TAURINE

CAS Number: 107-35-7 
EC Number: 203-483-8
Chemical formula: C2H7NO3S
Molar mass: 125.14 g/mol

Taurine or 2-aminoethanesulfonic acid, is an organic compound that is widely distributed in animal tissues.
Taurine is a major constituent of bile and can be found in the large intestine, and accounts for up to 0.1% of total human body weight. 
Taurine is named after the Latin taurus which means bull or ox, as Taurine was first isolated from ox bile in 1827 by German scientists Friedrich Tiedemann and Leopold Gmelin.
Taurine was discovered in human bile in 1846 by Edmund Ronalds.
Taurine has many biological roles, such as conjugation of bile acids, antioxidation, osmoregulation, membrane stabilization, and modulation of calcium signaling. 
Taurine is essential for cardiovascular function, and development and function of skeletal muscle, the retina, and the central nervous system.
Taurine is an unusual example of a naturally occurring sulfonic acid.

Taurine, an amino acid important in several of the body's metabolic processes, is thought to have antioxidant properties. 
But little is known about the effects of long-term supplemental taurine use.

Taurine is found naturally in meat, fish, dairy products and human milk, and Taurine's also available as a dietary supplement. 
While research is mixed, some studies suggest that taurine supplementation might improve athletic performance. 
And, in one study, people with congestive heart failure who took taurine supplements three times a day for two weeks showed improvement in their exercise capacity.

Other studies suggest that taurine combined with caffeine improves mental performance. 
However, further research is needed and this finding remains controversial, as does the use of taurine in energy drinks. 
Keep in mind that there might be high amounts of other ingredients in energy drinks, such as herbal stimulants, caffeine or sugar. 
Too much caffeine can increase your heart rate and blood pressure, interrupt your sleep, and cause anxiety. 
Added sugar might provide unwanted added calories.

Chemical and biochemical features
Taurine exists as a zwitterion H3N+CH2CH2SO3−, as verified by X-ray crystallography.
The sulfonic acid has a low pKa ensuring that it is fully ionized to the sulfonate at the pH's found in the intestinal tract.

Other uses
In cosmetics and contact lens solutions
Since the 2000s cosmetic compositions containing taurine have been introduced, possibly due to its antifibrotic properties. 
Taurine has been shown to prevent the damaging effects of TGFB1 to hair follicles.
Taurine also helps to maintain skin hydration.
Taurine is also used in some contact lens solutions.

Biochem/physiol Actions
Non-selective endogenous agonist at glycine receptors.
Conditionally essential sulfonated amino acid which modulates apoptosis in some cells; functions in many metabolic activities; a product of methionine and cysteine metabolism.
Taurine modulates the concentration of intracellular calcium, protects against ischemia-reperfusion injury and possesses blood pressure-lowering properties. 
Taurine also has a role in bile formation and fat digestion. 
Deficiency of taurine is associated with anxiety, hyperactivity, epilepsy and depression.

Taurine, also known as 2-aminoethanesulfonic acid, is a conditional amino acid that is found in natural dietary sources, biosynthesized in the body and produced by chemical synthesis for commercial purposes.
Taurine was first isolated in 1827 by two German scientists, Friedrich Tiedemann and Leopold Gmelin, who discovered the presence of the substance in the bile of an ox. 
The name, taurine, is derived from the Latin term taurus, which means bull or ox.
Taurine is referred to as a conditional amino acid because Taurine is derived from cysteine like other amino acids but lacks a carboxyl group that usually belongs to amino acids. 
Instead, Taurine contains a sulfide group and can be called an amino sulfonic acid.

Features and Benefits
This compound is also offered as part of Sigma′s Library of Pharmacologically Active Compounds (LOPAC®1280), a biologically annotated collection of high-quality, ready-to-screen compounds.

Physiological functions
Taurine is found in high concentration in many parts of the body such as the eyes, central nervous system and skeletal muscles.
Taurine is thought to have a significant impact on the cardiovascular system and is a major reason taurine supplementation may be recommended. 
The cardiac muscles are strengthened in the presence of taurine, leading to improved overall function. 
This effect is also seen in skeletal muscles and is believed to improve exercise capacity and physical abilities.
Additionally, the inhibitory GABA receptors in the brain are activated by taurine. 
This leads to the assumption that taurine has an inhibitory effect on the brain pathways, stabilizing stimulation effects seen by other substances, such as caffeine.

Natural food sources
Taurine is naturally found in some food sources, such as eggs, milk, seafood and meat. 
The daily intake of taurine varies greatly between individuals, from 10 – 400 mg per day, with an average of 58 mg.
Individuals following a vegan diet tend to have the lowest intake levels, due to the animal-based sources of taurine.

Taurine is an amino sulfonic acid aiding in cardiac function, eye health, immune system function, and multiple other systems (ambitious little guy). 
Found in meat-based proteins, taurine helps build proteins concentrated heavily in the heart muscles, the eyes and brain. 
L carnitine and taurine supplementation is important to consider, especially in pets’ prone to cardiac stress because both are significant amino acids for dogs and cats’ heart health.

Synthesis and production
Taurine is naturally synthesized in the pancreas of the human body, via a process called the cysteine sulfinic acid pathway. 
This involves the oxidation of the sulfhydryl group on the cysteine molecule to form cysteine sulfinic acid, which undergoes decarboxylation to form hypotaurine and eventually taurine.
As public consumer demand for taurine has increased, commercial production of the substance has become necessary, with the introduction of chemical synthesis.
This is usually done with a reaction between ethylene oxide and sodium bisulfite to form isethionic acid, which is used to obtain the synthetic form of taurine. 
Alternatively, a reaction between aziridine and sulfurous acid is a single reactive process that can be used to obtain taurine.

Use in energy drinks
Taurine is often included as an ingredient in energy drinks, which is most likely due to its physiological effect to improve muscular function and physical performance.
In comparison to the average dietary intake of 58 mg per day, many energy drinks contain high doses of taurine with 1000-2000 mg in each serving. 
Considering that some individuals may consume more than one serving each day, this has been a concern for some health advocates and stimulated research in the area.
However, doses of up to 3000 mg per day are generally considered to be safe with side effects rarely seen, although the long-term outcomes are not clear. 
Taurine appears that the other constituents of energy drinks, such as glucose and caffeine, are more likely to cause significant side effects in high doses than taurine.

Derivatives
Taurine is used in the preparation of the anthelmintic drug netobimin (Totabin).

Taurolidine
Taurocholic acid and tauroselcholic acid

Tauromustine
5-Taurinomethyluridine and 5-taurinomethyl-2-thiouridine are modified uridines in (human) mitrochondrial tRNA.
Tauryl is the functional group attaching at the sulfur, 2-aminoethylsulfonyl.
Taurino is the functional group attaching at the nitrogen, 2-sulfoethylamino.

Taurine is a semi-essential amino acid and is not incorporated into proteins. 
In mammalian tissues, taurine is ubiquitous and is the most abundant free amino acid in the heart, retina, skeletal muscle, brain, and leukocytes. 
In fact, taurine reaches up to 50 mM concentration in leukocytes. 
Taurine has been shown to be tissue-protective in many models of oxidant-induced injury.
One possibility is that taurine reacts with hypochlorous acid, produced by the myeloperoxidase pathway, to produce the more stable but less toxic taurine chloramine (Tau-Cl). 
However, data from several laboratories demonstrate that Tau-Cl is a powerful regulator of inflammation. 

Specifically, Tau-Cl has been shown to down-regulate the production of pro-inflammatory mediators in both rodent and human leukocytes. 
Taurolidine, a derivative of taurine, is commonly used in Europe as an adjunctive therapy for various infections as well as for tumor therapy. 
Recent molecular studies on the function of taurine provide evidence that taurine is a constituent of biologic macromolecules. 
Specifically, two novel taurine-containing modified uridines have been found in both human and bovine mitochondria. 
Studies investigating the mechanism of action of Tau-Cl have shown that it inhibits the activation of NF-κB, a potent signal transducer for inflammatory cytokines, by oxidation of IκB-α at Met45. 
Key enzymes for taurine biosynthesis have recently been cloned. 

Cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase, a rate-limiting enzyme for taurine biosynthesis, has been cloned and sequenced in the mouse, rat and human. 
Another key enzyme for cysteine metabolism, cysteine dioxygenase (CDO), has also been cloned from rat liver. 
CDO has a critical role in determining the flux of cysteine between cysteine catabolism/taurine synthesis and glutathione synthesis. 
Taurine transporter knockout mice show reduced taurine, reduced fertility, and loss of vision due to severe apoptotic retinal degeneration. 
Apoptosis induced by amino chloramines is a current and important finding since oxidants derived from leukocytes play a key role in killing pathogens. 
The fundamental importance of taurine in adaptive and acquired immunity will be unveiled using genetic manipulation.

Synthesis
Synthetic taurine is obtained by the ammonolysis of isethionic acid (2-hydroxyethanesulfonic acid), which in turn is obtained from the reaction of ethylene oxide with aqueous sodium bisulfite. 
A direct approach involves the reaction of aziridine with sulfurous acid.
In 1993, about 5,000–6,000 tons of taurine were produced for commercial purposes: 50% for pet food and 50% in pharmaceutical applications.
As of 2010, China alone has more than 40 manufacturers of taurine. 
Most of these enterprises employ the ethanolamine method to produce a total annual production of about 3,000 tons.
In the laboratory taurine can be produced by alkylation of ammonia with bromoethanesulfonate salts.

Biosynthesis
Taurine is naturally derived from cysteine. 
Mammalian taurine synthesis occurs in the pancreas via the cysteine sulfinic acid pathway. 
In this pathway, cysteine is first oxidized to Taurines sulfinic acid, catalyzed by the enzyme cysteine dioxygenase. 
Cysteine sulfinic acid, in turn, is decarboxylated by sulfinoalanine decarboxylase to form hypotaurine. 
Hypotaurine is enzymatically oxidized to yield taurine by hypotaurine dehydrogenase.
Taurine is also produced by the transsulfuration pathway, which converts homocysteine into cystathionine. 
The cystathionine is then converted to hypotaurine by the sequential action of three enzymes: cystathionine gamma-lyase, cysteine dioxygenase, and cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase. 
Hypotaurine is then oxidized to taurine as described above.

Nutritional significance
Taurine occurs naturally in fish and meat.
The mean daily intake from omnivore diets was determined to be around 58 mg (range from 9 to 372 mg) and to be low or negligible from a strict vegan diet. 
In another study, taurine intake was estimated to be generally less than 200 mg/day, even in individuals eating a high-meat diet. 
According to a third study, taurine consumption was estimated to vary between 40 and 400 mg/day.

The availability of taurine is affected depending on how the food is prepared, raw diets retaining the most taurine, and baking or boiling resulting in the greatest taurine loss.
Taurine levels were found to be significantly lower in vegans than in a control group on a standard American diet. 
Plasma taurine was 78% of control values, and urinary taurine was 29%.

Prematurely born infants are believed to lack the enzymes needed to convert cystathionine to cysteine, and may, therefore, become deficient in taurine. 
Taurine is present in breast milk, and has been added to many infant formulas, as a measure of prudence, since the early 1980s. 
However, this practice has never been rigorously studied, and as such it has yet to be proven to be necessary, or even beneficial.

Energy drinks
Taurine is an ingredient in some energy drinks. 
Many contain 1000 mg per serving, and some as much as 2000 mg.

Taurine is the most abundant amino acid you’ve never heard of; Taurine is found throughout the body, but especially in tissues containing excitable cells, like nerves and heart muscle.
Strong epidemiological evidence suggests that certain groups with the longest life spans consume higher amounts of taurine than those of us in the rest of the world.
Taurine supplementation can prevent diabetes and obesity in animal models, and can mitigate the effects of both conditions in humans.
Taurine supplementation strengthens heart muscle cells, extends their life spans, and protects them from damage, while reducing many of the factors that produce atherosclerosis and its deadly consequences.
Taurine protects retinal and inner ear cells from damage, normalizing the flow of calcium ions they require for proper function.
Evidence is growing for taurine’s role in preventing epileptic seizures and liver disease, two conditions that can be attributed to toxic effects on delicate tissue.
If you are interested in a longer, healthier, and more active life, consider supplementing with taurine.

CAS Number: 107-35-7 
CHEBI:15891 
ChEMBL: ChEMBL239243 
ChemSpider: 1091 
DrugBank: DB01956 
ECHA InfoCard: 100.003.168 
IUPHAR/BPS: 2379
PubChem CID: 1123
UNII: 1EQV5MLY3D 
CompTox Dashboard (EPA): DTXSID3021304

Physiological functions
Taurine is essential for cardiovascular function and development and function of skeletal muscle, the retina, and the central nervous system.
Taurine is a biosynthetic precursor to the bile salts sodium taurochenodeoxycholate and sodium taurocholate.

Taurine functions as an antioxidant, suppressing the toxicity of hypochlorite and hypobromite produced physiologically. 
Taurine reacts with these halogenating agents to form N-chloro- and N-bromotaurine, which are less toxic than their precursors hypohalides.

Role in nutrition and cardiovascular health
Taurine has been shown to reduce the secretion of apolipoprotein B100 and lipids in HepG2 cells.
High concentrations of serum lipids and apolipoprotein B100 (essential structural component of VLDL and LDL) are major risk factors of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. 
Hence, taurine supplementation is possibly beneficial for the prevention of these diseases.

Role in the muscular system
Taurine is necessary for normal skeletal muscle functioning.
Mice with a genetic taurine deficiency had a nearly complete depletion of skeletal and cardiac muscle taurine levels and a reduction of more than 80% of exercise capacity compared to control mice. 
Taurine can influence (and possibly reverse) defects in nerve blood flow, motor nerve conduction velocity, and nerve sensory thresholds in experimental diabetic neuropathic rats.

Taurine is a beta-sulfonic AA that is not used in protein synthesis but is found as a free AA in tissues. 
The highest concentrations of taurine are found in the heart, muscle, brain, and retina. 
Taurine serves numerous important functions, including osmoregulation, calcium channel modulation, as an antioxidant, and bile acid conjugation.
Many mammals are able to use either glycine or taurine for bile acid conjugation. 
Cats and dogs are only able to utilize taurine to conjugate bile acids. 
Dogs are able to synthesize sufficient taurine from cysteine. 
Cats are also able to synthesize taurine from cysteine, but the activity of two enzymes in the pathway is so low that taurine synthesis is negligible and therefore taurine must be provided in the diet.

Taurine deficiency can be due to:
-Inadequate dietary supply
-Loss of taurine in the enterohepatic circulation associated with increases in bacterial flora that degrade taurine or processing effects

Chemical formula: C2H7NO3S
Molar mass: 125.14 g/mol
Appearance: colorless or white solid
Density: 1.734 g/cm3 (at −173.15 °C)
Melting point: 305.11 °C (581.20 °F; 578.26 K) Decomposes into simple molecules
Acidity (pKa): <0, 9.06

Pharmacology
Taurine crosses the blood–brain barrier and has been implicated in a wide array of physiological phenomena including inhibitory neurotransmission, long-term potentiation in the striatum/hippocampus, membrane stabilization feedback inhibition of neutrophil/macrophage respiratory burst, adipose tissue regulation and possible prevention of obesity, calcium homeostasis, recovery from osmotic shock, protection against glutamate excitotoxicity, and prevention of epileptic seizures.
According to the single study on human subjects, daily administration of 1.5 g of taurine had no significant effect on insulin secretion or insulin sensitivity.
There is evidence that taurine may exert a beneficial effect in preventing diabetes-associated microangiopathy and tubulointerstitial injury in diabetic nephropathy.
According to animal studies, taurine produces an anxiolytic effect and may act as a modulator or antianxiety agent in the central nervous system by activating the glycine receptor.
Taurine acts as a glycation inhibitor. 
Taurine-treated diabetic rats had a decrease in the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and AGEs content.
The United States Department of Agriculture has found a link between cataract development and lower levels of vitamin B6, folate, and taurine in the diets of the elderly.

Preferred IUPAC name
2-Aminoethane-1-sulfonic acid

Other names
2-Aminoethanesulfonic acid
Tauric acid

In diabetic rats, taurine supplementation slightly reduced abdominal body fat while improving glucose tolerance.
Taurine is effective in removing fatty liver deposits in rats, preventing liver disease, and reducing cirrhosis in tested animals.
Evidence indicates taurine may be beneficial for blood pressure in male rats. 
A single intravenous taurine supplementation resulted in measurable decreases in blood pressure. 
However, when rats were supplemented with taurine in their drinking water, only female rats showed an increase in blood pressure. 
Both genders showed significant tachycardia.

Likewise, taurine administration to diabetic rabbits resulted in 30% decrease in serum glucose levels.
Cats lack the enzymatic machinery (sulfinoalanine decarboxylase) to produce taurine and must therefore acquire Taurine from their diet.
A taurine deficiency in cats can lead to retinal degeneration and eventually blindness. 
Other effects of a diet lacking in this essential amino acid are dilated cardiomyopathy and reproductive failure in females.
The absence of taurine causes a cat's retina to slowly degenerate, causing eye problems and (eventually) irreversible blindness – a condition known as central retinal degeneration (CRD), as well as hair loss and tooth decay. 

Taurine is a type of amino acid found in many foods and often added to energy drinks.
Many people take taurine as a supplement, and some researchers refer to it as a “wonder molecule”.
Taurine has been shown to have several health benefits, such as a lower risk of disease and improved sports performance.
Taurine is also very safe and has no known side effects when taken in reasonable doses.
This article explains everything you need to know about taurine.

Decreased plasma taurine concentration has been demonstrated to be associated with feline dilated cardiomyopathy.
Unlike CRD, the condition is reversible with supplementation. 
Taurine is now a requirement of the Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO) and any dry or wet food product labeled approved by the AAFCO should have a minimum of 0.1% taurine in dry food and 0.2% in wet food.
Studies suggest the amino acid should be supplied at 10 mg/kg of bodyweight/day for domestic cats.

Taurine appears essential to the development of passerine birds. 
Many passerines seek out taurine-rich spiders to feed their young, particularly just after hatching. 
Researchers compared the behaviours and development of birds fed a taurine-supplemented diet to a control diet and found the juveniles fed taurine-rich diets as neonates were much larger risk takers and more adept at spatial learning tasks.
Taurine has been used in some cryopreservation mixes for animal artificial insemination.

What Is Taurine?
Taurine is an amino sulfonic acid that occurs naturally in your body. 
Taurine is particularly concentrated in your brain, eyes, heart and muscles.

Unlike most other amino acids, Taurine is not used to build proteins. 
Rather, Taurine is classified as a conditionally essential amino acid.

Why We Need Supplemental Taurine
In the enthusiasm to investigate new longevity compounds, sometimes the importance of venerable ones that have been around for decades is forgotten. 
Such is the case of taurine. 
Foundation members used to get taurine as part of multi-nutrient formula, but this product is not as popular as Taurine once was.
A study released in November 2012 made the bold statement that taurine is one of the most essential substances in the body. 
The authors wrote: “Considering Taurines broad distribution, Taurines many cytoprotective attributes, and Taurines functional significance in cell development, nutrition, and survival, taurine is undoubtedly one of the most essential substances in the body.”
Although Taurine’s possible for your body to produce taurine on Taurines own, you still need to obtain taurine through diet and supplementation in order to achieve optimal amounts of this essential nutrient.
Because of taurine’s essential role in the body, supplementing with taurine can provide numerous health benefits, including restoring insulin sensitivity, mitigating diabetic complications, reversing cardiovascular disease factors, preventing and treating fatty liver disease, alleviating seizures, reversing tinnitus, and more.

Taurine Prevents Obesity
Taurine Prevents Obesity  
One of the ways taurine can help improve overall health is by fighting obesity. 
Obesity impacts every area of the body, especially because of the inflammation-generating abdominal fat stores. 
Human studies show that 3 grams per day of taurine for 7 weeks reduced body weight significantly in a group of overweight or obese (but not-yet-diabetic) adults.
Subjects saw significant declines in their serum triglycerides and “atherogenic index,” a ratio of multiple cholesterol components that predicts atherosclerosis risk.

Various animal studies support the anti-obesity and lipid-lowering capabilities of taurine, both alone and combined with other natural products.
These studies highlight taurine’s ability to improve glucose tolerance in obese animals, an important benefit given how many overweight people go on to develop diabetes.
Perhaps most alarming, animal research reveals that obesity itself causes a decline in plasma taurine levels, which, in a vicious cycle, further promotes obesity.
The observed decline in taurine levels was seen in mouse models of both genetic obesity and diet-induced obesity. 
Fortunately, in the same study, taurine supplementation interrupted the cycle, helping to prevent obesity and its consequences.

Taurine Promotes Glucose Control—and Treats Diabetes
Taurine is a known fact that taurine concentrations are lower among diabetics than they are in healthy individuals.20 Given the above information about low taurine levels promoting obesity, Taurine is clear that the low levels of taurine only serve to promote the interdependence of diabetes and obesity.
Fortunately, human studies have shown that supplementing with just 1.5 grams of taurine a day can restore taurine levels to those in healthy control subjects, and additional animal research has shown that taurine supplementation can help prevent the onset of type II diabetes.
Normal taurine concentrations are essential in controlling diabetes and the impact of Taurines consequences. 
Animal studies have found that having adequate taurine concentrations helps control diabetes by reducing blood glucose and restoring insulin sensitivity.
But Taurine doesn’t stop there. 
Taurine helps prevent—and even reverse—many of the consequences associated with the disease.
For example, in adult diabetics, supplementation with 1.5 grams of taurine daily for just 14 days can reverse diabetes-induced abnormalities in arterial stiffness and in the ability of the vasculature to respond to changes in blood flow or pressure.

This can be critical to the longevity of diabetics, since these types of abnormalities are to blame for diabetics’ increased risk of dying from cardiovascular disease. 
In addition, studies in diabetic rats show that taurine helps protect heart function and helps prevent heart muscle damage, due in part to the ability of taurine to increase glucose transport from blood into energy-hungry heart muscle cells.
In the process of increasing glucose transport into energy producing cells, blood glucose levels are lowered.
Additional animal and cell culture studies have revealed that taurine supplementation is effective against diabetic complications as well. 
Taurine supports nerve fiber integrity, potentially slowing or reversing painful diabetic neuropathy.
And in the retina, another target of destructive elevated blood glucose, taurine fights glucose-induced oxidant stress and preserves the health of light-sensing cells in diabetic retinopathy.
Kidney damage, another consequence of diabetes, can be minimized with taurine supplementation in diabetic animals.

Energy drink darling
Taurine is an amino acid that’s naturally produced by your body and found in your brain, eyes, heart and muscles. 
Taurine’s also a common ingredient in energy drinks and touted for its assistance in (among other things) maintaining hydration and balancing electrolytes. 
Although the name “taurine” is derived from the Latin word taurus, which means “bull” or “ox,” taurine has nothing to do with actual bulls, or oxen.

taurine
2-aminoethanesulfonic acid
107-35-7
L-Taurine
Ethanesulfonic acid, 2-amino-
tauphon
2-Aminoethylsulfonic acid
O-Due
2-Sulfoethylamine
taufon
Aminoethanesulfonic acid
aminoethylsulfonic acid
2-aminoethane-1-sulfonic acid
beta-Aminoethylsulfonic acid
Taurinum [Latin]
Taurina [Spanish]
FEMA No. 3813
Taurine [INN]
CCRIS 4721
UNII-1EQV5MLY3D
NCI-C60606
AI3-18307
2-amino-ethanesulfonic acid
NSC32428
MFCD00008197
1EQV5MLY3D
2-aminoethane sulfonic acid

Other name(s):
2-aminoethane-sulphonic acid

General description
Taurine is an essential amino acid for babies. 
Adults can make their own taurine, but there are high amounts of Taurine in meat and fish. 
Normally, enough taurine is made in the human body from cysteine and hypotaurine. 
Taurine has many functions in the body including working as a neurotransmitter in the brain.

Unproven claims
There may be benefits that haven't yet been proven through research.

Taurine may help congestive heart disease. 
But the way Taurine works isn't clear. 
More research is needed. 

Taurine may help control the nervous system. 
Taurine’s been used to treat anxiety and seizure issues. 
Taurine’s been used to treat the hyperactivity due to attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD).
Taurine may aid in treating hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis). 
Taurine may help treat high blood pressure (hypertension). 
Taurine may help prevent heart rate issues.  

Recommended intake
Amino acids (AAs) are available as single AAs or in AA combinations.
They also come as part of multivitamins, proteins, and food supplements. 
The forms include tablets, fluids, and powders.
By eating enough protein in your diet, you get all of the amino acids you need.
If you don’t consume enough taurine, you may need to take supplements. 
This may happen during parenteral nutrition. 
This is because the body can't make enough of Taurine.
Babies who aren’t breastfed may need taurine supplements. 
This is because their ability to make Taurine isn’t fully developed.
Many infant formulas and parenteral nutrition solutions have taurine added to them.

Taurine Reverses Cardiovascular Disease Factors
Taurine has powerful effects on the heart and blood vessels.
People with higher levels of taurine have significantly lower rates of dying from coronary heart disease.
Additionally, they have lower body mass index, lower blood pressure, and lower levels of dangerous lipids.
Many different mechanisms account for these powerful effects on the heart and blood vessels.
In animal models of hypertension, taurine supplementation lowers blood pressure by reducing the resistance to blood flow in the blood vessel walls and by minimizing nerve impulses in the brain that drive blood pressure up.
Oral taurine supplementation has been found to reduce the arterial thickening and stiffness characteristic of atherosclerosis, to restore arteries’ responses to beneficial endothelial nitric oxide, and to reduce inflammation (a direct contributor to cardiovascular disease).
A study of patients needing coronary bypass surgery showed that consuming a liquid drink containing 3 grams of taurine, combined with 3 grams carnitine, 150 mg CoQ10, and basic multivitamin nutrients, reduced left-sided ventricular volume during the heart’s resting phase (diastole).
This is important since an increased left-ventricular diastolic volume is the single greatest predictor of death in patients requiring bypass or stent placements. 
This makes taurine a vital component of such patients’ diets.

Your body can produce taurine, and Taurine is also found in some foods. 
However, certain individuals — such as those with specific illnesses like heart disease or diabetes — may benefit from taking a supplement.

Taurine may help muscle function and lower risk of cardiovascular disease.
Taurine is an amino acid present in many tissues of mammals. 
Taurine plays an important role in heart, muscle, and nervous system functioning. 
Taurine is obtained through diet by eating meat, dairy, and seafood products. 

Taurine can also be made in the body from the amino acid cysteine. 
Eating foods rich in taurine may lower cardiovascular risk.
In animal studies, taurine reduced muscle dysfunction and wasting from disuse, imbalances that prevent the natural detoxification processes, and nerve pain. 
In humans, taking taurine supplements before exercise reduced muscle damage after high-intensity exercise, but Taurines effect on physical or mental performance has been mixed. 
And even though taurine levels can be increased in the muscles of rodents with oral supplementation, this does not occur in humans. 

In overweight and obese adults, taurine reduced inflammation and blood fat levels, and improved fat and sugar metabolism. 
However, Taurine has not improved blood sugar or insulin response in type 2 diabetes.
Taurine is marketed as a dietary supplement and is also a major ingredient in many energy drinks. 
There have been some toxic effects noted in animal studies and in humans when taken in excess amounts or with alcohol.

Despite common belief, this amino acid is not extracted from bull urine or bull semen. 
The name is derived from the Latin word taurus, which means ox or bull — so that may be the source of the confusion.

SUMMARY
Taurine is classified as a conditionally essential amino acid.
Taurine serves various important functions in your body.

Taurine is an amino acid, naturally occurring in the human body and present in the daily diet.
Taurine is involved in a wide range of biological processes.
Taurine is found in high concentrations in muscle, brain, heart and blood. 
A person weighing ~154 Ibs has approximately 70 g of taurine distributed throughout their body. 

.beta.-Aminoethylsulfonic acid
1-Aminoethane-2-sulfonic acid
CHEBI:15891
NSC-32428
Taurine, 99%
NCGC00015997-06
DSSTox_CID_1304
DSSTox_RID_76069
DSSTox_GSID_21304
Taurine Hydrochloride
Taurina
Taurinum
C2H7NO3S
CAS-107-35-7
SMR000326743
SR-01000076144
EINECS 203-483-8
NSC 32428
Taurine [USP:INN:BAN]
Taurineold
Taukard
HSDB 8167
Aminoethylsulfonate
Taurine,(S)
Taurine (TN)
b-Aminoethylsulfonate
Taurine (8CI)

Sources of Taurine
The main sources of taurine are animal foods, such as meat, fish and dairy.
Although some processed vegetarian foods contain added taurine, Taurine is unlikely that these will offer sufficient quantities to optimize your levels.
Taurine is also often added to soda and energy drinks — which may provide 600–1,000 mg in a single 8-ounce (237-ml) serving.
However, Taurine is not recommended to drink soda or energy drinks in high amounts due to other ingredients that may be harmful.
Because the form of taurine used in supplements and energy drinks is usually made synthetically — not derived from animals — Taurine is suitable for vegans.
An average diet provides about 40–400 mg of taurine per day, but studies have used 400–6,000 mg per day.

SUMMARY
The main dietary sources of taurine are animal foods, such as meat, fish and dairy. 
Smaller amounts occur in some plant foods. 
Taurine is also added to many energy drinks.

Taurine is a conditionally essential, sulfur-containing amino acid and the most abundant amino acid in the heart. 
Taurine supplementation has been shown to benefit the production of nitric oxide in the vascular endothelium, which is essential to optimal blood flow, maintaining already normal blood pressure, and overall cardiovascular function.
Taurine also acts as an antioxidant by inhibiting LDL cholesterol oxidation.
In the liver, taurine is combined with bile acids, which results in increased cholesterol solubility and excretion, thus helping to maintain healthy cholesterol levels.
Taurine's involvement in bile acid formation facilitates fat digestion, fluid regulation, detoxification of environmental toxins, regulation of cellular calcium, and regulation of nerve excitability.
A taurine-deficient individual can be more susceptible to tissue damage from environmental pollutants such as aldehydes, chlorine, and amines.

Functions in Your Body
Taurine, found in several organs, has widespread benefits.

May Fight Diabetes
Taurine may improve blood sugar control and combat diabetes.
Long-term supplementing decreased fasting blood sugar levels in diabetic rats — without any changes in diet or exercise.
Fasting blood sugar levels are very important for health, as high levels are a key factor in type 2 diabetes and many other chronic diseases.

Some animal research suggests that an increased intake of taurine could help prevent type 2 diabetes by reducing blood sugar levels and insulin resistance.
Interestingly, people with diabetes tend to have lower levels of taurine — another indicator that Taurine may play a role in this disease.
That said, more research is needed in this area.

SUMMARY
Taurine may benefit people with diabetes, potentially lowering blood sugar levels and improving various risk factors for heart disease. 
However, further studies are needed before any claims can be made.

May Improve Heart Health
Taurine may help reduce your risk of cardiovascular disease.
Research shows a link between higher taurine levels and significantly lower rates of death from heart disease, as well as reduced cholesterol and blood pressure.
Taurine may help reduce high blood pressure by decreasing the resistance to blood flow in your blood vessel walls. 

Taurine may also minimize nerve impulses in your brain that increase blood pressure.
In a two-week study in people with diabetes, taurine supplements significantly reduced artery stiffness — potentially making Taurine easier for the heart to pump blood around the body.
In another study in overweight people, 3 grams of taurine per day for seven weeks reduced body weight and improved several heart disease risk factors.
Additionally, supplementing has been found to reduce inflammation and artery thickening. 
When combined, these effects may drastically reduce your risk of heart disease.

Does Dog Food Have Taurine? 
Since taurine is known to be ‘essential’ for cats, cat food must have taurine supplemented in quantities established by the American Association of Feed Control Officials (AAFCO) and the National Research Council (NRC).

To date, however, there are no stated requirements for supplementing dog food with taurine. 
The extent to which dogs may require dietary taurine is still under investigation and may be breed dependent.

2-Aminoethylsulfonate
2-aminoethyl sulfonate
beta-Aminoethylsulfonate
PubChem18250
Taurine-[13C2]
Tocris-0209
2aminoethanesulfonic acid
Taurine, >=99%
b-Aminoethylsulfonic acid
Lopac-T-0625
WLN: Z2SWQ
1-Aminoethane-2-sulfonate
ACMC-2098vs
bmse000120
bmse000805
bmse000863
EC 203-483-8
2-aminoethanesulfonic acid.
Lopac0_001134
SCHEMBL23068
Taurine, >=98%, FG
MLS000859681
MLS001332383
MLS001332384
ARONIS27193
Taurine (JP17/USP/INN)
Aminoethylsulfonic acid (JAN)

Taurine Deficiency and Dilated Cardiomyopathy in Dogs 
Taurine deficiency is one cause of a heart condition called dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), where the heart muscle thins and the chambers become enlarged. 
This is true for cats, and may now also be true for dogs.

Recently, studies have found a connection between DCM and these breeds of dogs:
-Golden Retrievers
-Cocker Spaniels
-Newfoundlands
-Saint Bernards
-English Setters
-Irish Wolfhounds
-Portuguese Water Dogs

While research is ongoing, there are theories that the onset of DCM is related to the diet, specifically, grain-free diets. 
However, the question remains whether the DCM occurs due to an overall lack of taurine in the dog food or other dietary factors that cause problems with taurine digestion, absorption, metabolism, and/or excretion.

How Do Vets Test for Taurine Deficiency?
Veterinarians would first need a thorough history of your dog's health, including a list of symptoms and the diet fed.

Then, your veterinarian would conduct a complete physical examination of your dog and do routine blood work, including:
-Complete blood count (CBC)
-Biochemical profile (chemistry panel)
-Urinalysis

Blood concentrations of taurine can be measured by a laboratory to determine whether deficiency is likely. 
There are “normal” ranges for blood-taurine concentrations in dogs, so if the measured concentration is lower than that range, taurine deficiency is probable.

Other name(s):
2-aminoethane-sulphonic acid

General description
Taurine is an essential amino acid for babies. 
Adults can make their own taurine, but there are high amounts of Taurine in meat and fish. 
Normally, enough taurine is made in the human body from cysteine and hypotaurine. 
Taurine has many functions in the body including working as a neurotransmitter in the brain.

Taurine, a sulfur-containing amino acid, has been termed a functional nutrient that could be used to protect against, among others, diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis.
Indeed, an increasing body of literature supports the use of taurine supplements. 
Because taurine has very diverse functions, notably, intracellular osmoregulation and bile acid formation, and is abundantly present in several organs, multiple pathways could be involved. 
Some of these are discussed in this editorial.

Unproven claims
There may be benefits that haven't yet been proven through research.
Taurine may help congestive heart disease. 
But the way Taurine works isn't clear. 
More research is needed. 

Taurine may help control the nervous system. 
Taurine’s been used to treat anxiety and seizure issues. 
Taurine’s been used to treat the hyperactivity due to attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD).

Taurine may aid in treating hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis). 
Taurine may help treat high blood pressure (hypertension). 
Taurine may help prevent heart rate issues.  

CHEMBL239243
GTPL2379
DTXSID3021304
Taurine-1,1,2,2-[d4]
Taurine, >=99.0% (T)
HMS2093L13
HMS2233D19
HMS3263D09
HMS3370J18
Pharmakon1600-01505463
HY-B0351
RKL10149
ZINC3809490
Tox21_110277
Tox21_202520
Tox21_501134
ANW-15782
BDBM50357220
NSC759150
s2008
STL197941
AKOS005208848
Tox21_110277_1
CCG-205208
DB01956
Ethanesulfonic acid, 2-amino- (9CI)
LP01134

Recommended intake
Amino acids (AAs) are available as single AAs or in AA combinations. 
They also come as part of multivitamins, proteins, and food supplements. 
The forms include tablets, fluids, and powders.
By eating enough protein in your diet, you get all of the amino acids you need.
If you don’t consume enough taurine, you may need to take supplements. 
This may happen during parenteral nutrition. 
This is because the body can't make enough of Taurine.

Babies who aren’t breastfed may need taurine supplements. 
This is because their ability to make Taurine isn’t fully developed. 
Many infant formulas and parenteral nutrition solutions have taurine added to them.  

Taurine General description
Taurine (2-aminoethanesulphonic acid) is predominantly found in the retina and heart and is also found in the brain, intestine, skeletal muscles and kidneys.

Taurine Applications
Taurine has been used for the isolation and growth of taurine-utilizing purple non-sulfur bacteria and in phototrophic growth experiments.

SUMMARY
Taurine may reduce your risk of heart disease by improving several key risk factors, such as cholesterol and blood pressure.

May Boost Exercise Performance
Taurine may also have benefits for athletic performance.
In animal studies, taurine caused muscles to work harder and for longer and increased the muscles’ ability to contract and produce force. 
In mice, Taurine reduced fatigue and muscle damage during a workout.
In human studies, taurine has been shown to remove waste products that lead to fatigue and cause muscle burn. 
Taurine also protects muscles from cell damage and oxidative stress.

What’s more, Taurine increases fat burning during exercise.
Human studies indicate that trained athletes who supplement with taurine experience improved exercise performance. 
Cyclists and runners have been able to cover longer distances with less fatigue.
Another study supports this amino acid’s role in reducing muscle damage. 
Participants placed on a muscle-damaging weightlifting routine experienced fewer markers of damage and less muscle soreness.
In addition to these performance benefits, taurine may aid weight loss by increasing your body’s use of fat for fuel. 
In cyclists, supplementing with 1.66 grams of taurine increased fat burning by 16%.

SUMMARY
Taurine plays several important roles in your muscles and may aid various aspects of exercise performance by reducing fatigue, increasing fat burning and decreasing muscle damage.

Synonym(s): 2-Aminoethanesulfonic acid
Linear Formula: NH2CH2CH2SO3H
CAS Number: 107-35-7
Molecular Weight: 125.15
Beilstein/REAXYS Number: 1751215
EC Number: 203-483-8
MDL number: MFCD00008197
PubChem Substance ID: 24278721
NACRES: NA.32

MCULE-6041857208
NE10562
NSC-759150
SDCCGSBI-0051101.P003
Taurine, BioUltra, >=99.5% (T)
Taurine, SAJ first grade, >=98.5%
NCGC00015997-01
NCGC00015997-02
NCGC00015997-03
NCGC00015997-04
NCGC00015997-05
NCGC00015997-07
NCGC00015997-08
NCGC00015997-10
NCGC00015997-20
NCGC00024497-01
NCGC00024497-02
NCGC00024497-03
NCGC00024497-04
NCGC00024497-05
NCGC00260069-01
NCGC00261819-01
AS-13587
I815
NCI60_002814
SBI-0051101.P002
Taurine, Vetec(TM) reagent grade, >=99%

Taurine is essential and everywhere inside you — sort of like love and coffee. 
But you probably don’t know much, if anything, about this powerful compound.
The list of taurine benefits is long, including keeping your body running. 
Though, too much of this good thing… might not be such a good thing.
Taurine supplements are considered safe when they’re taken properly, but Taurine’s possible to overdo Taurine.

Other Health Benefits
Taurine has a surprisingly wide range of potential health benefits.
Taurine may improve various other functions in your body, such as eyesight and hearing in certain populations.
In one human study, 12% of participants supplementing with taurine completely eliminated ringing in their ears, which is associated with hearing loss.
Taurine is also present in large quantities in your eyes, with research showing that eye problems may occur when these levels start to decline. 
Increased concentrations are believed to optimize eyesight and eye health.
Because Taurine helps regulate muscle contractions, taurine may reduce seizures and help treat conditions such as epilepsy.
Taurine appears to work by binding to your brain’s GABA receptors, which play a key role in controlling and calming your central nervous system.
Finally, Taurine can protect liver cells against free radical and toxin damage. 
In one study, 2 grams of taurine taken three times per day reduced markers of liver damage while decreasing oxidative stress.
However, more research is needed on most of these benefits.

Use
Supplemental taurine has been evaluated for use in cardiovascular conditions and diabetes, and for Taurines CNS effects. 
Large quality clinical trials that might establish a definitive place for taurine in therapy are lacking, and results from animal studies have yet to be translated to the clinical setting.

Dosing
Taurine has been studied in doses of 1 to 6 g/day. 
Chronic hepatitis: Taurine 2 g 3 times daily for 3 months. 
Exercise: Various dosages and treatment durations of taurine, either alone or as part of a combination energy product, have been evaluated for effects on exercise. 
Hypertension: Supplemental taurine 3 to 6 g/day (treatment duration range, 1 to 8 weeks). 
Portal hypertension: Taurine 6 g/day for 1 month.

Taurine Contraindications
Contraindications have not been identified.

Pregnancy/Lactation
Information regarding supplementation above normal requirements is lacking, and caution is warranted. 
Taurine passes to the developing fetus through maternal circulation during pregnancy and to the newborn via breast milk. 
Taurine may be protective against neural tube defects. 
Taurine is also an ingredient in many baby formulas.

Interactions
Taurine inhibits cytochrome P450 (CYP-450) 2E1, and any drugs that are substrates of this isoenzyme may be impacted with coadministration. 
See Drug Interactions section.

Adverse Reactions
No adverse events have been noted for dosages up to 3 g/day.

SUMMARY
Taurine has a wide range of potential health benefits, from reduced seizures to improved eyesight.

Taurines direct roles include:
-Maintaining proper hydration and electrolyte balance in your cells
-Forming bile salts, which play an important role in digestion
-Regulating minerals such as calcium within your cells
-Supporting the general function of your central nervous system and eyes
-Regulating immune system health and antioxidant function

Since Taurine’s a conditionally essential amino acid, a healthy individual can produce the minimal amount required for these essential daily functions.
However, higher amounts may be required in rare cases, making taurine essential for some people — such as those with heart or kidney failure, as well as premature infants that have been fed intravenously.
When a deficiency occurs during fetal development, serious symptoms like impaired brain function and poor blood sugar control have been observed.

SUMMARY
Taurine plays many important roles in your body. 
Although extremely rare, deficiency is linked to several serious health issues.

A0295
AM20080018
B1846
EU-0101134
FT-0611241
T-130
C00245
D00047
T 0625
AB00443712-07
AB00443712_09
AB00443712_10
Q207051
J-508042
SR-01000076144-1
SR-01000076144-3
SR-01000076144-5
Taurine, certified reference material, TraceCERT(R)
F2191-0280
Z1317839154
Taurine, cell culture tested, meets USP testing specifications
Taurine, United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Reference Standard
Taurine, Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material
Taurine, PharmaGrade, Ajinomoto, Manufactured under appropriate GMP controls for pharma or biopharmaceutical production, suitable for cell culture

Bu internet sitesinde sizlere daha iyi hizmet sunulabilmesi için çerezler kullanılmaktadır. Çerezler hakkında detaylı bilgi almak için Kişisel Verilerin Korunması Kanunu mevzuat metnini inceleyebilirsiniz.