a rendered form of beef or mutton fat, primarily made up of triglycerides. 
Tallow Acid is solid at room temperature.

The solid material remaining after rendering is called cracklings, greaves, or graves.
Tallow Acid has been used mostly for animal food, such as dog food.

In the soap industry and among soap-making hobbyists, the name tallowate is used informally to refer to soaps made from tallow. 
Sodium tallowate, for example, is obtained by reacting Tallow Acid with sodium hydroxide (lye, caustic soda) or sodium carbonate (washing soda). 
Tallow Acid consists chiefly of a variable mixture of sodium salts of fatty acids, such as oleic and palmitic.

Composition
The composition of the fatty acids is typically as follows:
Saturated fatty acids:
Palmitic acid (C16:0): 26%
Stearic acid (C18:0): 14%
Myristic acid (C14:0): 3%
Monounsaturated fatty acids:
Oleic acid (C18-1, ω-9): 47%
Palmitoleic acid (C16:1): 3%
Polyunsaturated fatty acids:
Linoleic acid: 3%
Linolenic acid: 1%

Uses
Tallow Acid is used mainly in producing soap and animal feed.

Food
A significant use of Tallow Acid is for the production of shortening. 
Tallow Acid is also one of the main ingredients of the Native American food pemmican. 
With a smoke point of 480 F/250 C, Tallow Acid is traditionally used in deep frying and was preferred for this use until the rise in popularity of plant oils for frying. 
Before switching to pure vegetable oil in 1990, McDonald's cooked its French fries in a mixture of 93% beef Tallow Acid and 7% cottonseed oil.
According to a 1985 article in the New York Times, Tallow Acid was also used for frying at Burger King, Wendy's, Hardee's, Arby's, Dairy Queen, Popeyes, and Bob's Big Boy.
Tallow Acid is however making a comeback in certain nutrition circles.

Greaves
Main article: Cracklings
Greaves (also graves) or cracklings is the fibrous matter remaining from rendering, typically pressed into cakes and used for animal feed, especially for dogs and hogs, or as fish bait.
In the past, it has been both favored and shunned in dog food.

Fuel
Biodiesel
Tallow Acid can be used for the production of biodiesel in much the same way as oils from plants are currently used.

Aviation fuel
The United States Air Force has experimented successfully with the use of beef Tallow Acid in aviation biofuels. 
During five days of flight testing from August 23 to 27, 2010, at Edwards Air Force Base, California, a U.S. Air Force C-17 Globemaster III flew using JP-8 conventional jet fuel in three of its engines and a 50/50 blend of JP-8 and HRJ biofuel made from beef Tallow Acid in one engine on August 23, followed by a flight with the same 50/50 blend in all four engines on August 24. 
On August 27, it flew using a blend of 50% JP-8, 25% HRJ, and 25% coal-based fuel made through the Fischer–Tropsch process, becoming the first United States Department of Defense aircraft to fly on such a blend and the first aircraft to operate from Edwards was using a fuel derived from beef tallow.

Printing
Tallow Acid also has a use in printmaking, where it is combined with bitumen and applied to metal print plates to provide a resistance to acid etching.

The use of trace amounts of Tallow Acid as an additive to the substrate used in polymer banknotes came to light in November 2016. 
Notes issued in 24 countries including Canada, Australia, and the United Kingdom were found to be affected, leading to objections from vegans and members of some religious communities.

Candles
allow once was widely used to make molded candles before more convenient wax varieties became available—and for some time after since they continued to be a cheaper alternative. 
For those too poor even to avail themselves of homemade, molded tallow candles, the "tallow dip"—a reed that had been dipped in melted tallow or sometimes a strip of burning cloth in a saucer of tallow grease—was an accessible substitute. 
Such a candle was often simply called a "dip" or, because of its low cost, a "farthing dip" or "penny dip".

Tallow Acid is used to make a biodegradable motor oil by a Stamford, Connecticut–based company called Green Earth Technologies.

Industrial
Tallow Acid can be used as flux for soldering.

Moisturiser, balms and beauty products
Tallow Acid has a long history in humanity of being used to soothe and moisturize skin.
Tallow Acid is only in more recent times that plant oils and petroleum based products have taken the place of Tallow Acid in skincare.

As Tallow Acid is rendered animal fat, the composition of the tallow oil similar the composition of human skin’s natural sebum. 
This makes it often a suitable moisturiser for individuals who have sensitivities of commercial moisturisers.
Tallow Acid contains Vitamins A, D, K, & E, & B12, conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) with natural anti-inflammatory properties, oleic acid (omega 9), palmitic acid, and stearic acid which have beneficial healing and soothing properties.

While Tallow Acid can be useful for skincare there are stability issues that prevent it from mainstream commercialisation.
They do not always have a consistent colour, appearance, and odor from batch to batch.


Tallow Acid: Origin and extraction
Tallow Acid are obtained from the hydrolysis of beef tallow (or animal fat). 
That fatty acid may be hydrogenated or not, prior to the distillation process. 
This hydrogenation can be complete until saturation or partial. The final stage is the distillation process.

Industries / Applications
Metal Working:
• Rolling Oils

Household Care:
• Soap Pads

Lubricants and Greases:
• Grease Thickener

Tallow acid is used in oil field consumption, resins, industrial cleaners, personal care, and rubber & textile industries. 
Furthermore, Tallow acid is usually an animal derivative rendered form of beef or mutton fat, and is primarily made up of triglycerides. 
Furthermore, Tallow acid is used mainly in producing soap and animal feed. 
In addition, Tallow acid can be used for the production of bio-diesel in much the same way as oils from plants are currently used.

Raw material used in the production for tallow  acid is tallow.
Moreover, manufacturers have recognized the significance of this raw material and are attempting to implement a variety of strategies for increased production and cultivation to make their business profitable. 
Thus, rapid expansion of raw material cultivation and production represents a profitable tallow fatty acid market opportunity. 
In addition, developing fatty acid applications as trans-fat substitutes is also creating various opportunities for manufacturers.

Tallow fatty acids provide calories and fats while also assisting in the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins such as A, D, E, and K. 
In terms of health, the type of fatty acid consumed is just as important as the total amount of nutrients consumed. 
That is why it is critical to select unsaturated fatty acids with lower cholesterol levels. 
Saturated and trans-fats, for example, may raise unhealthy low-density lipoprotein cholesterol while decreasing healthy high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. 
This imbalance raises the risk of hypertension, atherosclerosis, heart attack, and stroke. 
All of these factors contribute to health problems caused by excessive fatty acid consumption.

Tallow is used in the production of fatty acids as a raw material. 
A sufficient amount of food is needed for tallow. 
Tallow necessitates some caution. 
Manufacturers have recognized the significance of this raw material and are attempting to implement a variety of strategies for increased production and cultivation. 
As the tallow fatty acids industry is very profitable, raw material formulation has increased. 

INCI name: TALLOW ACID
N ° EINECS / ELINCS: 263-129-3
Its functions (INCI)
Cleaning Agent: Helps keep a clean surface
Emollient: Softens and softens the skin
Emulsifying agent: Promotes the formation of intimate mixtures between immiscible liquids by modifying the interfacial tension (water and oil)
Lipid Restoration Agent: Restores lipids to hair or upper skin layers
Skin care agent: Keeps the skin in good condition
Surfactant: Reduces the surface tension of cosmetics and contributes to the uniform distribution of the product during its use


What Is Tallow?
Tallow is fat rendered from beef (or less often mutton), which is why it’s sometimes called beef lard. 
Like many other saturated fats, it’s solid at room temperature but melts into a liquid when heated.

Tallow’s appearance and texture are described as being similar to butter’s, since it’s solid and beige/white color when cooled. 
However, it has a drier, waxy texture and somewhat different taste than butter.

Types/Varieties
Although most people refer to only beef fat as tallow, technically other animal fats can also be called by the same name. 
Some commercial types of tallow contain fat derived from multiple animals, including mutton, pigs and hogs.
Most often tallow is made by rendering suet, which is a hard, white type of fat found in the tissues surrounding animals’ organs.

Many consider the best quality beef tallow to be rendered from the fat around the kidneys, although it can also be made from rendering other fat. 
This fatty tissue around the kidneys stores many nutrients, especially when the cattle is grass-fed.
Tallow can also sometimes be referred to as shortening, which is defined as any fat that is solid at room temperature and used in baking.

Nutrition Facts
Tallow is a mostly saturated animal fat, although it contains some unsaturated fats too. 
The breakdown of fats in tallow is estimated to be 45 percent to 50 percent saturated fat, 42 percent to 50 percent monounsaturated fat and 4 percent polyunsaturated fat.

Tallow rendered from grass-fed cattle provides some of the following nutrients:
-Vitamins A, D, K, E and B12
-Choline
-CLA
-Other fatty acids, including oleic acid, palmitoleic acid, stearic acid, linoleic acid and others

Health Benefits
What are the benefits of tallow? Here are some of the reasons this fat has been used in cooking, baking and more for centuries.

1. Provides Healthy Fats, Including Cholesterol
In the 1950s, researchers first began advocating for a lower-fat diet since animal fats were being linked to development of coronary heart disease.
However, since this time we’ve come to understand that foods high in fat and cholesterol actually provide certain health benefits.
As mentioned above, tallow provides both saturated and monounsaturated fats. 
It’s made up of about 40 percent to 50 percent monounsaturated fats, which are considered one of the most heart-healthy fats in our diets.

This is the same type of fat found in olive oil.
The type of saturated fat found in tallow is believed to have a mostly neutral effect on blood cholesterol levels, or the ability to raise “good” HDL cholesterol, meaning that consuming it in moderate amounts shouldn’t increase your risk for cardiovascular disease.
Consuming saturated fat as part of a healthy diet has also been shown in some cases to have an inverse relationship with obesity-related type 2 diabetes.
Another benefit of consuming natural fats is for cognitive health, since a high percentage of your brain is made up of cholesterol and fat.

2. May Help Support Weight Loss/Management
Tallow is rich in CLA, a fatty acid that studies suggest can support a healthy metabolism and may lead to fat burning. 
There’s some evidence demonstrating that CLA also has anti-inflammatory and immune-supporting properties, possibly even fighting growth of tumors, as does the fatty acid oleic acid.
Consuming animal fats can be especially helpful for weight loss if you follow a high-fat keto diet, which leads to ketosis and can also have benefits such as reducing inflammation and oxidative stress.

3. Can Help You Absorb Essential Vitamins
You need fats in your diet to absorb fat-soluble vitamins, including vitamins A, D, E and K. 
These essential vitamins help support your immune system, skeletal system, heart, skin and more.

4. Has a High Smoke Point
Compared to other cooking fats and oils, including olive oil and butter, tallow has a higher smoke point around 420 to 480 degrees Fahrenheit. 
Smoke point refers to the temperature at which an oil starts to burn, smoke and lose many of its nutritional benefits.
Tallow can be used at high temperatures without causing its chemical composition to change. 
When cooking at high heat — such as roasting, frying and  baking — use it over oils like canola, corn and even virgin olive oil, which are prone to oxidizing at high temperatures and can contribute to problems such as formation of free radicals.

5. Can Help Hydrate Skin
Why is tallow good for your skin? It’s rich in fatty acids that help form the lipids that keep skin protected and moisturized.
These include palmitoleic acid, stearic acid and oleic acid (the same type of fat found in olive oil).
Consuming fats can help support the skin, while some fats, including tallow, can also be applied topically to your skin. 
Some benefits of tallow for skin health include:

Improving moisture and treating dryness
Helping increase skin’s flexibility and ability to heal
Supporting the protective barrier function of skin

How to Use/Recipes
In terms of cooking, what is tallow good for? 
Because it has a high smoke point (between 400–420 degrees F), it’s a good fat for frying, baking, sauteing and roasting.

Lubrication
Early in the development of steam-driven piston engines, the hot vapors and liquids washed away most lubricants very quickly. 
Tallow Acid was soon found that tallow was quite resistant to this washing. 
Tallow Acid and compounds including tallow were widely used to lubricate locomotive and steamship engines at least until the 1950s. 
(During World War II, the vast fleets of steam-powered ships exhausted the supply, leading to the large-scale planting of rapeseed because rapeseed oil also resisted the washing effect.) 
Tallow Acid is still used in the steel rolling industry to provide the required lubrication as the sheet steel is compressed through the steel rollers. 
There is a trend toward replacing tallow-based lubrication with synthetic oils in rolling applications for surface cleanliness reasons.

Another industrial use is as a lubricant for certain types of light engineering work, such as cutting threads on electrical conduit. 
Specialist cutting compounds are available, but tallow is a traditional lubricant that is easily available for cheap and infrequent use.

The use of tallow or lard to lubricate rifles was the spark that started the Indian Mutiny of 1857.
To load the new Pattern 1853 Enfield Rifle, the sepoys had to bite the cartridge open. 
Tallow Acid was believed that the paper cartridges that were standard issue with the rifle were greased with lard (pork fat), which was regarded as unclean by Muslims, or tallow (cow fat), which is incompatible with Hindu dietary laws. 
Tallow Acid, along with beeswax, was also used in the lubricant for American Civil War ammunition used in the Springfield rifled musket. 
A combination of mutton tallow, paraffin wax and beeswax is still used as a patch or projectile lubricant in present-day black powder arms.

IUPAC names
Fatty acids, tallow
Tallow acid
TALGFETTSAEURE
tallow acids
Fatty acids, tallow
TALLOW ACID
stearic acid
Octadecanoic acid
57-11-4
Stearophanic acid
n-Octadecanoic acid
Cetylacetic acid
Pearl stearic
Stearex Beads
Octadecansaeure
Stearinsaeure
Vanicol
1-Heptadecanecarboxylic acid
Century 1240
Industrene R
Glycon DP
Glycon TP
Humko Industrene R
Dar-chem 14
Formula 300
Hydrofol 1895
Hystrene 9718
Hydrofol Acid 150
Glycon S-80
Glycon S-90
Hydrofol acid 1655
Hydrofol acid 1855
Tegostearic 254
Tegostearic 255
Tegostearic 272
Hystrene 80
octadecoic acid
Industrene 5016
Hystrene S-97
Hystrene T-70
Emersol 120
Emersol 132
Hystrene 4516
Hystrene 5016
Hystrene 7018
Groco 54
Groco 55
Groco 55L
Groco 58
Groco 59
Glycon S-70
Industrene 8718
Industrene 9018
Kam 1000
Emersol 150
Steric acid
Neo-Fat 18-53
Neo-Fat 18-54
Neo-Fat 18-59
Neo-Fat 18
Acidum stearinicul
Caswell No. 801D
HY-Phi 1199
HY-Phi 1205
HY-Phi 1303
HY-Phi 1401
Neo-Fat 18-S
C18:0
Kam 2000
Kam 3000
Oktadekansaeure
Neo-Fat 18-55
Neo-Fat 18-61
acide stearique
FEMA No. 3035
PD 185
acide octadecanoique
NAA 173
Hydrofol Acid 150 (VAN)
CCRIS 2305
Prifac 2918
HSDB 2000
Vis-Plus
Barolub FTA
UNII-4ELV7Z65AP
MFCD00002752
NSC 25956
Prodhygine
EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 079082
Stearic Acid Cherry
Edenor C18
Stearic acid (TN)
CH3-[CH2]16-COOH

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