THICKENERS

Thickener is a substance which can increase the viscosity of a liquid without substantially changing its other properties. 
Edible thickeners are commonly used to thicken sauces, soups, and puddings without altering their taste; thickeners are also used in paints, inks, explosives, and cosmetics.
Thickeners may also improve the suspension of other ingredients or emulsions which increases the stability of the product. 

Thickeners or Thickening agents are substances which, when added to an aqueous mixture, increase its viscosity without substantially modifying its other properties, such as taste. 
Thickeners provide body, increase stability, and improve suspension of added ingredients.
Examples of Thickeners include: polysaccharides (starches, vegetable gums, and pectin), proteins (eggs, collagen, gelatin, blood albumin) and fats (butter, oil and lards).

Thickeners are often regulated as food additives and as cosmetics and personal hygiene product ingredients. 
Some Thickeners are gelling agents (gellants), forming a gel, dissolving in the liquid phase as a colloid mixture that forms a weakly cohesive internal structure. 
Other Thickeners act as mechanical thixotropic additives with discrete particles adhering or interlocking to resist strain.
Thickeners can also be used when a medical condition such as dysphagia causes difficulty in swallowing. 
Thickened liquids play a vital role in reducing risk of aspiration for dysphagia patients.

A food thickener is a thickening agent that increases the viscosity of a liquid mix without interfering with its other properties. 
Knowing how to thicken food is essential for preparing many recipes; most sauces, gravies, soups, and even desserts are thickened with some kind of starch. 
Each Thickener has properties best suited for specific recipes. 
One of the most commonly used methods for thickening sauces and other recipes is through the gelatinization of starches.

Thickeners are hydrocolloids that increase the viscosity of a solution or mixture without significantly affecting its other properties, such as taste. 
Hydrocolloids are a heterogeneous group of long-chain polymers that, when dispersed in water, produce a thickening or viscous and gelling effect.
Thickeners as food additives, food thickeners also stabilize food products by increasing the suspension and emulsification of colloids, including gels, sols, and emulsions.
The process of thickening involves a non-specific entanglement of polysaccharide and protein polymer chains. 
The thickening effect produced by hydrocolloids depends on several factors, including the pH and temperature of the food product as well as the hydrocolloid type and concentration.


1-) AGAR AGAR

Agar-agar = Kanten = Gum Agar = Japanese gelatin 

CAS Number: 9002-18-0
EC Number: 232-658-1
E number: E406

Agar agar, known as just agar in culinary circles, is a plant-based gelatin derived from seaweed. 
The white and semitranslucent vegetable gelatin is sold in flake, powder, bar, and strand form, and can be used in recipes as a stabilizing and thickening agent.
Agar agar is a mixture of two components: the linear polysaccharide agarose and a heterogeneous mixture of smaller molecules called agaropectin.
Agar agar forms the supporting structure in the cell walls of certain species of algae and is released on boiling. 
These algae are known as agarophytes, belonging to the Rhodophyta (red algae) phylum.
Agar agar has been used as an ingredient in desserts throughout Asia and also as a solid substrate to contain culture media for microbiological work. 
Agar agar can be used as a laxative, an appetite suppressant, a vegetarian substitute for gelatin, a thickener for soups, in fruit preserves, ice cream, and other desserts, as a clarifying agent in brewing, and for sizing paper and fabrics.
The gelling agent in Agar agar is an unbranched polysaccharide obtained from the cell walls of some species of red algae, primarily from tengusa (Gelidiaceae) and ogonori (Gracilaria). 
For commercial purposes, Agar agar is derived primarily from ogonori

Agar agar is a natural vegetable gelatin counterpart. 
Agar agar is white and semi-translucent when sold in packages as washed and dried strips or in powdered form. 
Agar agar can be used to make jellies, puddings, and custards. 
When making jelly, Agar agar is boiled in water until the solids dissolve. 
Sweetener, flavoring, coloring, fruits and or vegetables are then added, and the liquid is poured into molds to be served as desserts and vegetable aspics or incorporated with other desserts such as a layer of jelly in a cake.

Agar agar is used:
-Agar agar is used as an impression material in dentistry.
-Agar agar is used as a medium to precisely orient the tissue specimen and secure Agar agar by agar pre-embedding (especially useful for small endoscopy biopsy specimens) for histopathology processing
-Agar agar is used to make salt bridges and gel plugs for use in electrochemistry.
-Agar agar is used in formicariums as a transparent substitute for sand and a source of nutrition.
-Agar agar is used as a natural ingredient in forming modeling clay for young children to play with.
-Agar agar is used as an allowed biofertilizer component in organic farming.
-Agar agar is used as a substrate for precipitin reactions in immunology.
-Agar agar is used at different times as a substitute for gelatin in photographic emulsions, arrowroot in preparing silver paper and as a substitute for fish glue in resist etching.
-Agar agar is used as an MRI elastic gel phantom to mimic tissue mechanical properties in Magnetic Resonance Elastography
-Agar agar is used primarily for bacteriological plates. 
-Agar agar is used mainly in food applications.

Agar agar is approximately 80% dietary fiber, so it can serve as an intestinal regulator. 
Agar agars bulking quality has been behind fad diets in Asia, for example the kanten (the Japanese word for agar-agar) diet. 
Once ingested, kanten triples in size and absorbs water. 
This results in the consumers feeling fuller. 
This diet has recently received some press coverage in the United States as well. 
The diet has shown promise in obesity studies.

Agar agar also known as kanten, Japanese gelatin, vegetable gelatin, Chinese isinglass, China glass, and dai choy goh--is a vegan gelling agent derived from red algae, a type of seaweed. 
Agar agar has many uses but is used primarily in cooking. 
Agar agar is odorless, tasteless, and has only 3 calories per .035 ounces (0.99 g). 
This article will teach you how to prepare agar agar and some of the different ways it can be used.

Eden Agar Agar Flakes (Kanten) is a vegetable gelatin made of a variety of sea vegetables with strong thickening properties.  
The seaweeds are boiled to a gel, pressed, dried and crushed into flakes. 
Perfect for desserts, pie fillings, jellies, custards, puddings, parfaits, fruit or vegetable aspics and more. 
The flakes dissolve in hot liquids and thicken as they cool.

Asian culinary
One use of agar in Japanese cuisine (Wagashi) is anmitsu, a dessert made of small cubes of agar jelly and served in a bowl with various fruits or other ingredients. 
Agar agar is also the main ingredient in mizu yōkan, another popular Japanese food. 
In Philippine cuisine, Agar agar is used to make the jelly bars in the various gulaman refreshments like Sago't Gulaman, Samalamig, or desserts such as buko pandan, agar flan, halo-halo, fruit cocktail jelly, and the black and red gulaman used in various fruit salads. 
In Vietnamese cuisine, jellies made of flavored layers of agar agar, called thạch, are a popular dessert, and are often made in ornate molds for special occasions. 
In Indian cuisine, agar agar is known as "China grass" and is used for making desserts. 

Agar agar jelly is widely used in Taiwanese bubble tea. 
Agar, also called agar-agar, gelatin-like product made primarily from the red algae Gelidium and Gracilaria (division Rhodophyta). 
Best known as a solidifying component of bacteriological culture media. 
Agar agar is also used in canning meat, fish, and poultry; in cosmetics, medicines, and dentistry; as a clarifying agent in brewing and wine making; as a thickening agent in ice cream, pastries, desserts, and salad dressings; and as a wire-drawing lubricant. 
Agar agar is isolated from the algae as an amorphous and translucent product sold as powder, flakes, or bricks.
Although agar is insoluble in cold water, Agar agar absorbs as much as 20 times its own weight. 
Agar agar dissolves readily in boiling water; a dilute solution is still liquid at 42 °C (108 °F) but solidifies at 37 °C (99 °F) into a firm gel. 
In Agar agars natural state, agar occurs as a complex cell-wall constituent containing the polysaccharide agarose with sulfate and calcium.

Agar agar Powder vs Strands vs Flakes:
Powdered Agar agar is the easiest to use. 
You stir Agar agar into the liquid that needs to be gelled and bring to a boil. 
Agar agar dissolves quite easily.
Agar-agar is sold in three main forms: powder, strands or flakes. 
Kanten is mostly sold in sheets or blocks. 
Like gelatin, you may also see them being sold in flavoured forms. 
More often than not, the flavoured ones come with co-ordinating colours. 
So please make note of that while buying. 
If you are using Agar agar in a recipe that calls for clear jelly, the colors or flavour might put it off.

Health Benefits
Agar has no calories, no carbs, no sugar, not fat and is loaded with fiber. 
Agar agar’s free from starch, soy, corn, gluten, yeast, wheat, milk, egg and preservatives.
Agar agar absorbs glucose in the stomach, passes through digestive system quickly and inhibits the body from retaining and storing excess fat. 
Agar agars water absorbing properties also aids in waste elimination. 
Agar agar absorbs bile, and by doing so, causes the body to dissolve more cholesterol.

Other culinary
In Russia, Agar agar is used in addition to or as a replacement for pectin in jams and marmalades, as a substitute to gelatin for its superior gelling properties, and as a strengthening ingredient in souffles and custards. 
Another use of agar-agar is in ptich'ye moloko (bird's milk), a rich jellified custard (or soft meringue) used as a cake filling or chocolate-glazed as individual sweets. 
Agar-agar may also be used as the gelling agent in gel clarification, a culinary technique used to clarify stocks, sauces, and other liquids. 
Mexico has traditional candies made out of Agar gelatin, most of them in colorful, half-circle shapes that resemble a melon or watermelon fruit slice, and commonly covered with sugar. 
Agar agar is known in Spanish as Dulce de Agar (Agar sweets)
Agar-agar is an allowed nonorganic/nonsynthetic additive used as a thickener, gelling agent, texturizer, moisturizer, emulsifier, flavor enhancer, and absorbent in certified organic foods.

Motility assays
As a gel, an agar or agarose medium is porous and therefore can be used to measure microorganism motility and mobility. 
The gel's porosity is directly related to the concentration of agarose in the medium, so various levels of effective viscosity (from the cell's "point of view") can be selected, depending on the experimental objectives.
A common identification assay involves culturing a sample of the organism deep within a block of nutrient agar. 
Cells will attempt to grow within the gel structure. 
Motile species will be able to migrate, albeit slowly, throughout the gel, and infiltration rates can then be visualized, whereas non-motile species will show growth only along the now-empty path introduced by the invasive initial sample deposition.
Another setup commonly used for measuring chemotaxis and chemokinesis utilizes the under-agarose cell migration assay, whereby a layer of agarose gel is placed between a cell population and a chemoattractant. 
As a concentration gradient develops from the diffusion of the chemoattractant into the gel, various cell populations requiring different stimulation levels to migrate can then be visualized over time using microphotography as they tunnel upward through the gel against gravity along the gradient.

Plant biology
Physcomitrella patens plants growing axenically in vitro on agar plates (Petri dish, 9 cm, 3½" diameter).
Research grade agar is used extensively in plant biology as Agar agar is optionally supplemented with a nutrient and/or vitamin mixture that allows for seedling germination in Petri dishes under sterile conditions (given that the seeds are sterilized as well). 
Nutrient and/or vitamin supplementation for Arabidopsis thaliana is standard across most experimental conditions. 
Murashige & Skoog (MS) nutrient mix and Gamborg's B5 vitamin mix in general are used. 
A 1.0% agar/0.44% MS+vitamin dH2O solution is suitable for growth media between normal growth temps.
When using agar, within any growth medium, Agar agar is important to know that the solidification of the agar is pH-dependent. 
The optimal range for solidification is between 5.4 and 5.7.
Usually, the application of potassium hydroxide is needed to increase the pH to this range. 
A general guideline is about 600 µl 0.1M KOH per 250 ml GM. 
This entire mixture can be sterilized using the liquid cycle of an autoclave.
This medium nicely lends itself to the application of specific concentrations of phytohormones etc. to induce specific growth patterns in that one can easily prepare a solution containing the desired amount of hormone, add Agar agar to the known volume of GM, and autoclave to both sterilize and evaporate off any solvent that may have been used to dissolve the often-polar hormones. 
This hormone/GM solution can be spread across the surface of Petri dishes sown with germinated and/or etiolated seedlings.
Experiments with the moss Physcomitrella patens, however, have shown that choice of the gelling agent – agar or Gelrite – does influence phytohormone sensitivity of the plant cell culture.

Also Known As: Kanten
Sold As: Powder, flakes, bars, and strands
Use: Vegetarian substitute for gelatin

In the natural state, agar occurs as structural carbohydrate in the cell walls of agarophytes algae, probably existing in the form of its calcium salt or a mixture of calcium and magnesium salts. 
Agar agar is a complex mixture of polysaccharides composed of two major fractions – agarose, a neutral polymer, and agaropectin, a charged, sulfated polymer.
Agarose, the gelling fraction, is a neutral linear molecule essentially free of sulfates, consisting of chains of repeating alternate units of β-1,3-linked- D-galactose and α-1,4- linked 3,6 anhydro-L-galactose units. 
Agaropectin, the non gelling fraction, is a sulfated polysaccharide (3% to 10% sulfate), composed of agarose and varying percentages of ester sulfate, D-glucuronic acid, and small amounts of pyruvic acid. 
The proportion of these two polymers varies according to the species of seaweed. 
Agarose normally represents at least two-thirds of the natural agar-agar.

About Agar agar
Agar agar is colorless, odorless, and tasteless versatile thickener (Gel Strength: 700g/cm2)
Agar agar is great for making vegan cheese and vegan desserts, such as gummy bears, marshmallows, pudding, custard, panna cotta, ice cream, and more
Agar agar is useful for making sugar-free jam, jellies, and keto desserts, as well as for starch-free soup and gravy
Agar agar is suitable for vegan, vegetarian, keto, plant-based, halal, and kosher diets
Certified vegan, non-GMO, halal, and kosher

What Is Agar-Agar?
This jellylike substance is a mix of carbohydrates that have been extracted from red algae, a type of seaweed. 
Agar has several uses in addition to cooking, including as a filler in sizing paper and fabric, a clarifying agent in brewing, and certain scientific purposes. 
Agar agar is also known as China glass, China grass, China isinglass, Japanese kanten, Japanese gelatin, and dai choy goh, and is used in certain Japanese dessert recipes.

Agar is the perfect substitute to traditional gelatin. 
Agar agar’s made from a plant source rather than from an animal one. 
That makes it suitable for vegetarian and vegan diets, and other diet restrictions.
Agar has no taste, no odor and no color, which makes Agar agar pretty convenient to use. 
Agar agar sets more firmly than gelatin, and stays firm even when the temperature heats up.
Though agar is a great substitute to gelatin, don’t expect the same results when replacing gelatin with agar in a recipe. 
First, Agar agar doesn’t give the same texture. 
Gelatin can give a «creamy» texture whereas agar gives a firmer texture. 
And agar is much more powerful than gelatin : 1 teaspoon agar powder is equivalent to 8 teaspoon gelatin powder.

How to use Agar
The most important thing to know is that agar needs to be first dissolved in water (or another liquid like milk, fruit juices, tea, stock...) and then brought to a boil. It will set as the ingredients cool down. You can not add agar flakes or powder as it is in your food.

Agar may have been discovered in Japan in 1658 by Mino Tarōzaemon, an innkeeper in current Fushimi-ku, Kyoto who, according to legend, was said to have discarded surplus seaweed soup (Tokoroten) and noticed that it gelled later after a winter night's freezing.
Over the following centuries, agar became a common gelling agent in several Southeast Asian cuisines.
Agar was first subjected to chemical analysis in 1859 by the French chemist Anselme Payen, who had obtained agar from the marine algae Gelidium corneum.
Beginning in the late 19th century, agar began to be used as a solid medium for growing various microbes. 
Agar was first described for use in microbiology in 1882 by the German microbiologist Walther Hesse, an assistant working in Robert Koch's laboratory, on the suggestion of his wife Fanny Hesse.
Agar quickly supplanted gelatin as the base of microbiological media, due to its higher melting temperature, allowing microbes to be grown at higher temperatures without the media liquefying.
With its newfound use in microbiology, agar production quickly increased. 
This production centered on Japan, which produced most of the world's agar until World War II.
However, with the outbreak of World War II, many nations were forced to establish domestic agar industries in order to continue microbiological research.
Around the time of World War II, approximately 2,500 tons of agar were produced annually.
By the mid-1970s, production worldwide had increased dramatically to approximately 10,000 tons each year.
Since then, production of Agar agar has fluctuated due to unstable and sometimes over-utilized seaweed populations.

Agar agar vs. Gelatin
The main difference between agar and gelatin is from where they are derived. 
Whereas animal-based gelatins are made from livestock collagen (from the cartilage, bones, skin, and tendons), agar-agar is purely vegetarian, coming from the red algae plant. 
The two setting agents also behave differently and need to be prepared in distinct ways when incorporating into a recipe. 
Agar agar needs to boil in order to set, while gelatin can simply dissolve in warm water; that is because agar melts at 185 F, whereas gelatin melts at 95 F. 
Agar agar also sets more quickly than gelatin and doesn't need any refrigeration.

Agar (or Agar Agar), sometimes referred to as kanten, is a gelling agent coming from a South East Asian seaweed. 
Agar agar is used for scientific purposes (in biology for instance), as a filler in paper sizing fabric and as a clarifying agent in brewing. 
Agar can also be used as a laxative (it’s 80-percent fiber) and as an appetite suppressant.

Name: agar (E406)
Origin: polysaccharide obtained from red algae (several species)
Properties, texture: thermoreversible, heat resistant, brittle gel; high hysteresis
Clarity: clear to semi-opaque
Dispersion: in cold or hot water
Hydration (dissolution): > 90 °C; heating to boil necessary for gelling.
pH: 2.5-10
Setting: 35-45 °C, rapid (minutes)
Melting: 80-90 °C%
Promoter: sugar; sorbitol and glycerol improve elasticity, stronger gel at higher pH
Inhibitor: tannic acid (counteracted by add. of glycerol); prolonged heating at pH outside the range 5.5-8
Tolerates: salt, sugar, alcohol, acid, proteases
Viscosity of solution: low
Typical concentration: 0.2% will set, 0.5% gives firm jelly, [0.07-3%] *
Synergies: locust bean gum (only with certain agar types)
Syneresis: yes (can be prevented by replacing 0.1- 0.2% agar with locust bean gum)

Method of Extraction: Hot water extraction
Processing: Dried and milled
Parts Used: Red Seaweed
Appearance: Light cream to tan powder
Odor: Slight seaweed odor 
pH: 5-8
Preservation: N/A

Description: Agar agar is a gelling agent extracted from seaweed.
Alternative Names: Agar agar
Culinary Uses: Gelling, fluid gels, and clarification

Preparation Tips
Addition of glycerol or sorbitol can prevent dehydration of the gel.
When replacing gelatin or pectin for gels, use 2-3 and 10 times less agar respectively.
If left uncovered, agar gels dry out, but if immersed in water or other liquid it swells and retains its original shape.
A special property of agar is the large difference between the gelling temperature and the melting temperature, this is known as hysteresis.
The minute amounts of agar needed can be difficult to measure. 
One trick is to make a 0.1x strength agar by mixing of agar with 90 g of sugar. 
For a recipe that calls for 0.5 g agar you then use 5g of the 0.1x agar/sugar mixture. 
But keep in mind that you do add a small amount of sugar, so this is not suitable in every recipe.
Agar alone forms brittle gels, but in combination with locust bean gum elastic gels may be obtained.

Agar-agar is extracted from several types and species of red seaweeds belonging to the Rhodophyceae class. 
These agar-containing seaweeds are called agarophytes and the major commercial species are Gracilaria and Gelidium. 
The agar content of seaweeds varies according to the conditions of seawater. 
Carbon dioxide concentration, oxygen tension, water temperature and intensity of solar radiation can have significant influence.
Seaweeds are usually harvested manually by fishermen in low depths at low tides or by diving using appropriate equipment. 
After being harvested, seaweeds are placed under the sun to dry until they reach a humidity level that is ideal for processing. 
Gelidium is obtained from natural seaweed beds mainly in Morocco, Spain, Portugal, Japan and South Korea, as attempts to cultivate it have not been successful. 
On the other hand, Gracilaria seaweeds have been successfully cultivated on a commercial scale, particularly in China, Indonesia and Chile.

Agar-agar is one of the flagship additives of molecular gastronomy. 
Agar agar is used to make dishes with unusual shapes and textures such as pearls and spaghetti gels. 
There is simply to dissolve the powdered agar-agar in a boiling aqueous liquid, then let Agar agar set while cooling, using various techniques. 
Agar agar is also incorporated into preparations using a food siphon to produce very light foams. 
Agar-agar preparations are heat resistant, thereby making Agar agar possible to serve hot foams and gels.
Healthy cooking applications
Agar-agar has the advantage of being calorie-free. 
Agar agar is also 80% fibers and can therefore affect regularity of the bowel. 
In jams, agar-agar holds better than pectin and because of a very good release of flavor in the mouth, Agar agar amplifies the taste of fruit and thus reduces the amount of sugar needed in a recipe. 
Lastly, agar-agar is an ideal vegetable substitute for animal gelatin.
Tips and tricks The gelling properties of agar-agar are activated only if the solution is boiled for about two minutes. 
There is only then to let Agar agar rest in a cool place or at room temperature so that Agar agar gels.

Features: Some may form loose bunches of slender, cylindrical 'stems' about 15-20cm long. 
Each 'stem' has a few slender side branches that taper at the tips. 
Red, brownish or blackish. Sometimes green.
Others form dense bunch of many slender, cylindrical 'stems' about 5-10cm long. 
Each 'stem' branches many times into short slender side branches with tapering tips. 
Black, maroon sometimes purplish.
According to AlgaeBase: There are more than 180 current Gracilaria species. 
The species are difficult to differentiate based on external features alone. 
Except for Knobbly agar-agar red seaweed (Gracilaria salicornia) with distinctive club-shaped segments.
Some other species found on our shore that resemble Gracilaria include Hydropuntia edulis which also belongs to Family Gracilariaceae

Benefits of Agar Agar
-Promotes Digestive Health
-Supports Satiety and Weight Loss
-Strengthens Bones
-Helps Prevent Anemia
-May Regulate Blood Sugar
-Effective Vegan Gelatin Substitute

Human uses: The Gracilaria species are a major source of food-grade agar. 
The seaweed is both harvested from the wild and farmed for commercial applications. 
On farms, they are grown on ropes. 
A wide range of Gracilaria species have commercial uses. 
About 30,000 tons of Gracilaria species are produced a year, one-third of this from South America. 
China was one of the first countries to cultivate Gracilaria species.
History of agar-agar: Freezing removes impurities from the agar-agar. 
According to Japanese folklore, an innkeeper tossed out some leftover jelly during the winter. 
This froze at night then thawed the following day. 
The innkeeper came across the resulting white substance several days later. 
When he boiled Agar agar, he found that Agar agar produce a whiter jelly than the original. 
Thus was the method of agar production accidentally discovered.
Agar-agar was known in Japan and China for centuries, as a sweetened or flavoured gel, and was called 'kanten' by the Japanese and 'dongfen' by the Chinese. 
Agar agar is said that Chinese migrants brought Agar agar to South East Asia. 
'Agar-agar' is the Malay name for it, a name which even the Chinese in South East Asia used.
When the Europeans (via the Dutch) brought it to Europe Agar agar was called 'agar'. 
In 1882, the use of agar as a medium to culture bacteria was made famous by experiments on the tuberculosis bacteria.

The resulting recipe will also have subtle variances: Dishes made with agar will be firmer and less creamy and jiggly than those made with gelatin. 
Agar-agar recipes also stay firm when exposed to higher temperatures, while gelatin loses some of Agar agars stability.

Varieties
Agar-agar is sold as flakes, powder, bars, and strands. 
The seaweed is typically boiled into a gel, pressed, dried, and then crushed to form agar flakes, blended into a powder, freeze-dried into bars, or made into strands. 
The powder is less expensive than flakes and the easiest to work with as it dissolves almost immediately, whereas the flakes take a few minutes and need to be blended until smooth. 
The powder is also used in a 1:1 ratio when substituting for gelatin—when using flakes, 1/3 the amount of gelatin called for should be added. 
The agar bars, sticks, and flakes can be processed into powder form in a blender or food processor. 
Similar to gelatin, flavored and colored versions of agar are available.

If using powder, mix all the ingredients along with the agar and let Agar agar sit for 5 minutes.
Never mix agar powder with warm/hot water as it will clump and become impossible to dissolve. 
Stir into room temperature liquid and then bring Agar agar to a rolling boil, making sure the agar has dissolved. 
Pour into molds and let Agar agar set.

Both Agar and Gelatin are essential ingredients in the preparation of desserts worldwide. 
The main difference between agar and gelatin is the source from which they are derived. 
Agar is a vegetarian substitute for Gelatin since Agar agar is derived from a plant and has higher gelling properties.

Production Process
Powdered agar-agar is a product mostly used for industrial applications. 
Flakes, bars and threads are mostly used in cooking. 
The manufacture of powdered and flake-like agar-agar is accomplished by the Gel Press method by pressing the agar gel. 
Agar-agar in bar and strip forms is manufactured through a more traditional production method by freezing and thawing the agar gel.

Agar-Agar Uses
In cooking, agar-agar is used as a vegetarian alternative to gelatin in a variety of dishes, including puddings, mousses, and jellies, as well as ice cream, gummy candies, and cheesecake. 
Agar agar is an important ingredient in the Japanese dessert anmitsu, which calls for kanten jelly, a mixture of agar-agar, water, and sugar.

How to Cook With Agar-Agar
Before agar can be added to a recipe, Agar agar needs to be dissolved in water and then boiled; Agar agar cannot be simply dissolved in a liquid or added directly to food. 
Dissolve the agar in a liquid in a small saucepan over medium-high heat, bring to a boil, and then simmer until slightly thickened, about five to seven minutes. 
Agar powder dissolves more quickly than flakes and strands, which need extra soaking time and stirring to fully dissolve. 

To use agar flakes in a recipe, measure 1 tablespoon for every cup of liquid; for agar powder, use 1 teaspoon to thicken 1 cup of liquid. 
Once the dissolved agar is added to a recipe, it will take approximately an hour to set at room temperature. 
Most recipes using agar are eaten cold so the dish will need to be refrigerated.
Agar agar is important to note that foods high in acidity, such as citrus fruits, strawberries, and kiwi, may require additional amounts of agar to fully gel.

What Does Agar agar taste like?
Agar-agar is completely odorless and tasteless, making Agar agar an ideal gelling agent for adding to any type of recipe.
Agar-agar is insoluble in cold water, but Agar agar swells considerably, absorbing as much as twenty times its own weight of water. 
Agar agar dissolves readily in boiling water and sets to a firm gel at concentrations as low as 0.50%. 
Powdered dry agar-agar is soluble in water and other solvents at temperatures between 95º to 100º C. 
Moistened agar flocculated by ethanol, 2-propanol or acetone, or salted out by high concentrations of electrolytes, is soluble in a variety of solvents at room temperature. 
Special types of agar-agar that passes through additional processes are soluble at lower temperatures between 85º to 90º C. 
They are marketed as Quick Soluble Agar or Instant Agar.

Application    
Agar-agar granulated, purified and free from inhibitors for microbiology. 
CAS 9002-18-0, pH 6.8 (100 g/l, H₂O, 20 °C).

What is agar agar
Agar agar is a gelatinous substance derived from red algae that has been popular across Asia for centuries. 
As Agar agar is derived from plants, not animals, Agar agar is suitable for use by vegans as a substitute for gelatin.

Agar is a jelly-like substance derived from red algae. 
Agar agar is used to gel, thicken, and stabilize cosmetic formulations. 
Being insoluble in cold water, Agar is able to absorb as much as twenty times its weight and dissolves readily in boiling water. 
Agar agars high heat tolerance, solidifying at just under 100°F, makes Agar agar ideal for cosmetic uses. 
Agar Agar is able to form gels far below the melting temperature and is able to gel at concentrations as low as 0.04%, though Agar agar is ideally used at 1-2% concentrations in your final formulation.
Agar Agar, given its name from the Malay word for “Gelidium”. 
Agar agar was discovered that Agar was the ideal substrate to culture bacteria as it was unable to be digested by microorganisms, and had a much higher melting point than gelatin. 
Today, Agar is used in a wide variety of applications, from culinary, to dentistry, to cosmetic uses.

The binding power of agar agar is 4-5 stronger than of gelatin. 
You can use approximately 8 grams of powder for 1 liter fluid. 
Agar solidifies at room temperature so your dish doesn’t need to set in the fridge and last from the fridge longer in warm weather. 
If you use agar agar in products based on milk than we advise to place it in the fridge. 
Agar agar loses Agar agars binding powder after approx. 2 days.
Agar Agar has a gel strength of min 700 g/cm3 (based on Nikan / 1,5% 20°C). 
This product is colourless and tasteless.
A complete Vegan substitute for gelatin. 
When you use agar agar as a substitute for gelatin, slightly adjust your recipe. 
4 till 5 times less of what you need when you use gelatin.
Agar solidifies at room temperature so your dish doesn’t need to set in the fridge and last from the fridge longer in warm weather.

Why Use Agar To Grow Mushrooms?
Agar is used in the cultivation of mushrooms in order to store cultures for long-term use and create mono-cultures free from contamination. 
Agar agar’s strongly recommended to germinate spores on agar before use. 
Spores are often accompanied by pathogens like yeast and mould. 
By cultivating mycelium on agar plates we can visually identify contaminants with ease allowing for the cultivator to make a clean transfer to a new agar plate.
Agar plates are also used for making fungal clones. 
A clean fragment of the mushroom fruiting body can be placed on agar to grow rather than germinating spores. 
This gives the cultivator and advantage in isolating any potential contaminants if present. 

Synonyms:
Agar-agar, Gum agar

Agar-Agar acts as a gelatin, but is also used as an emulsifier, thickener and stabilizer in many commercial products such as ice cream and soups. 
Agar agar can also be used to clarify wine and beer.
Agar agar is preferred by vegetarians to gelatin which is made from cows’ hooves.
Agar agar is made from red and purple seaweed. 
The seaweed is harvested, dried and blanched, then boiled in water. 
The seaweed is then strained out of the water and discarded, and the water evaporated down to leave the powder. 
Other methods freeze dry and dehydrate the seaweed, then grind it. 
You can buy the resultant powder in flake, bar or powder form.

Agar agar Description: 
Agar-Agar is derived from certain red seaweed types belonging to the Rhodophyceae family. 
An alakai treatment method is used to extract Agar from the seaweed. 
The two main types of Agar include Gracilaria and Gelidium.    

Agar agar Properties: 
Agars produce a wide range of gelling and thickening effects. 
They require heat to completely solubilize and will gel upon cooling. 
Agars do not require any additional substances to gel.
Agars produced from Gracilaria show an increased gel strength when used in high sugar applications. 
Additionally, agars produced from Gelidium have been known to have synergistic effects with galactomannans such as locust bean gum.

Product Range:
Ingredients Solutions offers a broad range of Agar-Agar products.
G-Type Agar – Gracilaria – Soluble at boiling temperatures
RS-Type Agar – Gracilaria – Soluble at 90˚C
S-Type Agar – Gracilaria – Soluble at 90˚C
GA-Type Agar – Gelidium – Soluble at boiling temperatures

Agar agar’s high in iron, phosphorous, calcium, fiber, and vitamins A, Bs, C, and D.
While Agar agar can be derived from a handful of types of red algae, the agar-agar you’ll find at stores is mostly from ogonori and sold either in powder form or in long strips. 
Agar agar dissolves in water and can hold up to 20 times Agar agars own weight — and unlike gelatin, agar-agar doesn’t need to be refrigerated to set, which along with its lower calorie count and non-animal origin makes it far more versatile (some might say superior). 
One popular usage for agar-agar is in some boba tea pearls instead of tapioca.

Without taste, odour or colour, agar agar can safely be used in desserts and other cooking without altering the taste or smell. 
Agar agar sets more firmly than gelatin and can even set at room temperature.

Agar, or agar agar, is an extract from red algae that is often used to stabilize emulsions or foams and to thicken or gel liquids. 
While many people in America have only heard of Agar agar lately, Agar agar has been used for hundreds of years in Asian cooking. 
Agar is also relatively straightforward to work with and easy to find online, making Agar agar a great place to start experimenting with modernist cooking.

Agar-agar is a hydrocolloid extracted from red seaweeds that is widely used as a gelling  agent in the food industry. 
In Agar agars gelling power, agar is outstanding among the hydrocolloids. 
Among its major properties one can mention Agar agars high gel strength at low concentrations, low viscosity in solution, high transparency in solution, thermo-reversible gel and sharp melting/setting temperatures. 
Agar-agar may come in several forms: powdered, flakes, bars and threads. 
Besides Agar agars use as a food additive, Agar agar is also used on a lesser scale in other industrial applications.

Way to use agar agar
Agar agar can be used as a vegan-friendly substitute in any recipe that calls for gelatin as a thickening agent, including sauces, jelly-based desserts, custards and puddings.

How to use agar agar
Use 2 tsp of agar flakes to every cup of liquid in a recipe. 
Like gelatin, Agar agar needs to be dissolved in liquid by bringing Agar agar to a boil over medium heat and then simmering until thickened, approximately five minutes. 
Set and chill in refrigerator before use.
Use 0.9g agar agar powder to 100ml of neutral liquid
Use 1.3g of agar agar powder to 100ml of acidic liquid
 
Alternative Names
Agar-Agar
Agarose
Agarose Gel
Agaropectin
Agarweed
Algue de Java
Chinese Gelatin
Colle du Japon
Gelosa, Gélose
Japanese Isinglas
Kanten Diet
Kanten Jelly
Kanten Plan
Layor Carang
Mousse de Ceylan
Mousse de Jaffna
Qion Zhi
Seaweed Gelatin
Vegetable Gelatin
Vegetarian Gelatin

Scientific Name
Gracillaria Lichenoides

Why Do People Use Agar?
Orally, agar is for diabetes, weight loss and obesity, and constipation. 
In dentistry, agar is used to make dental impressions. 
In manufacturing processes, agar is used as an ingredient in emulsions, suspensions, gels, and hydrophilic suppositories.

Is Agar agar Safe To Use?
Possibly Safe - When used orally and appropriately. 
Pregnancy and Lactation - Insufficient reliable information available.

How Effective Is Agar?
There is insufficient reliable information available about the effectiveness of agar.

How Agar Works?
Agar consists of two major fibrous polysaccharides, neutral agarose and charged agaropectin. 
Agarose is the gelling fraction. 
Agar is thought to work as a bulk laxative by expanding in the gut and stimulating peristalsis in the intestines. 
There is interest in using agar for weight loss and obesity. 
The bulking effect of agar is theorized to increase feelings of fullness and therefore decrease food intake. 
So far, there is no reliable scientific support for this theory.

What Are The Side Effects /Adverse Reactions of Agar?
Orally, no side effects have been reported; however, theoretically, agar could potentially cause esophageal or bowel obstruction if taken with insufficient fluids.

How Agar Interacts With Other Herbs and Supplements?
None known.

How Agar Interacts With Drugs?
Oral Drugs - Theoretically, the fiber in agar might impair absorption of oral drugs.

How Agar Interacts With Foods?
None known.

How Agar Interacts With Lab Tests?
None known.

How Agar Interacts With Diseases and Conditions?
Bowel Obstruction - Theoretically, agar could potentially exacerbate esophageal or bowel obstruction, especially if taken with insufficient fluids.

What Should Be the Dose/Administration of Agar?
ORAL A typical dose is 4-16 grams, one to two times daily. 
Take each dose with at least 250 mL of water.

Comments
Agar, also known as kanten, is becoming a popular supplement for dieting in Japan. 
In Japan, Agar agar is referred to as the "kanten plan" or "kanten diet."
Agar's bulking effect in the gut is theorized to increase the feeling of fullness and therefore help reduce food intake.

General Certificate of Analysis (COA)
Specification sheet links below are a standard copy of the COA less the batch or lot number and manufactures dates. 
Specification sheet can be dated and should only be considered as a general information. 
Please contact and request an up to date COA if needed for specific updated information before placing order by filling out the contact form with product name and SKU number. 
If ordering quantities of twenty five kilos or more contact for availability.

Calorie Content
Agar is a fairly low-calorie food. 
The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Nutrient Database reports that 1 tablespoon, or 7 grams, of dried agar provides about 21 calories. 
This is good news if you're seeking a vegan plant-based thickening agent, but want to avoid adding extra calories to your recipe. 
Other ingredients sometimes use as thickeners -- such as corn starch, potato starch, and flour contain more calories than agar.

Protein, Carbs, and Fat
Agar contains a small amount of protein and carbohydrates, but is fat-free. 
A 1-tablespoon portion of dried agar provides just over 5 grams of carbohydrates including about 0.5 grams of fiber and less than 1 gram of protein, according to the USDA.

Vitamins and Minerals
Dried agar provides a small amount of essential vitamins and minerals including calcium, iron, zinc, potassium, magnesium, and folate. 
While agar isn't an extremely rich source of any of these mircronutrients, getting a little bit here and there does help you meet daily nutritional needs.

Agar agar benefits
Agar agar gives a sensation of fullness, leading it to be used in some diet products. 
In Asia Agar agar is also sometimes used as a digestive remedy for upset stomachs. 
Agar agar can also be used as a laxative, or to thicken soups, sauces or preserves.

Agar has its origins in Japan in 1658. 
Agar agar was introduced first in the Far East and later in the rest of agarophyte seaweed producing countries. 
Agar agars use was introduced in Europe in 1859 and Agar agar was being used in bacteriological culture media in 1882. 
This chapter discusses the seaweeds used the world over as raw material for agar production (agarophyte seaweeds), and presents the industrial processes used for agar production. 
The chemical structure of agar and Agar agars fractions, such as agaroses and agaropectines, are presented, and the relation between its chemical structures and properties are also shown. 
The gelation and melting of agar and Agar agars fractions, such as agaroses and agaropectines, is based only in the formation of hydrogen bridges (physical gels), and thus gelation is extraordinarily reversible. 
The synergies and antagonisms among agar and other products in the gelation processes are studied. 
Various applications of agar are presented, in some of which agar is irreplaceable. 
Use formulations are shown in food preparations. 
Diverse applications are also presented, in the preparation of food for insects, for plant tissue culture, and in the preparation of culture media for microorganisms, as well as gels for denture moulding, the reproduction of archaeological remains or of fingerprinting in police work. 
Agar gels are important in food preparations with high content in soluble gross fibre, as agar is the food additive with the highest content in said fibre, superior to that of 94%. 
Lately the production of more easily soluble agars in water at temperatures below boiling point has been initiated, which proves to have noteworthy advantages for some of its applications. 
A comparative study is presented among the commercial products existing in the world market.

Description
Also known as China glass, Japanese Kanten, vegetable gelatin, our Redman Agar Agar Powder is from Singapore and is a plant-based gelatin which is made from seaweed. 
Agar agar is available in different colours such as Transparent White, Red, Blue, Green and Yellow, each available in packets of 100g.

Details
Our Agar Agar Powder is sugar-free and does not have a taste or smell. 
Agar agar is a jelly-like substance when boiled with water and food made with this product tend to be less jiggly and are also able to withstand warm temperatures better than traditional gelatin as it has a higher melting point. 
Agar agar also sets more quickly than gelatin. 
Agar agar is halal-certified. 
Store in an air tight container and keep away from light.

Agar-Agar Powder.
A high gel strength agar excellent for the culture of microorganisms. 
Agar is a non-nutritional seaweed derivative which after mixing with hot water and cooling, forms a firm gel. 
Excellent base for media formulas. 
Sterilization required.

How to Use
Agar agar can be used in many ways, including stabilising or thickening food, and creating colourful desserts. 
Agar agar is commonly used as a replacement for traditional gelatin in gluten-free, dairy free or vegan recipes. 
To use, boil the powder in water for a few minutes. 
Stir the powder evenly for a good mix. 
To replace traditional gelatin, agar agar powder should be used as a 1 to 1 replacement.

Suggested Recipes
Recipe suggestions include Rainbow Agar Agar Jelly, Coconut Pandan Agar Agar Layer Cake, Sweet Corn Pudding and Peanut Butter Milkshake.

Where to buy agar agar
Agar agar can generally be found in Asian supermarkets, health food stores or online, as flakes or powder.

Agar Agar is a gelatinous substance that is derived from the cell walls of red seaweed – most notably Tengusa (Gelidiaceae) and Ogonori (Gracilaria). 
Thought to have been discovered accidentally by a Japanese innkeeper in the 17th century, Agar is a mixture of two components – the linear polysaccharide agarose, and a heterogeneous mixture of smaller molecules known as agaropectin. 
Agar agar forms the supporting structure in the cell walls of certain species of red algae, and is released on boiling.
Since its discovery Agar Agar has been extensively used as an alternative to animal derived gelatine, and most famously in petri dishes to culture bacteria. 
Firmer and stronger than gelatine, Agar replaced gelatine as the preferable medium used in laboratories to grow bacteria as it was found that Agar isn’t degraded (eaten) by the bacteria.

What is Agar Used For?
Agar is an amazing culinary ingredient. 
Agar agar's a thickening agent for soups, fruits preserves, ice cream, sauces, jelly-based desserts, custards, puddings and other tasty treats. 
Agar easily gels most liquids and the gels can range from soft to hard, depending on the amount used. 
Agar agar is also great at making dense foams, especially when used in conjunction with the whipping siphon. 
If an agar gel is blended, Agar agar creates a thick fluid gel that is perfect for sauces.

Agar is suitable for vegans, vegetarians and is suitable for most religious diets. 
Agar agar is also used as a clarifying agent in brewing.
One common non-culinary use of agar is for scientific purposes in the labs to provide a growth medium for organisms in a petri dish. 
In small quantities, Agar agar is incorporated into modeling clay for young children to play with.
Agar agar is also used as an impression material in dentistry. 
Due to agar's high fiber content Agar agar can also be found in laxatives and appetite suppressants.

Is agar agar vegan
Given that agar agar is purely derived from plant-based ingredients, Agar agar is a vegan product and suitable for use in all vegan recipes.

Are Gelatin And Agar-Agar The Same?
Agar-agar can often be used as a substitute for gelatin or even cornstarch, another popular thickening agent. 
Agar agar should be noted that agar-agar does have a couple of major differences from gelatin: A liquid set with agar won't be a perfect replica of one set with gelatin. 
There's even a product called agar gel, which is surprisingly quite firm.

Agar-Agar Substitute
Of course, gelatin can be substituted for agar, but if a vegetarian alternative is needed, there are a few other options to consider. 
One is another type of seaweed called carrageen, which is used to produce carrageenan, a thickening agent extract. 
Agar agar sets more softly than gelatin, and Agar agar's best to use the whole dried form versus the powder. 
The dried seaweed should be rinsed well and soaked for 12 hours in water and then boiled and strained out. 
One ounce of carrageenan should be used per 1 cup of liquid.

Pectin powder, derived from citrus fruit and berries, is often used to thicken jams and jellies and can be used in place of agar. 
Agar agar does include sugar, so Agar agar is best in sweet recipes. 
A manufactured product available from a variety of brands is an unflavored vegan gel, a vegetarian gelling powder that is a combination of a variety of ingredients including carrageenan.

Storage
All forms of agar-agar should be stored in an airtight container in a cool, dry spot such as the pantry, where it will last at least eight months.


2-) CARBOXYLMETHYL CELLULOSE

Carboxymethyl cellulose = CMC = E466 = Cellulose Gum = Carmellose

CAS number :9004-32-4
MF: C8H16NaO8
MW: 242.16
EINECS: 618-378-6


Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), also known as cellulose gum or Tylose, and its sodium salt are important cellulose derivatives. 
The bound carboxymethyl groups (-CH2-COOH) along the polymer chain makes the cellulose water-soluble. 
When dissolved, Carboxymethyl cellulose increases the viscosity of aqueous solutions, suspensions and emulsions, and at higher concentration, Carboxymethyl cellulose provides pseudo-plasticity or thixotropy. 
As a natural polyelectrolyte, CMC imparts a surface charge to neutral particles and thus, can be used to improve the stability of aqueous colloids and gels or to induce agglomeration.

Carboxymethyl cellulose is a cellulose derivative that consists of the cellulose backbone made up of glucopyranose monomers and their hydroxyl groups bound to carboxymethyl groups. 
Carboxymethyl cellulose is added in food products as a viscosity modifier or thickener and emulsifier. 
Carboxymethyl cellulose is also one of the most common viscous polymers used in artificial tears, and has shown to be effective in the treatment of aqueous tear-deficient dry eye symptoms and ocular surface staining. 
The viscous and mucoadhesive properties as well as Carboxymethylcelluloses anionic charge allow prolonged retention time in the ocular surface. 
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose is the most commonly used salt.
Carboxymethyl cellulose is an acid ether derivative of cellulose that in the form of Carboxymethyl celluloses sodium salt is used as a thickening, emulsifying, and stabilizing agent and as a bulk laxative in medicine
Carboxymethyl cellulose is composed of anhydroglucose unit with average 0.2-1.5 carboxymethyl groups (-CH2COOH) on it.

Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) is an anionic, water-soluble cellulose derivative. 
Solubility of CMC depends on the DP as well as the degree of substitution and the uniformity of the substitution distribution. 
Water solubility of CMC would increase with decreased DP and increased carboxymethyl substitution and substitution uniformity. 
The viscosity of Carboxymethyl cellulose increases with increasing DP and increasing concentration.
CMC is soluble in water at any temperature. Because of its highly hygroscopic nature, CMC hydrates rapidly. 
Rapid hydration may cause agglomeration and lump formation when the CMC powder is introduced into water. 
Lump creation can be eliminated by applying high agitation while the powder is added into the water or preblending the CMC powder with other dry ingredients such as sugar before adding into water.
Due to Carboxymethyl celluloses high solubility and clarity of its solutions, CMC is commonly used in beverages and beverage dry mixes to provide rich mouthfeel. 
Carboxymethyl cellulose is also used in acidified protein drinks to stabilize protein and prevent it from precipitating. 
CMC is also added to syrup and sauce formulations to increase viscosity. 
Bakery is another application where CMC is commonly used to improve the quality and the consistency of the end product. 
In tortilla breads, for example, Carboxymethyl cellulose is used to improve the process ability of the dough and the textural properties of the end product, including foldability and rollability.

Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) or cellulose gum is a cellulose derivative with carboxymethyl groups (-CH2-COOH) bound to some of the hydroxyl groups of the glucopyranose monomers that make up the cellulose backbone. 
CMC is often used as its sodium salt, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose. 
CMC used to be marketed under the name Tylose, a registered trademark of SE Tylose.

Carboxymethylcellulose is particularly used as a thickening agent, but it is also used as a filler, dietary fiber, anti-clumping agent, and emulsifier. 
Carboxymethylcellulose is made from cellulose, which is the main polysaccharide and makes up the woody parts and cell walls of plants. 
Carboxymethylcellulose is commercially made from wood and is chemically modified. 
Carboxymethylcellulose is similar to cellulose, but is also very soluble in water.
Carboxymethylcellulose can also be identified via its alternate names, such as cellulose gum, carboxymethyl cellulose, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, CMC, modified cellulose, and cellulose gel, and it has an E number of E466.

Carboxymethyl cellulose Application:
Some baked good applications where carboxymethyl cellulose finds use include:
Frozen dough: As a 0.5% replacement for wheat flour and with a D.S. of 1.1, CMC weakens the influence of frozen treatment on the gluten starch structure of the dough.
Tortillas: CMC is added to tortillas for shelf life extension and to maintain a pliable texture.
Gluten free bread and cakes: Improves the internal structure like gluten proteins and helps with moisture retention and mouthfeel.
Fried doughs: At the level of 0.35%, CMC can reduce oil absorption and improve the texture of fried products.
Cookies: CMC functions as a release aid and spread controller.

Carboxymethyl cellulose Detergents:
The detergent industry is the largest consumer of CMC. 
Technical grade CMC compositions are most often used for soaps and detergents. 
CMC acts as an inhibitor of the redeposition of grease in the fabric after it has been removed by the detergent.

Carboxymethyl cellulose Paper Industry:
CMC coating reduces the consumption of wax in waxed paper and paperboard, ensuring less penetration of the wax into paper. 
Similarly, the consumption of printing ink is reduced as a result of the surface shine it gives. 
In addition, because Carboxymethyl cellulose smoothes the surface, CMC makes paper more resistant to grease and improves the union between fibers, thereby improving the color of the paper. It is also used as a dispersant aid in the extrusion of fibers from the pulp and to prevent their flocculation.

Carboxymethyl cellulose Agriculture:
In pesticides and water-based sprays, CMC acts as a suspending agent. 
Carboxymethyl cellulose also functions as glue to attach the insecticide to the leaves of plants after application. 
Sometimes, CMC is used as an aid in the deterioration of certain fertilizers that are highly polluting.

Carboxymethyl cellulose Adhesives:
CMC is added to various compositions of glues and adhesives that are used for almost any material. 
Carboxymethyl cellulose is widely used in the leather industry. Adhesives that join wood to other wood have been effectively made by combining CMC with starch and phenol formaldehyde.

Carboxymethyl cellulose Cosmetics:
CMC is used in dental impression materials, and in toothpastes and gels. 
Carboxymethyl cellulose, this water soluble ether serves as a thickener, stabilizer, suspending agent and former of films in creams, lotions, or shampoos, and is widely used in hair care products.

Carboxymethyl cellulose Paint:
CMC is used in oil paints and varnishes. 
Carboxymethyl cellulose acts as a thickener and suspends the pigment in the fluid.

Carboxymethyl cellulose Oil Industry:
Crude or purified CMC is used in drilling sludge as a colloid thickener and is applied when removing the drill from the hole to avoid sediments.

Carboxymethyl cellulose Plastics:
The main use of CMC in the plastics industry is to help increase the viscosity of plastics such as latex.

Carboxymethyl cellulose Ceramics:
The majority of water-soluble ethers are used to join pieces of porcelain. 
They have good baking properties and CMC solutions create very little ash.

Carboxymethyl cellulose Textiles Industry:
Crude CMC is used as sizing agent for fabric. 
CMC is also used in combination with starch in laundry operations. 
To give a better finish to fabrics in the manufacturing process, the fabric is impregnated with CMC and is then treated with acid and heat. 
Carboxymethyl cellulose is also a very effective agent in fabric printing and as a thickening agent in paints and textile varnishes.

Carboxymethyl cellulose Pharmaceuticals:
CMC is used to coat tablets with high degrees of purity and low viscosity. 
CMC is insoluble in the acidic environment of the stomach but soluble in the basic medium of the intestine. 
Carboxymethyl cellulose is also used for form gels, to transport the drug, to disintegrate tablets and as a stabilizer for suspensions, emulsions, sprays and bio-adhesive tablets which attach internally to the mucus of a body part.

Carboxymethyl cellulose Food:
CMC is used in food as an auxiliary agent in the churning of ice cream, creams and dairy products, as an auxiliary to form gels in gelatins and puddings, and as a thickener in salad dressings and fillings. 
Carboxymethyl cellulose is also used as suspending agent in fruit juices, as a protective colloid in emulsions and mayonnaise, as a protective agent to cover the surface of fruits and as a stabilizer in ready- to- bake products. 
Because CMC is not metabolized by the human body, it has been approved for use in foods that are low in calories.

Carboxymethyl cellulose Medicine:
The most innovative applications of CMC are in the area of medicine. CMC solutions are used to form gels that are used in heart, thoracic and cornea surgery. 
In thorax operations, the lungs are stapled and then covered with a solution of CMC to prevent air leaks and fluid ingress. 
In the field of orthopedics, CMC solutions are used in lubricating the joints of the bones, most often in the wrists, knees and hips. 
The fluid is injected into these joints to prevent erosion, swelling and possible destruction of the cartilage attached to bones.

Carboxymethyl cellulose Other Applications:
CMC is also used in the manufacture of diapers and sanitary products of this type. 
Because it is hydrophilic, CMC helps gelatinize liquid and promotes retention.
 
Body systems affected by carboxymethylcellulose
There are only a few body systems that carboxymethylcellulose can adversely affect. 
These include the integumentary system and the digestive system as it may cause allergic reactions, flatulence, diarrhea, and cramping.

Items that can contain carboxymethylcellulose
Carboxymethylcellulose are usually found in food products, such as ice cream, processed cheese, beverages, infant formula, cottage cheese, cream cheese, dressings, desserts, concentrated juice, beer, jams, jellies, and cake frosting. 
On the other hand, it can also be found in non-food items, such as K-Y jelly, toothpaste, laxatives, hand cream, antacids, diet pills, water-based paints, detergents, different paper products, artificial tears, and in laundry detergents.

How to avoid carboxymethylcellulose
In order to avoid carboxymethylcellulose it is important to read the labels on food products, particularly the nutrition facts table and ingredient list. 
In addition, carboxymethylcellulose can be avoided by refraining from using or consuming these products: ice cream, dressing, cheese, icing, toppings, gelatinous desserts, infant/baby formula, candy, cottage cheese, cream cheese spread, K-Y jelly, toothpaste, laxatives, hand cream, antacids, diet pills, water-based paints, detergents, different paper products, artificial tears, and laundry detergents.

Sinergia Comercial y Representaciones is a provider of raw materials for the food, pharmaceutical, cosmetics, ceramics, paints and coatings, construction and plastics industries to name a few. 
Carboxymethyl celluloses main commodities include CMC and cellulose gum.

CMC has a tendency to lump when added to an application unless carefully mixed.  Methods of addition to recipes include:
-Adding directly to a vortex of vigorously agitated body of water.
-Dispersing CMC in another dry ingredient before adding water.
-Dispersing CMC in a water miscible non-solvent (such as glycerine or corn syrup) before adding water.

CMC has a tendency to lump when added to an application unless carefully mixed.  
Methods of addition to recipes include:
-Adding directly to a vortex of vigorously agitated body of water.
-Dispersing CMC in another dry ingredient before adding water.
-Dispersing CMC in a water miscible non-solvent (such as glycerine or corn syrup) before adding water.

CMC is used in food under the E number E466 or E469 (when it is enzymatically hydrolyzed) as a viscosity modifier or thickener, and to stabilize emulsions in various products including ice cream. 
Carboxymethyl cellulose is also a constituent of many non-food products, such as toothpaste, laxatives, diet pills, water-based paints, detergents, textile sizing, reusable heat packs, and various paper products. 
Carboxymethyl cellulose is used primarily because it has high viscosity, is nontoxic, and is generally considered to be hypoallergenic as the major source fiber is either softwood pulp or cotton linter.
CMC is used extensively in gluten free and reduced fat food products.
In laundry detergents, Carboxymethyl cellulose is used as a soil suspension polymer designed to deposit onto cotton and other cellulosic fabrics, creating a negatively charged barrier to soils in the wash solution. 
In ophthalmology, CMC is used as a lubricant in artificial tears to treat dry eyes. 
Extensive treatment may be required to treat severe dry eye syndrome or Meibomian gland dysfunct on (MGD).

Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) is tackifier, at room temperature, Carboxymethyl cellulose is non-toxic tasteless white flocculent powder, it is stable and soluble in water, aqueous solution is neutral or alkaline transparent viscous liquid, it is soluble in other water-soluble gums and resins, it is insoluble in organic solvents such as ethanol. 
Carboxymethyl cellulose is the substituted product of cellulosic carboxymethyl group. 
According to their molecular weight or degree of substitution, it can be completely dissolved or insoluble polymer, the latter can be used as the weak acid cation of exchanger to separate neutral or basic proteins.
Carboxymethyl cellulose can form highly viscous colloidal solution with adhesive, thickening, flowing, emulsifying, shaping, water, protective colloid, film forming, acid, salt, suspensions and other characteristics, and it is physiologically harmless, so it is widely used in the food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, oil, paper, textiles, construction and other areas of production.

What is Carboxymethyl Cellulose?
Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) is a sodium salt derivative of cellulose. 
Unlike cellulose, Carboxymethyl cellulose is water soluble and can function as a suspending agent, stabilizer, film former or thickening agent.
CMC finds use in gluten-free baking by providing dough with viscosity and bread with volume much like gluten proteins do. 
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) is used in many products including adhesives, sealants, coatings, textiles, ceramics, mining products, building and construction materials, laundry detergents, pulp, paper, and tobacco. 
Carboxymethyl cellulose functions as a dispersant agent, emulsifier, stabilizer, water retainer, thickener and clarifying agent. 
Or Carboxymethyl cellulose is used as a film-forming and binding agent, for example to agglomerate and bind iron ore into pellets. 
Since CMC is physiologically harmless2, it is also widely used in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. 
In food products, Carboxymethyl cellulose acts as a thickener, stabilizer and binder and helps to control crystallization, moisture retention, and fat uptake. 
In cosmetic products such as creams and lotions, Carboxymethyl cellulose thickens and stabilizes the product and improves its moisturising effect. 
And in tooth pastes Carboxymethyl cellulose is added to adjust the viscosity profile.

CMC is soluble in water at any temperature. 
Because of its highly hygroscopic nature, CMC hydrates rapidly. 
Rapid hydration may cause agglomeration and lump formation when the CMC powder is introduced into water. 
Lump creation can be eliminated by applying high agitation while the powder is added into the water or preblending the CMC powder with other dry ingredients such as sugar before adding into water.

Cellulose gum is a family of high-purity, sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) products that are tailored to meet the needs of the food market. 
They offer viscosity in solution, stability and water-binding capabilities. 
In addition to modifying the behavior of water, cellulose gum is useful in suspending solids and modifying flow and texture.
Cellulose gum, or sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), is widely used as an economical thickener and stabilizer in foods and beverages. 
Besides modifying the behavior of water, cellulose gum is useful in suspending solids and modifying the flow and texture. 
Cellulose gum has the ability to form strong, oil-resistant films. 
In beverage concentrates (alcoholic and non-alcoholic) and powdered drink mixes, cellulose gum adds pleasant, clean mouthfeel.
Cellulose gum, or sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), is a high-purity, powdered super-absorbent that offers increased bake stability, extended shelf life, freeze/thaw stability and water binding. 
Besides modifying the behavior of water, cellulose gum is useful in suspending solids and modifying the flow and texture. 
In beverages, cellulose gum adds a pleasant, clean mouthfeel. 
In addition, the anionic nature of CMC allows it to interact with the positive charges found on protein in acidic conditions, thus making it an excellent stabilizer for low-pH dairy beverages. 
CMC is also used in ice cream to control meltdown, add texture and protect against heat shock.
Cellulose gum, or sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), is ideal for batter and filling viscosity, crumb softness, increased volume and moisture retention. 
Besides modifying the behavior of water, cellulose gum is useful in suspending solids and modifying the flow and texture. 
Cellulose gum has the ability to form strong, oil resistant films. 
In beverage concentrates (alcoholic and non-alcoholic) and powdered drink mixes, cellulose gum adds pleasant, clean mouthfeel.
Cellulose gum, or sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), is widely used as an economical thickener and stabilizer in foods and beverages. 
Besides modifying the behavior of water, cellulose gum is useful in suspending solids and modifying the flow and texture. 
In beverage concentrates (alcoholic and non-alcoholic) and powdered drink mixes, cellulose gum adds a pleasant, clean mouthfeel.

Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium Lubricant Eye Drops 0.5% w/v is well tolerated but occasionally stinging, burning, red eyes, or allergic reactions can occur after instillation.
In children when the semi-steadfast or steadfast spasm of accommodation is present, it is better to use atropine sulfate for cycloplegia.

Uses:
Carboxymethyl cellulose is used in cigarette adhesive, fabric sizing, footwear paste meal, home slimy. 
Carboxymethyl cellulose is used in interior painting architectural, building lines melamine, thickening mortar, concrete enhancement. 
Carboxymethyl cellulose is used in refractory fiber, ceramic production molding bond. 
Carboxymethyl cellulose is used in oil drilling, exploration address slurry thickening, reducing water loss, quality paper surface sizing. 
Carboxymethyl cellulose can be used as soap and washing powder detergent active additives, as well as other industrial production on the dispersion, emulsification, stability, suspension, film, paper, polishing and the like. 
Quality product can be used for toothpaste, medicine, food and other industrial sectors.
CMC can significantly increase the viscosity of the solution as thickener, dispersion, emulsification, suspension, protective colloid and so on when it is dissolved in water, and it is physiologically harmless, it is widely used in the food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, oil, paper, textiles, construction and other areas of production.

Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) is an anionic, water-soluble cellulose derivative. 
Solubility of CMC depends on the DP as well as the degree of substitution and the uniformity of the substitution distribution. 
Water solubility of CMC would increase with decreased DP and increased carboxymethyl substitution and substitution uniformity. 
The viscosity of the solution increases with increasing DP and increasing concentration.

Origin of Carboxymethyl cellulose:
Jansen1 first discovered carboxymethyl cellulose at the end of World War I. 
Carboxymethyl cellulose was initially proposed as a substitute for naturally occurring gums. 
Commercial production of carboxymethyl cellulose occurred closer to World War II.

Function of Carboxymethyl cellulose:
Carboxymethyl cellulose can provide different functionality depending on its degree and uniformity of substitution by sodium ions, chain length and cellulose backbone. 
For example, CMC with uniform substitution is known for smooth flow properties and works well in frostings. 
CMC with non-uniform substitution is known to be thixotropic, forms a stable gel that becomes more fluid when agitated and reforms to a gel over time. 
Non-uniform substituted CMC works well in fillings or sauces.

Usage Instruction:
Use warm water or cold water when preparing the solution, and stir till it completely melts. 
The amout of added water depends on variety and the use of multiple requirements.
High viscosity sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (HV-CMC) is a white or slightly yellow fibrous powder, hygroscopic, odorless, tasteless, non-toxic, easy to ferment, insoluble in acids, alcohols and organic solvents, easily dispersed to form colloidal solution in water. 
Carboxymethyl cellulose is reacted by the acid and fibrous cotton, Carboxymethyl cellulose is mainly used for water-based drilling fluids tackifier, Carboxymethyl cellulose has certain role of fluid loss, it has strong salt and temperature resistance especially.

What Are the Benefits of Cellulose Gum?
Cellulose gum, which comes from the cell walls of plants such as wood pulp and cottonseeds, is used to make foods thick and creamy, without all the fat. 
If you’re trying to reduce your fat intake or you’re on a low-fat diet, choosing foods made with an additive like cellulose gum can help to make you feel less deprived.
Carboxymethyl cellulose may help to supress the appetite. Because it works as a filler in foods, it has the potential to keep you feeling full. 
This is another reason cellulose gum is often found in diet foods. 
Some people even use it as a laxative for weight loss.
Cellulose gum is versatile. 
Carboxymethyl cellulose’s not only in a variety of food products, but also in toothpaste, pharmaceuticals, and even household products. 
Carboxymethyl cellulose’s a highly useful additive that acts as a stabilizing and thickening agent.

Carmellose (Carboxymethylcellulose) is used as a binder of tablets, disintegrators and stabilizers; it is widely used in cosmetics and foods. 
Carmellose is an anionic polysaccharide with carboxyl groups. 
Anionic samples may elute earlier due to ion exclusion interaction between the sample and packing materials hence leading to a larger than expected calculated molecular weight. Addition of salt to the eluent will decrease the ion exclusion interactions. 
The effect of increased salt concentration in the eluent is shown for the analysis of Carmellose. 
Carboxymethylcellulose was confirmed that peak shape stabilized at a concentration > 50mM NaCl.

Chemical Properties: 
solid

Chemical Properties: 
Carboxymethylcellulose sodium occurs as a white to almost white, odorless, tasteless, granular powder. 
Carboxymethyl cellulose is hygroscopic after drying.

Uses:
cellulose gum (Carboxymethyl cellulose) is a thickener, binder, and emulsifier equivalent to cellulose fiber. 
Carboxymethyl cellulose is resistant to bacterial decomposition and provides a product with uniform viscosity. 
Carboxymethyl cellulose can prevent skin moisture loss by forming a film on the skin’s surface, and also help mask odor in a cosmetic product. 
Constituents are any of several fibrous substances consisting of the chief part of a plant’s cell walls (often extracted from wood pulp or cotton).

Uses:
In drilling muds, in detergents as a soil-suspending agent, in resin emulsion paints, adhesives, printing inks, textile sizes, as protective colloid in general. 
As stabilizer in foods. 
Pharmaceutic aid (suspending agent; tablet excipient; viscosity-increasing agent).

Definition:
A semisynthetic, water-soluble polymer in which CH 2 COOH groups are substituted on the glucose units of the cellulose chain through an ether link- age. 
Mw ranges from 21,000 to 500,000. Since the reaction occurs in an alkaline medium, the prod- uct is the sodium salt of the carboxylic acid R-O- CH 2 COONa.

Production Methods:
Alkali cellulose is prepared by steeping cellulose obtained from wood pulp or cotton fibers in sodium hydroxide solution. 
The alkaline cellulose is then reacted with sodium monochloroacetate to produce carboxymethylcellulose sodium. 
Sodium chloride and sodium glycolate are obtained as by-products of this etherification.

Common Causes of Dry Eye:
Environment factors such as excessive heat and wind
Computer use
Smoking
Prolonged contact lens use
Certain medications
Aging

Pharmaceutical Applications:
Carboxymethyl cellulose sodium is widely used in oral and topical pharmaceutical formulations, primarily for its viscosity-increasing properties. 
Viscous aqueous solutions are used to suspend powders intended for either topical application or oral and parenteral administration. 
Carboxymethylcellulose sodium may also be used as a tablet binder and disintegrant, and to stabilize emulsions.
Higher concentrations, usually 3–6%, of the medium-viscosity grade are used to produce gels that can be used as the base for applications and pastes; glycols are often included in such gels to prevent them drying out. 
Carboxymethyl cellulose sodium is also used in self-adhesive ostomy, wound care, and dermatological patches as a muco-adhesive and to absorb wound exudate or transepidermal water and sweat. 
This muco-adhesive property is used in products designed to prevent post-surgical tissue adhesions; and to localize and modify the release kinetics of active ingredients applied to mucous membranes; and for bone repair. 
Encapsulation with carboxymethylcellulose sodium can affect drug protection and delivery. 
There have also been reports of its use as a cyto-protective agent.
Carboxymethyl cellulose sodium is also used in cosmetics, toiletries, surgical prosthetics, and incontinence, personal hygiene, and food products.

A colorless, odorless, water-soluble polymer. 
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, NaCMC or CMC, was first developed in 1947. 
Commonly known as carboxymethyl cellulose, it is composed of the sodium salt of an alkaline modified cellulose. 
CMC is water-soluble but will react with heavy metal salts to form films that are clear, tough and insoluble in water. 
Carboxymethyl cellulose is thixotropic, becoming less viscous when agitated. In most cases, CMC functions as a polyelectrolyte. 
Carboxymethyl cellulose is used commercially in detergents, food product and as size for textiles and paper. 
In conservation, CMC has been used as an adhesive for textiles and paper. 
Aging studies indicate that most carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) polymers have very good stability with negligible discoloration or weight loss.

Sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) is a water soluble salt produced in large crude commercial grade quantities without any refinement for use in detergents, drilling fluids and the paper industry. 
At higher degrees of purity, CMC is used as a food additive.

Safety Profile:
Mildly toxic by ingestion. 
Experimental reproductive effects. 
Questionable carcinogen with experimental neoplastigenic data. 
Carboxymethyl cellulose migrates to food from packagmg materials. 
When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of NazO. 
See also POLYMERS, SOLUBLE.

Safety:
Carboxymethylcellulose sodium is used in oral, topical, and some parenteral formulations. 
Carboxymethyl cellulose is also widely used in cosmetics, toiletries, and food products, and is generally regarded as a nontoxic and nonirritant material. 
However, oral consumption of large amounts of carboxymethylcellulose sodium can have a laxative effect; therapeutically, 4–10 g in daily divided doses of the medium- and high-viscosity grades of carboxymethylcellulose sodium have been used as bulk laxatives.
The WHO has not specified an acceptable daily intake for carboxymethylcellulose sodium as a food additive since the levels necessary to achieve a desired effect were not considered to be a hazard to health. 
LD50 (guinea pig, oral): 16 g/kg
LD50 (rat, oral): 27 g/kg

Carboxymethyl cellulose sodium can be found in food stuff and cosmetics as a viscosity modifier or thickener and as an emulsion stabilizer. 
Carboxymethyl cellulose can also be used in the production of water-based paints and paper. 
Medicine eye-drops (artificial tears) may contain carboxymethyl cellulose sodium.

storage:
Carboxymethylcellulose sodium is a stable, though hygroscopic material. 
Under high-humidity conditions, carboxymethylcellulose sodium can absorb a large quantity (>50%) of water. 
In tablets, this has been associated with a decrease in tablet hardness and an increase in disintegration time.
Aqueous solutions are stable at pH 2–10; precipitation can occur below pH 2, and solution viscosity decreases rapidly above pH 10. 
Generally, solutions exhibit maximum viscosity and stability at pH 7–9.
Carboxymethylcellulose sodium may be sterilized in the dry state by maintaining it at a temperature of 1608℃ for 1 hour. 
However, this process results in a significant decrease in viscosity and some deterioration in the properties of solutions prepared from the sterilized material.
Aqueous solutions may similarly be sterilized by heating, although this also results in some reduction in viscosity. 
After autoclaving, viscosity is reduced by about 25%, but this reduction is less marked than for solutions prepared from material sterilized in the dry state. 
The extent of the reduction is dependent on the molecular weight and degree of substitution; higher molecular weight grades generally undergo a greater percentage reduction in viscosity. 
Sterilization of solutions by gamma irradiation also results in a reduction in viscosity.
Aqueous solutions stored for prolonged periods should contain an antimicrobial preservative.
The bulk material should be stored in a well-closed container in a cool, dry place.

Purification Methods:
Dialyse Carboxymethyl cellulose for 48hours against distilled water and freeze-dry if a solid is required.

Incompatibilities:
Carboxymethylcellulose sodium is incompatible with strongly acidic solutions and with the soluble salts of iron and some other metals, such as aluminum, mercury, and zinc. 
Carboxymethyl cellulose is also incompatible with xanthan gum. 
Precipitation may occur at pH < 2, and also when it is mixed with ethanol (95%).
Carboxymethylcellulose sodium forms complex coacervates with gelatin and pectin. 
Carboxymethyl cellulose also forms a complex with collagen and is capable of precipitating certain positively charged proteins.

CMC is also used as a thickening agent, for example, in the oil-drilling industry as an ingredient of drilling mud, where Carboxymethyl cellulose acts as a viscosity modifier and water retention agent. 
Sodium CMC(Na CMC) for example, is used as a negative control agent for alopecia in rabbits.
Knitted fabric made of cellulose (e.g. cotton or viscose rayon) may be converted into CMC and used in various medical applications.

Carboxymethylcellulose:
Carboxymethylcellulose is used to treat dry eyes.
Carboxymethylcellulose is used to treat eye irritation.

Device for epistaxis (nose bleeding). 
A poly-vinyl chloride (PVC) balloon is covered by CMC knitted fabric reinforced by nylon. 
The device is soaked in water to form a gel, this is inserted into the nose and the balloon inflated. 
The combination of the inflated balloon and the therapeutic effect of the CMC stops the bleeding.
Fabric used as a dressing following ear nose and throat surgical procedures.
Water is added to form a gel, and this gel is inserted into the sinus cavity following surgery.
Insoluble microgranular CMC is used as a cation-exchange resin in ion-exchange chromatography for purification of proteins.
Presumably, the level of derivatization is much lower, so the solubility properties of microgranular cellulose are retained, while adding sufficient negatively charged carboxylate groups to bind to positively charged proteins.

CMC is also used in ice packs to form a eutectic mixture resulting in a lower freezing point, and therefore more cooling capacity than ice.
Aqueous solutions of CMC have also been used to disperse carbon nanotubes. 
The long CMC molecules are thought to wrap around the nanotubes, allowing them to be dispersed in water. 
In conservation-restoration, Carboxymethyl cellulose is used as an adhesive or fixative.
CMC is used to achieve tartrate or cold stability in wine. 
This innovation may save megawatts of electricity used to chill wine in warm climates. 
Carboxymethyl cellulose is more stable than metatartaric acid and is very effective in inhibiting tartrate precipitation. 
Carboxymethyl cellulose is reported that KHT crystals, in presence of CMC, grow slower and change their morphology.
Their shape becomes flatter because they lose 2 of the 7 faces, changing their dimensions. 
CMC molecules, negatively charged at wine pH, interact with the electropositive surface of the crystals, where potassium ions are accumulated. 
The slower growth of the crystals and the modification of their shape are caused by the competition between CMC molecules and bitartrate ions for binding to the KHT crystals.
In veterinary medicine, CMC is used in abdominal surgeries in large animals, particularly horses, to prevent the formation of bowel adhesions.
CMC is sometimes used as an electrode binder in advanced battery applications (i.e. lithium ion batteries), especially with graphite anodes. 
CMC's water solubility allows for less toxic and costly processing than with non-water-soluble binders, like the traditional polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), which requires toxic n-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) for processing. 
CMC is often used in conjunction with styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) for electrodes requiring extra flexibility, e.g. for use with silicon-containing anodes.

Culinary uses of Carboxymethyl cellulose:
CMC powder is widely used in the ice cream industry, to make ice creams without churning or extreme low temperatures, thereby eliminating the need for the conventional churners or salt ice mixes.
CMC is used in preparing bakery products such as bread and cake. 
The use of CMC gives the loaf a much improved quality at a reduced cost to the baker, by economizing on the fat component. 
CMC is also used as an emulsifier in high quality biscuits. 
By dispersing fat uniformly in the dough, Carboxymethyl cellulose improves the release of the dough from the moulds and cutters, achieving well-shaped biscuits without any distorted edges.
Carboxymethyl cellulose can also help to reduce the amount of egg yolk or fat used in making the biscuits, thus achieving economy. 
Use of CMC in candy preparation ensures smooth dispersion in flavour oils, and improves texture and quality. 
CMC is used in chewing gums, margarines and peanut butter as an emulsifier. 
Carboxymethyl cellulose is also used in leather crafting to burnish the edges.

CAS Number: 9000-11-7
Source:    Cellulose
Purity:    99.5%
Monosaccharides (%): Glucose
Main Chain Glycosidic Linkage: β-1,4
Substrate For (Enzyme):    endo-Cellulase
Appearance: white to pale yellow powder (est)
Assay: 99.50 to 100.00
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Boiling Point: 525.00 to 528.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Flash Point: 548.00 °F. TCC ( 286.67 °C. )

Carboxymethylcellulose sodium (CMC), is widely used as an excipient in oral, topical, and parenteral pharmaceutical formulations. 
Carboxymethylcellulose increases viscosity, serves as a suspension aid, and stabilizes emulsions. 
More recently, applications for CMC in formulations that facilitate improved delivery of cytotoxic drugs and biologics have been evaluated.
CMC is manufactured in a broad range of viscosities, with grades typically classified as low, medium, or high viscosity. 
CMC grades can be divided further based on their degree of substitution (DS), which is defined as the average number of hydroxyl groups substituted per anhydroglucose unit. 
Together, DS and the extent to which carboxymethyl substituents cluster determine functional properties of CMC (e.g., its aqueous solubility). 
Thus, CMC offers good water solubility above DS 0.6; at a lower DS (e.g., 0.2), CMC retains the fibrous character of its starting material and is insoluble in water.
During the manufacture of parenterals, both finished product and precursory process fluids that are labile to gamma irradiation or heat are protected from microbial contamination by filtration. 
A sterile filtrate typically can be achieved using a 0.2-μm–rated sterilizing-grade filter that has undergone generic validation by its manufacturer with further support by a user’s process-specific validation.
According to their physical– chemical properties, process fluids show varied filterability (filtration behavior in terms of throughput, as a factor of flow rate and filter membrane capacity to blockage). 
Viscosity enhancers such as CMC can limit the rate of filtration and incur early filter blockage, impacting upon the the practicality and economy of filter use.
In some cases, premature filter blockage and increased processing time associated with filtration of CMC-containing solutions has led to concerns over the practicality and economy of using a sterilizing-grade filter for them at all.
Because of those challenges, opportunities for optimizing the filtration of CMC-based solutions are needed. 
Here we report on a collaboration between Pall Corporation and Ashland Specialty Ingredients to investigate some factors that can affect the filterability of CMC. 
Ultimately we seek to provide useful data that can help companies engaged in filtration of CMC-based solutions to make informed choices of filters and CMC grade.

Preparation of Carboxymethyl cellulose:
Carboxymethyl cellulose is synthesized by the alkali-catalyzed reaction of cellulose with chloroacetic acid.
The polar (organic acid) carboxyl groups render the cellulose soluble and chemically reactive.
Following the initial reaction, the resultant mixture produces about 60% CMC plus 40% salts (sodium chloride and sodium glycolate). 
Carboxymethyl cellulose is the so-called technical CMC which is used in detergents. 
A further purification process is used to remove these salts to produce the pure CMC used for food, pharmaceutical, and dentifrice (toothpaste) applications. 
An intermediate "semipurified" grade is also produced, typically used in paper applications such as restoration of archival documents.
The functional properties of CMC depend on the degree of substitution of the cellulose structure (i.e., how many of the hydroxyl groups have taken part in the substitution reaction), as well as the chain length of the cellulose backbone structure and the degree of clustering of the carboxymethyl substituents.

This product is a medium viscosity carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC); the viscosity of a 2% solution in water at 25 C is 400-800 centipoise (cps). 
The viscosity of Carboxymethyl cellulose is both concentration and temperature dependent. 
As the temperaure of Carboxymethyl cellulose increases, the viscosity decreases. 
As the concentration of Carboxymethyl cellulose increases, the viscosity increases.
Low, medium and high viscosity CMCs are all used as suspending agents. 
Low viscosity CMC is usually used in "thin" aqueous solutions. 
Medium viscosity CMC is used to make solutions that look like a syrup. 
High viscosity CMC is used to make a mixture, which resembles a cream or lotion.

CMC has also been used extensively to characterize enzyme activity from endoglucanases (part of the cellulase complex). 
CMC is a highly specific substrate for endo-acting cellulases, as its structure has been engineered to decrystallize cellulose and create amorphous sites that are ideal for endoglucanase action. 
CMC is desirable because the catalysis product (glucose) is easily measured using a reducing sugar assay, such as 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid. 
Using CMC in enzyme assays is especially important in regard to screening for cellulase enzymes that are needed for more efficient cellulosic ethanol conversion. 
However, CMC has also been misused in earlier work with cellulase enzymes, as many had associated whole cellulase activity with CMC hydrolysis. 
As the mechanism of cellulose depolymerization has become better understood, exo-cellulases are dominant in the degradation of crystalline (e.g. Avicel) and not soluble (e.g. CMC) cellulose.

What is Carboxymethyl Cellulose Used for?
Cellulose gum is often used in foods and beverages to make foods thick and creamy to attract the appetite of customers. 
Carboxymethyl cellulose thickens and stabilizes a lot of foods by retaining moisture, keeping oil and water phased ingredients don’t separate and produces a consistent texture and so on.

Commonly we call CMC (used in food) is its salt, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose or sodium CMC instead of carboxymethyl cellulose itself.
Due to the poor water solubility of CMC, it is usually made into its sodium salt in order to be better use it.
Sodium CMC is a water-soluble cellulose ether obtained by chemical modification from natural cellulose such as cotton linter or wood pulp.

What is Carboxymethyl Cellulose (CMC)/Cellulose Gum (E466) in Food and Uses?
Cellulose gum, or sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (sodium CMC), is a multi-functional ingredient that can be used as a thickener, binder, emulsifier and stabilizer in food with the European food additive number E466. 
Together with xanthan gum, they’re the most used and common thickener among others in food applications.

Carboxymethyl cellulose aka CMC (e466) is actually the sodium salt of carboxymethyl cellulose. 
Carboxymethyl cellulose is derived from cellulose, which is made water-soluble by a chemical reaction. 
The water-solubility is achieved by introducing carboxymethyl groups along the cellulose chain, which makes hydration of the molecule possible. 
CMC is used as a viscosity modifier or thickener, and to stabilize emulsions in various products including ice cream. 
CMC is known for its excellent water retaining capacity.

Carboxymethyl Cellulose is used to treat dry eyes. 
Carboxymethyl Cellulose relieves irritation and discomfort caused by the dryness in the eyes. 
Carboxymethyl Cellulose is advised to used this drug as per the direction of the doctor. 
The side effects of Carboxymethyl Cellulose include itching in eyes, dryness in eyes, stinging in the eyes, etc. People with liver or kidney problems may need lower doses.

Some medicines may interact with the action of this medication. 
Hence, tell your doctor if you are taking any other medicines, especially any anticoagulants, hydantoins, sulfonylureas or medicines that may decrease your bone marrow.

Information given here is based on the salt content of Carboxymethyl Cellulose. 
Uses and effects of Carboxymethyl Cellulosee may vary from person to person. 
Carboxymethyl Cellulose is advisable to consult a Ophthalmologist before using this medicine.

Before taking Carboxymethylcellulose:
If you are allergic to carboxymethylcellulose; any part of carboxymethylcellulose; or any other drugs, foods, or substances. 
Tell your doctor about the allergy and what signs you had.
Carboxymethyl cellulose may interact with other drugs or health problems.
Tell your doctor and pharmacist about all of your drugs (prescription or OTC, natural products, vitamins) and health problems. 
You must check to make sure that Carboxymethyl cellulose is safe for you to take carboxymethylcellulose with all of your drugs and health problems. 
Do not start, stop, or change the dose of any drug without checking with your doctor.

Physical Properties of Sodium Carboxymethyl
In dry form sodium carboxymethyl is a white or slightly yellowish, amber or grayish powder. 
Carboxymethyl Cellulose is odorless and tasteless. Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose dissolves readily in water. 
Carboxymethyl Cellulose is hygroscopic, meaning it takes up and holds onto moisture. 
Carboxymethyl Celluloses hygroscopic properties are partially responsible for its success as a food and drug additive.

Use as a Thickener
Sodium carboxymethyl is added to some products as a thickener and as a dispersant. 
By controlling the amount of sodium carboxymethyl added, the manufacturer can fine-tune the feel of the food or medicine in the mouth and as it is swallowed. 
As a thickener, sodium carboxymethyl makes it easier for ingredients to be dispersed evenly throughout the mixture and stay evenly dispersed. 
Carboxymethyl Cellulose helps keep solids suspended in liquids and acts as an emulsifier, keeping lotions and creams from separating.

Effect on Pourability
Adding sodium carboxymethyl cellulose to liquids changes the viscosity of the liquid. 
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose molecules normally bind to each other; water squeezes in and breaks up the bonds. 
The viscosity or resistance to pouring of a liquid depends on the amount of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose added. 
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose can be used to make thick, slow-pouring gels or soothing, tear-like eye lubricants.

As a Food Additive
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose is often added to foods as a stabilizer. 
As a generally recognized safe ingredient, the FDA does not have to approve its use in foods. 
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose can keep ice cream from separating. 
Carboxymethyl Cellulose is also added as a bulking agent, emulsifier, firming agent, gelling agent, glazing agent, humectant and thickener. 
Carboxymethyl Cellulose is found in chocolate milk, cocoa, eggnog, condensed milk, powdered milk, some cheeses, daily spreads, processed fruit, breakfast cereals, sausage casings, custards, seasonings and condiments, soups and broths, sauces, dietetic foods, beer, cider and much more.

Use in Reusable Ice Packs
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose is sometimes used to make reusable ice packs. 
When combined with water and other substances such as propylene glycol, sodium carboxymethyl forms a eutectic mixture--a mixture whose freezing point is lower than that of any of the mixture constituents. 
One product on the market has a freezing point of -23 degrees Celsius (-9.4 Fahrenheit). 
These reusable ice packs are usually nontoxic and environmentally friendly.

While taking Carboxymethylcellulose:
Tell all of your health care providers that you take carboxymethylcellulose. 
This includes your doctors, nurses, pharmacists, and dentists.
Do not take carboxymethylcellulose by mouth. 
If carboxymethylcellulose is put in the mouth or swallowed, call a doctor or poison control center right away.
Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or plan on getting pregnant. 
You will need to talk about the benefits and risks of using carboxymethylcellulose while you are pregnant.
Tell your doctor if you are breast-feeding. 
You will need to talk about any risks to your baby.

How is Carboxymethylcellulose best taken?
Use carboxymethylcellulose as ordered by your doctor. 
Read all information given to you. 
Follow all instructions closely.

All products:
-For the eye only.
-Some of these products are not for use if you are wearing contact lenses. 
-Be sure you know if you need to avoid wearing contact lenses while using this product.
-Do not touch the container tip to the eye, lid, or other skin.
-Put the cap back on after you are done using your dose.
-Wash your hands before and after use.
-Tilt your head back and drop drug into the eye.
-After use, keep your eyes closed. 
-Put pressure on the inside corner of the eye. 
-Do this for 1 to 2 minutes. This keeps the drug in your eye.
-Some of these drugs need to be shaken before use. 
-Be sure you know if this product needs to be shaken before using it.
-Do not use if the solution is cloudy, leaking, or has particles.
-Do not use if solution changes color.

If missing a dose of CMC (carboxymethylcellulose)?

If you use carboxymethylcellulose on a regular basis, use a missed dose as soon as you think about it.
If Carboxymethyl cellulose is close to the time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your normal time.
Do not use 2 doses or extra doses.
Many times carboxymethylcellulose is used on an as needed basis. 
Do not use more often than told by the doctor.

WARNING/CAUTION: 
Even though it may be rare, some people may have very bad and sometimes deadly side effects when taking a drug. 
Tell your doctor or get medical help right away if you have any of the following signs or symptoms that may be related to a very bad side effect:

Appearance: White Powder
Viscosity:1% aqueous solution, Brookfield (DV-E), 30rpm, 25℃:≥1900mPa.s
Apparent Density: 0.35~ 0.60 g/ml
Drying Shrinkage: ≤8%
Mv: 400,000 g/mol
PH:6.0—8.0  
D.S :0.98
Chloride: ≤0.5%

Signs of an allergic reaction, like rash; hives; itching; red, swollen, blistered, or peeling skin with or without fever; wheezing; tightness in the chest or throat; trouble breathing, swallowing, or talking; unusual hoarseness; or swelling of the mouth, face, lips, tongue, or throat.
Change in eyesight, eye pain, or very bad eye irritation.
Ocular lubricant ophthalmic side effects (more detail)
What are some other side effects of Carboxymethylcellulose?
All drugs may cause side effects. 
However, many people have no side effects or only have minor side effects. 
Call your doctor or get medical help if you have any side effects that bother you or do not go away.

These are not all of the side effects that may occur. 
If you have questions about side effects, call your doctor. 
Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects.

If OVERDOSE is suspected:
If you think there has been an overdose, call your poison control center or get medical care right away. 
Be ready to tell or show what was taken, how much, and when it happened.

carboxymethylcellulose
NaCMC
CMC
carboximetilcelulosa sódica (Esp.)
carbossi metil cellulosa (It.)
cellulose gum
sodium carboxymethylcellulose
CM cellulose
Cellulose, carboxymethyl ether
acetic acid;2,3,4,5,6-pentahydroxyhexanal
carboxy methyl cellulose
acetic acid; 2,3,4,5,6-pentahydroxyhexanal; sodium
C.M.C.
carboxymethyl cellulose sodium salt
carboxymethyl cellulose, sodium salt
carboxymethylcellulose sodium
cellulose carboxymethyl ether sodium salt
cellulose gum
celluvisc
orabase
sodium acetate - hexose (1:1:1)
sodium carboxy methyl cellulose
sodium carboxymethylcellulose
NaCMC

Carboxymethyl cellulose, sodium salt, also known as carmellose sodium or C.M.C., belongs to the class of organic compounds known as hexoses. 
These are monosaccharides in which the sugar unit is a is a six-carbon containing moeity. 
Carboxymethyl cellulose, sodium salt is an extremely weak basic (essentially neutral) compound (based on its pKa).

How do I store and/or throw out Carboxymethylcellulose?
All products:
Store at room temperature.
Be sure you know how long you can store carboxymethylcellulose before you need to throw it away.
Keep all drugs in a safe place. 
Keep all drugs out of the reach of children and pets.
Throw away unused or expired drugs. 
Do not flush down a toilet or pour down a drain unless you are told to do so. 
Check with your pharmacist if you have questions about the best way to throw out drugs. 
There may be drug take-back programs in your area.
Single-dose container:

Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium Lubricant Eye Drops 0.5% w/v. For the temporary relief of burning, irritation, and discomfort due to the dryness of the eye, or due to exposure to wind, sun, etc.
Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium Lubricant Eye Drops 0.5% w/v may be used as a protectant against further irritation.
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (Viscosity:800-1200 mPa.s) is the sodium salt of cellulose arboxymethyl and frequently used as viscous agent, paste and barrier agent.

Store in pouch until ready for use.
Consumer information use
If your symptoms or health problems do not get better or if they become worse, call your doctor.
Do not share your drugs with others and do not take anyone else's drugs.
Some drugs may have another patient information leaflet. 
Check with your pharmacist. 
If you have any questions about carboxymethylcellulose, please talk with your doctor, nurse, pharmacist, or other health care provider.
If you think there has been an overdose, call your poison control center or get medical care right away. 
Be ready to tell or show what was taken, how much, and when it happened.

Appearance: Almost white powder
Assay (as Na; HClO4 titration, on anhydrous basis): 6.5 - 9.5%
Appearance of solution: Passes test
Residue on ignition (as SO4): 20 - 29.3%
pH (1% solution): 6.5 - 8.0
Identity: Passes test
Viscosity (2% in water; 20°C): 400 - 800 cps
Insoluble matter in water: Passes test
Loss on drying (at 105°C): Max 10.0%
Chloride (Cl): Max 0.25%
Sodium glycolate: Max 0.4%
Heavy metal (as Pb): Max 0.002%
Arsenic (As): Max 0.0003%
Iron (Fe): Max 0.02%

Overdosage:
Acute overdosage with Carboxymethyl cellulose Sodium Lubricant Eye Drops
0.5% w/v eye drops has not been reported

Pharmacological Properties:
Pharmacodynamic properties Carboxymethyl cellulose Sodium Lubricant Eye Drops 0.5% w/v is a lubricating formulation, provides immediate relief and long lasting protection against dryness and irritation for patients with dry eyes.

Incompatibilities:
None

Synonyms
carboxy-methyl cellulose;carboxymethyl cellulose;cellulose carboxymethyl ether;cmc-4lf;carbose;carboximethylcellulosum;carboxymethyl cellulose ether;carboxymethylated cellulose pulp;carboxymethylcellulose;carboxymethylcellulosum;carmellose;carmellosum;carmelosa;cellulose gum 7h;cellulose carboxymethylate;cellulose, (carboxymethyl);cellulose, ether with glycolic acid;celluloseglycolic acid;colloresine;croscarmellose;croscarmellosum;cm-cellulose;FEMA No. 2239;Duodcel;Glycocel TA;hexose - acetic acid (1:1);Carboxyl methyl Cellulose

The CMC food grade from Robillion is featured by high acid-tolerance, high salt-tolerance, high transparency, few free fiber, few gel granule, fast dissolving speed. 
Good solution fluidity after dissolving. 
Moleculars distribute uniformly with purity greater than 99.5%. 
Prevent food from influence of other substances.

1.Structure Loosen Effect
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose good rheological and gel stable characteristics can prevent dehydration and shrinkage of food, can improve the expansivity rate of food. 
Reversibility between viscosity and temperature of CMC is good to the increase of food expansivity rate. 
Meanwhile, pseudo-plasticity of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose creates good conditions for homogenization processing, enhancing the homogenization efficiency. 
High viscosity of sodium CMC reduces 3%-5% oil content of fried food during the process of frying.

2.Thickening and Taste Improvement Effect
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose can get higher viscosity at low temperature to further control the viscosity of food during processing, and endow smooth texture to food. 
Rapid hydration property of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose makes it be used in instant soup, chocolate milk and cold fruit drinks as thickening agent. 
Pseudo-plasticity effect of CMC brings refresh and strong mouth feel. 
Carboxymethyl cellulose is a good suspension stabilizing characters can make food keep the uniformity on odor, concentration and taste.

3.Water Retention Effect
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose is kind of high molecular weight cellulose derivative. 
There is many hydrophile groups (carboxyl and hydroxyl) in its molecular chains. 
So CMC has good hydrophile and rehydration properties. 
Can reduce dehydration and shrinkage of food, prolong shelf life. 
Water retention function of CMC is applied to prevent water evaporation or non-crystallization of sugar.
CMC can suffer from high temperature when making bakery food. 
Can retain certain moisture of bakery food, prevent such food from aging or seasoning crack, and make food with appearance configuration.

4. Suspending Effect
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose can be used as suspending agent in different food. 
Have good suspension bearing capacity. 
If mixing with agar, will get good compatibleness and efficiency strengthening effect.

5. Binding Effect
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose can improve performances of starch food (prevent starch aging, dehydration), control mash viscosity. 
Better effects if mixing with emulsifier, konjak gum, spermine diphosphate hexahydrate, so sodium carboxymethyl cellulose is widely used in noodles, bread and frozen dessert, etc.

6. Peptization Effect
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose has function of stabilizing protein and sediment prevention under acidic conditions. 
Through reactions with soybean protein, gelatin and casein, can avoid sediment of protein in the system. 
CMC’s effect on protein can increase the solubility of protein to certain pH range, so sodium carboxymethyl cellulose is widely used in lactic acid and soymilk. 
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose is also compatible with most water soluble non-ionic gum and many types of anionic gum. 
But when compounding with xanthan gum, must pay attention to deactivate the possible existing cellulase in xanthan gum. 
Otherwise will result in enzymatic degradation. There is synergism when compounding with guar gum and carboxyethyl cellulose.

7. Cross-Linking Effect
On condition that higher concentration sodium carboxymethyl cellulose with chelating agent (citric acid or polyphosphate, etc), mixing with multi-valent cations AL3+ solutions can form irreversible spongy gel structure, can make some special food.

8. Curative Effect
Expansibility of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose is strong after absorption of water, not easy to digest. 
Can be processed into diet food after applying CMC in biscuit. 
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose is helpful for intestine cleaning as cellulose, suitable to make low calorie food for patients with hypertension, arteriosclerosis, coronary heart diseases.

Carboxymethyl cellulose is a medium viscosity carboxymethylcellulose (CMC); the viscosity of a 2% solution in water at 25 C is 400-800 centipoise (cps). 
The viscosity of Carboxymethyl cellulose is both concentration and temperature dependent. 
As the temperaure increases, the viscosity decreases. 
As the concentration increases, the viscosity increases.
Low, medium and high viscosity CMCs are all used as suspending agents. 
Low viscosity CMC is usually used in "thin" aqueous solutions. 
Medium viscosity CMC is used to make solutions that look like a syrup. 
High viscosity CMC is used to make a mixture, which resembles a cream or lotion.

Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC, R = CH 2 COONa , H) is produced by reacting alkali cellulose with monochloroacetic acid or its sodium salt. 
Here, too, not every hydroxy group in the ring is substituted. 
Commercially available CMC is a colorless powder or granulate. 
The molar mass is between4 ⋅104th and 106thg / mol. 
Carboxymethyl cellulose is offered with a wide range of solution viscosities. 
CMC is water-soluble, but can be precipitated by adding acids, salts or polyvalent metal ions such as Cu 2+ , Al 3+ , Fe 2+ , Fe 3+ . 
The acid form of carboxymethyl cellulose is only soluble in aqueous alkali.

Application:
Soluble carboxymethyl celluloses (CM-cellulose; CMC) available in varying viscosities are used as viscosity modifiers (thickeners) to stabilize emulsions and as a chemical dispersants of oils and other carbon structures such as nanotubes. 
CMCs are used in the development of biostructures such as biofilms, emulsions and nanoparticles for drug delivery. 
Carboxymethyl cellulose, medium viscosity, may be used to make solutions the consistency of syrup.
CMC is a derivative of cellulose, containing carboxymethyl groups that are generated via the reaction of cellulose with chloroacetate in alkali to produce substitutions in the C2, C3, or C6 positions of glucose units. 
As a result, CMC is water soluble and more amenable to the hydrolytic activity of cellulases. 
CMC is therefore a useful additive to both liquid and solid medium for the detection of cellulase activity, and its hydrolysis can be subsequently determined by the use of the dye Congo red, which binds to intact β-d-glucans. 
Zones of clearing around colonies growing on solid medium containing CMC, subsequently stained with Congo red, provides a useful assay for detecting hydrolysis of CMC and therefore, β-d-glucanase activity. 
The inoculation of isolates onto membrane filters placed on the surface of CMC agar plates is a useful modification of this technique, as the filter may subsequently be removed allowing visualization of clear zones in the agar underneath cllulolytic colonies.

A new cellulose gum, sodium carboxymethylcellulose, is described which can be used advantageously in the successful treatment of a majority of chronic constipation cases.

Cellulose gum is an additive, not a whole food ingredient. 
Although cellulose gum is generally deemed a safe and acceptable food additive, there’s still the potential that there are as yet unknown risks because it isn’t a traditional whole food.
Because cellulose gum (also known as carboxymethylcellulose, or CMC) is sometimes called a “dietary fiber” on the package of food products, you might think you’re getting more fiber in your diet than you really are. 
CSPI cautions that cellulose gum isn’t as healthy as the fiber you’ll find in natural foods. 
You should read nutrition labels and ingredient lists carefully.
Some people may have an allergic reaction or sensitivity to cellulose gum, although this is extremely rare. 
The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) reports in a study that one woman had a serious allergic reaction related to the ingestion of cellulose gum in a medication, although the study does note that this is an uncommon complication.
The NEJM also observes that the substance “is widely used as a suspending agent in pharmaceutical preparations, certain food products, and cosmetics. 
Therefore, previous exposure may have led to sensitization in our patient, although carboxymethylcellulose sodium is generally considered not to be absorbed.” 
This last point is an important one: Because cellulose gum isn’t absorbed or digested, risks such as allergic reaction are very low.

Carboxymethylcellulose (cellulose gum) for oenological use is prepared exclusively from wood by treatment with alkali and monochloroacetic acid or its sodium salt. 
Carboxymethylcellulose inhibits tartaric precipitation through a "protective colloid" effect. 
A limited dose is used.

Carboxymethyl cellulose, a hydrophobic derivative from cellulose that can be prepared from different biomass, has been widely applied in food, medicine, chemical, and other industries. 
Carboxymethyl cellulose was used as the additive to improve the hydrophobicity and strength of carboxylated starch film, which is prepared from starch catalyzed by bio-α-amylase. 
This study investigated the effects of different bio-α-amylase dosages (starch 0.5%, starch 1%) and different activation times (10, 30 min) on starch to prepare the carboxylated starch. 
The effects of different carboxymethyl cellulose content on the carboxylated starch film were investigated by analysis viscosity, fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, x-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscope, and contact angle. 
The results showed that preparing carboxylated starch using activated starch increased the carboxyl content, which could improve the effectiveness of the activated enzyme compared to prolonging the activation time. 
The carboxyl starch prepared by enzyme catalysis had a lower gelatinization temperature, and enzyme activation destroyed the crystallization area of the starch, thus facilitating the carboxylation reaction. 
The addition of 15% carboxymethyl cellulose improved the mechanical properties of the prepared film with maximum tensile strength of 44.8 MPa. 
Carboxymethyl cellulose effectively improved the hydrophobicity of the starch film with the addition amount of 10–30%, while hydrophobic property was stable at 66.8° when the addition amount was exceeded to 35%. 
Carboxymethyl cellulose can be found that carboxymethyl cellulose improve the mechanical and hydrophobic properties of starch film, laying the foundation for the application of carboxylated starch materials.

Warnings:
-For external use only.
-To avoid contamination, do not touch tip of container to any surface. Do not reuse. Once opened, discard.
-Do not touch unit-dose tip to eye.
-If solution changes color, do not use.

Carboxymethyl cellulose is manufactured by acidifying an aqueous suspension of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and heating the suspension to achieve cross-linking. 
The product is then washed and dried. 
Carboxymethyl cellulose is also produced during the manufacture of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose by lowering the pH and heating to cause cross-linking. 
Cross-linked sodium carboxymethyl cellulose is used in tablets of table-top sweeteners and dietary food supplements, as it facilitates disintegration in aqueous solutions, with a maximum level of use of 30 g/kg. 
Carboxymethyl cellulose is also widely used as an excipient in pharmaceutical applications.

CHEBI:85146 
ChEMBL: ChEMBL1909054 
ChemSpider: none
ECHA InfoCard: 100.120.377
E number: E466 (thickeners, ...)
UNII: 05JZI7B19X 
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)    
DTXSID7040441 
Storage and Shipping Information
Ship Code: Ambient Temperature Only
Toxicity: Standard Handling
Storage: +15°C to +30°C
Do not freeze: Ok to freeze
Special Instructions: Following reconstitution, store at room temprature. Stock solutions are stable for up to 6 months at room temprature.
storage temp. room temp
solubility H2O: 20 mg/mL, soluble
pka4.30(at 25℃)
form low viscosity
color White to light yellow
OdorOdorless
PHpH (10g/l, 25℃) 6.0~8.0
PH Range6.5 - 8.5
Water Solubility soluble


3-) GUM ARABIC

Gum Arabic = Acacia Gum

CAS Number: 9000-01-5
EC Number: 232-519-5
E number: E414

Gum arabic, also known as gum sudani, acacia gum, Arabic gum, gum acacia, acacia, Senegal gum, Indian gum, and by other names, is a natural gum consisting of the hardened sap of two species of the acacia (sensu lato) tree, Acacia senegal (now known as Senegalia senegal) and Vachellia (Acacia) seyal. 
The term "gum arabic" does not indicate a particular botanical source. 
In a few cases, the so-called "gum arabic" may not even have been collected from acacia species, but may originate from Combretum, Albizia, or some other genus.
The gum is harvested commercially from wild trees, mostly in Sudan (80%) and throughout the Sahel, from Senegal to Somalia. 
The name "gum Arabic" (al-samgh al-'arabi) was used in the Middle East at least as early as the 9th century. 
Gum arabic first found its way to Europe via Arabic ports, so retained Gum arabics name.
Gum arabic is a complex mixture of glycoproteins and polysaccharides predominantly consisting of arabinose and galactose. 
Gum arabic is soluble in water, edible, and used primarily in the food industry and soft-drink industry as a stabilizer, with E number E414 (I414 in the US). 
Gum arabic is a key ingredient in traditional lithography and is used in printing, paint production, glue, cosmetics, and various industrial applications, including viscosity control in inks and in textile industries, though less expensive materials compete with it for many of these roles.

Uses of Gum arabic:
Gum arabic's mixture of polysaccharides and glycoproteins gives Gum arabic the properties of a glue and binder that is edible by humans. 
Other substances have replaced Gum arabic where toxicity is not an issue, as the proportions of the various chemicals in gum arabic vary widely and make Gum arabic unpredictable. 
Still, Gum arabic remains an important ingredient in soft drink syrup and "hard" gummy candies such as gumdrops, marshmallows, and M&M's chocolate candies. 
For artists, Gum arabic is the traditional binder in watercolor paint and in photography for gum printing, and Gum arabic is used as a binder in pyrotechnic compositions. 
Pharmaceutical drugs and cosmetics also use the gum as a binder, emulsifying agent, and a suspending or viscosity-increasing agent.
Wine makers have used gum arabic as a wine fining agent.

Gum arabic is an important ingredient in shoe polish, and can be used in making homemade incense cones. 
Gum arabic is also used as a lickable adhesive, for example on postage stamps, envelopes, and cigarette papers. 
Lithographic printers employ Gum arabic to keep the non-image areas of the plate receptive to water.
Gum arabic also helps to stop oxidation of aluminium printing plates in the interval between processing of the plate and its use on a printing press.
Gum arabic is used to make glazes harden and adhere to the ware (where they have insufficient clay percentages in the batch). 
Normally only small amounts of gum are needed and they are put into the water before powder is added (typically a solution is prepared in hot water, then this added to the glaze batch before all its water has been added).

Gum arabic in Food
Gum arabic is used in the food industry as a stabilizer, emulsifier, and thickening agent in icing, fillings, soft candy, chewing gum, and other confectionery, and to bind the sweeteners and flavorings in soft drinks.
A solution of sugar and gum arabic in water, gomme syrup, is sometimes used in cocktails to prevent the sugar from crystallizing and provide a smooth texture.
Gum arabic is a complex polysaccharide and soluble dietary fibre that is generally recognized as safe for human consumption. 
An indication of harmless flatulence occurs in some people taking large doses of 30 g or more per day.
Gum arabic is not degraded in the intestine, but fermented in the colon under the influence of microorganisms; Gum arabic is a prebiotic (as distinct from a probiotic). 
No regulatory or scientific consensus has been reached about Gum arabics caloric value; an upper limit of 2 kcal/g was set for rats, but this is not valid for humans. 
The US FDA initially set a value of 4 kcal/g for food labelling, but in Europe no value was assigned for soluble dietary fibre. 
A 1998 review concluded that "based on present scientific knowledge, only an arbitrary value can be used for regulatory purposes".
In 2008, the USFDA sent a letter of no objection in response to an application to reduce the rated caloric value of gum arabic to 1.7 kcal/g.

Gum arabic in Painting and art
Gum arabic is used as a binder for watercolor painting because Gum arabic dissolves easily in water. 
Pigment of any color is suspended within the acacia gum in varying amounts, resulting in watercolor paint. 
Water acts as a vehicle or a diluent to thin the watercolor paint and helps to transfer the paint to a surface such as paper. 
When all moisture evaporates, the acacia gum typically does not bind the pigment to the paper surface, but is totally absorbed by deeper layers.
If little water is used, after evaporation, the acacia gum functions as a true binder in a paint film, increasing luminosity and helping prevent the colors from lightening. 
Gum arabic allows more subtle control over washes, because Gum arabic facilitates the dispersion of the pigment particles. 
In addition, acacia gum slows evaporation of water, giving slightly longer working time.
The addition of a little gum arabic to watercolor pigment and water allows for easier lifting of pigment from paper, thus can be a useful tool when lifting out color when painting in watercolor.

Gum arabic in Ceramics
Gum arabic has a long history as additives to ceramic glazes. 
Gum arabic acts as a binder, helping the glaze adhere to the clay before Gum arabic is fired, thereby minimising damage by handling during the manufacture of the piece. 
As a secondary effect, Gum arabic also acts as a deflocculant, increasing the fluidity of the glaze mixture, but also making Gum arabic more likely to sediment out into a hard cake if not used for a while.
The gum is normally made up into a solution in hot water (typically 10–25 g/l), and then added to the glaze solution after any ball milling in concentrations from 0.02% to 3.0% of gum arabic to the dry weight of the glaze.
On firing, the gum burns out at a low temperature, leaving no residues in the glaze.
More recently, particularly in commercial manufacturing, gum arabic is often replaced by more refined and consistent alternatives, such as carboxymethyl cellulose.

Gum arabic in Photography
The historical photography process of gum bichromate photography uses gum arabic mixed with ammonium or potassium dichromate and pigment to create a coloured photographic emulsion that becomes relatively insoluble in water upon exposure to ultraviolet light. 
In the final print, the acacia gum permanently binds the pigments onto the paper.

Gum arabic in Printmaking
Gum arabic is also used to protect and etch an image in lithographic processes, both from traditional stones and aluminum plates. 
In lithography, gum by itself may be used to etch very light tones, such as those made with a number-five crayon. 
Phosphoric, nitric, or tannic acid is added in varying concentrations to the acacia gum to etch the darker tones up to dark blacks. 
The etching process creates a gum adsorb layer within the matrix that attracts water, ensuring that the oil-based ink does not stick to those areas. 
Gum is also essential to what is sometimes called paper lithography, printing from an image created by a laser printer or photocopier.

Gum arabic in Pyrotechnics
Gum arabic is also used as a water-soluble binder in fireworks composition.

Gum arabic in Fuel charcoal
Gum arabic is used as a binding agent in the making of fuel charcoal. 
Charcoal made from the taifa plant is powdery, and so in order to form charcoal cakes, gum arabic is mixed with this powder and allowed to dry. 
Fuel charcoal made from taifa and gum arabic is used for cooking fires in Senegal and a few other African countries.

Gum arabic composition
Arabinogalactan is a biopolymer consisting of arabinose and galactose monosaccharides. 
Gum arabic is a major component of many plant gums, including gum arabic. 
8-5' Noncyclic diferulic acid has been identified as covalently linked to carbohydrate moieties of the arabinogalactan-protein fraction.

Gum Arabic, also known as Gum Acacia, is a tree gum exudate that has been an important commercial ingredient since ancient times. 
The Egyptians used Gum arabic for embalming mummies, and for making paints for hieroglyphic inscriptions. 
However, in recent years, a renewed interest in Gum Arabic has occurred, as more articles are published concerning Gum arabics structure, properties, and novel applications in food and pharmaceuticals. 
Gum Arabic is a tree exudate that is obtained mainly from the Acacia Senegal or Acacia Seyal species. 
The trees grow widely across the Sahelian belt of Africa, a region of Africa is a 3,860-kilometre arc-like land mass immediately south of the Sahara Desert that stretches east-west from Senegal in the west to Somalia in the east.
Gum Arabic is the resin that oozes from the stems and branches of trees. 
Production of Gum Arabic or Gum Acacia is stimulated by `tapping,’ which involves removing sections of the bark, taking care not to damage the tree. 
The sticky, gummy substance dries on the branches to form hard nodules which are picked by hand and are sorted according to color and size.

Other names: Gum arabic (Acacia senegal) Gum hashab, kordofan gum, Gum arabic (Acacia seyal) Gum talha, Acacia gum, Arabic gum 

Definition of Gum arabic:
Gum arabic was defined by the 31st Codex Committee for Food Additives, held at The Hague from 19 to 23 March 1999, as the dried exudate from the trunks and branches of Acacia senegal or Vachellia (Acacia) seyal in the family Fabaceae (Leguminosae). 
A 2017 safety re-evaluation by the Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) said that the term "gum arabic" does not indicate a particular botanical source; in a few cases, so‐called "gum arabic" may not even have been collected from Acacia species.

Health Benefits
Gum Arabic is a rich source of dietary fibers and in addition to its widespread use in food and pharmaceutical industries as a safe thickener, emulsifier, and stabilizer, it also possesses a broad range of health benefits that have been evidently proved through several in vitro and in vivo studies.
Gum Arabic is not degraded in the stomach but fermented in the large intestine into a number of short chain fatty acids. 
Gum arabic is regarded as a prebiotic that enhances the growth and proliferation of the beneficial intestinal microbiota and therefore Gum arabics intake is associated with many useful health effects.
These health benefits include 
1-Anti-diabetic
2-Anti-obesity (Gum Arabic lowers the body mass index and body fat percentage)
3-Lipid lowering potential (Gum Arabic decreases total cholesterol, LDL, and triglyceride)
4-Antioxidant activities
5-Kidney and liver support
6-Immune function via modulating the release of some inflammatory mediators.
7-Prebiotics improve the intestinal barrier function, prevent colon cancer, and alleviate symptoms of irritable bowel diseases.
8-In rats, Gum Arabic supplementation showed a protective effect on the intestine against the adverse actions of the NSAID drug, Meloxicam.

What Is Gum Arabic?
Gum arabic, also sometimes called acacia gum or acacia powder, is a fibrous product made from the natural hardened sap of two types of wild Acacia trees. 
Around the world, gum arabic goes by many names, including acacia gum, arabic gum, acacia powder, Senegal gum, Indian gum and others.
Acacia senegal (L.), a tree in the Leguminosae (Fabaceae) plant family, is most commonly used to make gum arabic products. 
Vachellia (Acacia) is another species that produces a dried gum from Gum arabics trunk and branches. 
These trees grow most abundantly in Sudan, where about 50 percent of the world’s gum arabic is now produced, but are also found in other parts of Africa, such as Kenya, Mali, Niger, Nigeria and Senegal.
What’s interesting about acacia trees is that they produce the most gum arabic when they experience “adverse conditions,” such as poor soil, drought or high heat. 
This actually damages the trees to some degree but causes an increase in the production of arabic gum.

What type of organic molecule is gum arabic? 
Gum arabic is made of a mixture of glycoproteins, a class of proteins that have carbohydrate groups attached to the polypeptide chain, and polysaccharides, a carbohydrate whose molecules consist of a number of sugar molecules bonded together. 
Gum arabic also includes oligosaccharides, another type of carbohydrate. 
Additionally, gums collected from acacia trees are a source of natural sugar compounds called arabinose and ribose, which were some of the first concentrated sugars to be derived from plants/trees. 
The exact chemical composition of gum arabic varies from product to product, depending on Gum arabics source and the climate/soil conditions in which Gum arabic was grown.

Today, there are many industrial and food-related uses for gum arabic. 
For example, gelatin, modified starch, gum arabic and pectin are the main types of gums used in many sugary/confectionery products. 
Arabic gum is used to help stabilize products including:
-A wide variety of desserts and baking ingredients
-Dairy products like ice cream
-Syrups
-Hard and soft candies
-Ink, paint, watercolors, and photography and printing materials
-Ceramics and clay
-Stamps and envelopes
-Shoe polish
-Cosmetics
-Firworks
-Herbal medicines, pills and lozenges
-Emulsions that are applied to the skin

Chemical And Molecular Structure Of Gum Arabic
Gum arabic consists mainly of calcium, magnesium and potassium salts which yield arabinose, galactose, rhamnose, and glucuronic acid after hydrolysis. 
Chemical compositions of Gum Arabic may vary slightly with the source, climate, season, and age of the tree. 
Acacia Senegal and Acacia Seyal both contain the same carbohydrate residues.
However, Acacia Seyal gum has lower rhamnose and glucuronic acid contents, and higher arabinose and glucuronic acid contents than the gum derived from Acacia Senegal. 
The amino acid compositions are similar in both gums, with hydroxyproline and serine being the major constituents.
Both gums from the Acacia and Acacia Seyal display similar features regarding high-weight molecular mass distributions. 
However, the molecular mass of gum from Acacia Seyal is higher than the gum of Acacia Senegal, with an average molecular mass of 380,000 and 850,000, respectively. 

Gum arabic is the gum that is exuded from certain trees, such as the Acacia senegal tree. 
Gum arabic's a dietary fiber that can dissolve in water.
Gum arabic is used for high cholesterol, diabetes, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and other conditions, but there is no good scientific evidence to support these uses.
In manufacturing, gum arabic is used as a pharmaceutical ingredient in medications for throat or stomachinflammation and as a film-forming agent in peel-off skin masks.
Don't confuse gum arabic with Acacia rigidula, acai, or cassie absolute (Acacia farnesiana).

How does Gum arabic work ?
Gum arabic is a source of dietary fiber. 
Gum arabic tends to make people feel full, so they might stop eating earlier than they otherwise would. 
This might lead to weight loss and reduced cholesterol levels.

Gum arabic’s structure allows Gum arabic to dissolve in cold or warm water (meaning Gum arabic’s “water-soluble”), making it easy to use in a variety of ways. 
Because Gum arabic is a natural, plant-derived product, Gum arabic’s suitable for vegans/vegetarians (unlike other products with similar qualities, such as gelatin). 
Gum arabic is also naturally gluten-free, usually non-GMO and well-tolerated by most people when used in appropriate/small amounts.

Gum Arabic Benefits:
Studies on both animals and humans suggest that benefits associated with gum arabic may include:
-Providing a source of prebiotics and soluble fiber.
-Feeding healthy bacteria (probiotics) in the gut.
-Helping enhance fullness and satiety.
-Helping with weight loss and potentially prevention of obesity.
-Treating IBS symptoms and constipation.
-Helping regulate cholesterol levels.
-Fighting insulin resistance, including in patients with type 2 diabetes.
-Reducing dental plaque on the gums and teeth, plus fighting gingivitis.
-Having anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, thanks to Gum arabics tannins, flavonoids and resins.
-Helping reduce skin inflammation and redness.

Molecular Weight / Distance Benefit Prebiotics
The adult human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is 9 meters (or 29.5 feet ) from the esophagus to the anus. 
Gum arabic is important to note that short-chain, low molecular weight monosaccharides and disaccharides are more easily fermented proximally in the gastrointestinal tract than their more resistant and complex, higher molecular weight, oligosaccharide or polysaccharide counterparts. 
While shorter-chain prebiotics can impart benefits, the large, slowly fermented polysaccharides of higher molecular weight have significant advantages over small, rapidly fermented sugars such as lactulose, and other non-digestible oligosaccharides.
These include the ability to be tolerated at higher doses by consumers with reduced risk of side effects such as intestinal discomfort and flatulence caused by excessive gas formation; mucosal damage from rapid acidification; or the laxative effect of too high concentrations of small sugars in the colon. 
Perhaps more importantly, high-molecular weight polysaccharides supply a persistent source of fermentable carbohydrate throughout the length of the colon rather than being completely fermented proximally. 
This fact may be of particular interest in the prevention of certain types of diseases, like colon cancer, as the distal colon and rectum are significant sites of inflammation and disease in humans 

Gum arabics General description
Gum arabic from acacia tree is extracted from the branches of Acacia senegal and Acacia seyal trees. 
Gum arabic is an edible dried gummy exudate. 
Gum Arabic has high solubility and is used in food industry as a stabilizer, emulsifier, flavouring agent, thickener and surface-finishing agent. 
Gum arabic initiates turbidity or hinders sugar crystallization. 
Gum arabic inhibits color pigmentation and protein precipitation in wine production.

Gum arabic Application
-Gum arabic from acacia tree has been used:
-as an emulsifying agent to determine lipase activity in shrimps
-for the visualization of mossy fiber sprouting
-as an immunogen and for coating microtitre wells in plate-trapped antigen ELISAs (PTA-ELISAs)
-for silver enhancement for immunohistochemistry
-as a component for Timm′s staining solution
-in nitrocellulose-based soil adhesion assay
-to separate few-layer graphene (FLG) from bulk graphite layers

What is Acacia Gum?
Acacia gum or gum arabic is a food grade, naturally-derived gum used for its emulsifying and high-gloss properties. 

In baking, it:
-Acts as a stabilizer
-Has many clean-label attributes
-Is calorie-free, grown without pesticides, and both kosher and halal

Origin
The all-natural gum product is obtained from two acacia species growing in the “Gum Belt” of Africa: 19 nations from Sudan through Chad, up to Nigeria. 
Sudan, Ethiopia, and Kenya are leading producers. 
Some 10 million people are employed in the industry.
Ninety percent of the ingredient is harvested from acacia Senegal trees. 
The acacia seyal gums are also marketed. 
The sap is typically pale to orange-brown in color and graded after harvest. 
Gums that form whole or round tears and are orange-brown are deemed the highest quality.
Acacia gum is non-GMO. 
Some 99 percent of the trees from which the product is harvested grow wild; however, commercial scale plantations are being developed in Senegal. 
Food and beverage account for 60 percent of global demand.

Function
Acacia gum is unique due to its emulsifying properties, which allow it to efficiently stabilize a food system. 
This results in products with a superior texture and a good mouthfeel. 
Acacia gum used to improve the texture of gluten-free breads in conjunction with starches, oils, enzymes or skimmed milk powder. 
Gum arabic has reportedly improved softness in breads by 25 percent and extended commercial product shelf life by 50 percent.

Nutrition
Acacia gum is high in fiber with 90 percent soluble fiber in dry extract8 and is a natural prebiotic.
However, FDA does not consider gum arabic as dietary fiber due to insufficient evidence to support the physiological effect of gum arabic on human health.4

Composition
Gum arabic is a heteropolysaccharide with extremely high solubility in water.  
Gum arabic can be subdivided into three structural groups:
-Arabinogalactan protein
-Arabinogalactan
-Glycoprotein

Commercial production
The gum is harvested and sold to either a trader or directly to a trading organization. 
The gum is cleaned and sorted for export. Upon import, the majority of acacia gum undergoes additional processing. 
Gum arabic is either “kibbled” or powdered. 
As the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations explains, “Kibbling entails passing whole or large lumps of gum through a hammer mill and then screening it to produce smaller granules of more uniform size. 
These pieces are more easily dissolved in water, and under more reproducible conditions, than the raw gum and so are preferred by the end-user.”
The powdered gum is produced by taking a solution of gum in water that is filtered and pasteurized before being spray dried. 
The process can be controlled to produce a powder meeting the end user’s specific requirements.

Application
Dissolve in water portion before introducing it to any oils. 
Gum arabic is heat sensitive. 
Due to the proteins in its structure, Gum arabics emulsifying capabilities decrease with heat. 
The best results are reported with a concentration of 1 to 3 percent. 
Gum arabic can be used in products with an acidic pH.
In pastries, Gum arabic is typically used in fillings or frosting due to its ability to emulsify the fat/water interfaces. 
Gum arabic is traditionally used on gingerbread products to give a glossy and tacky shine.

Production
While gum arabic has been harvested in Arabia, Sudan, and West Asia since antiquity, sub-Saharan acacia gum has a long history as a prized export. 
The gum exported came from the band of acacia trees that once covered much of the Sahel region, the southern littoral of the Sahara Desert that runs from the Atlantic Ocean to the Red Sea. 
Today, the main populations of gum-producing Acacia species are found in Mauritania, Senegal, Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger, Nigeria, Chad, Cameroon, Sudan, Eritrea, Somalia, Ethiopia, Kenya, and Tanzania. 
Acacia is tapped for gum by stripping bits off the bark, from which gum then exudes. 
Traditionally harvested by seminomadic desert pastoralists in the course of their transhumance cycle, acacia gum remains a main export of several African nations, including Mauritania, Niger, Chad, and Sudan. 
Total world gum arabic exports are today (2019) estimated at 160,000 tonnes, having recovered from 1987 to 1989 and 2003–2005 crises caused by the destruction of trees by the desert locust.

Acacia, also known as gum arabic, is the dried exudate gathered from acacia trees that grow in the Sahelian region of Africa. 

Features
-Emulsifies and stabilizes flavors and beverages
-Encapsulates flavors
-Forms films and coatings in panned confections
-Enhances mouthfeel in beverages
-Strong adhesive and binding properties

The combination of film formation and emulsification makes Gum Arabic an excellent natural ingredient for applications in oil-based flavor concentrates, beverage emulsions and foams. 
These functionalities have facilitated the use of Gum Arabic as a replacement for other ingredients in both simple and complex emulsions following the clean labeling desire of consumers. 
Emulsion stability is achieved from the water phase for both oil in water emulsions and foams. 
The water binding functionality assists in managing quality of frozen products in both low and high total solids applications. 
When combined with limited viscosity development, Gum Arabic is used to extend shelf life through moisture management in many shelf-stable foods. 
Combining the ability to form stable thin films and the natural stickiness of carbohydrate polymer solutions provides an application for solutions of Gum Arabic to be used as natural adhesives both to hold layers of products together and to attach particles to the surface of products. 
Film formation functionality is also utilized to form barrier coatings most commonly in panned confections with or without chocolate.

What is Acacia Gum? Acacia gum is also called gum arabic. 
Gum arabic is made from the sap of the Acacia senegal tree, or gum acacia. 
Gum arabic is used medicinally as well as in the production of many items.
In fact, the many acacia gum uses span numerous professional industries. 
Gum arabic may even be an important part of everyday health. 
Further acacia arabic information can help you decide if you should include Gum arabic in your diet. 
Much of the supply of acacia gum comes from the Sudan region, but also from Nigeria, Niger, Mauritania, Mali, Chad, Kenya, Eritrea, and Senegal. 
Gum arabic comes from the thorny Acacia senegal tree where the sap bubbles up to the surface of the branches. 
Workers must brave those thorns to scrape the stuff off the bark as Gum arabic occurs during the rainy season. 
The sap is dried using the naturally warm temperatures of the region. 
This process is called curing. 

Countless tons of the sap is sent annually to Europe for processing. 
There Gum arabic is cleaned, dissolved in water, and dried again to create a powder. 
The sap is a cold, water soluble polysaccharide. 
In Gum arabics gum form, the product thins out as temperature rises.
These variable forms make Gum arabic useful in a host of products. 
Historical Gum Arabic Information Gum arabic was first used in Egypt in the mummification process to adhere the bandage wrappings. 
Gum arabic was even used in cosmetics. 
The substance was used to stabilize paint as early as biblical times. 
During the Stone Age, Gum arabic was used as a food and an adhesive. 
Ancient Greek writings mention Gum arabics use to relieve discomfort of blisters, burns, and stop nose bleeds.

Gum arabic can be almost completely dissolved in Gum arabics own volume of water—a very unusual characteristic. 
I added the resulting solution to the pancake syrup, and in less than half a minute, the sugar crystals dissolved.
Gum arabic is the hardened sap of the Acacia senegal tree, which is found in the swath of arid lands extending from Senegal on the west coast of Africa all the way to Pakistan and India. 
Just as Arabic numerals acquired their name because Europeans learned of them from the Arabs—who had picked them up from India—so too do we owe the name of gum arabic not so much to its origins, but to Europe’s early trading contacts with the Middle East.

In Turkey, illuminators used gum arabic in the application of gold to manuscripts by mixing 24-carat gold leaf with melted gum arabic to make a gold paste. 
This they applied with fine brushes dipped in a gelatin solution. 
The ability to judge the correct density of the gold paste and the gelatin prior to application was one of the marks of an accomplished illuminator. 
Too much gelatin would make the gold look dull, while too little could cause the gold film to crack.
Gum arabic was also important to Turkish scribes for making lampblack ink, which was obtained by burning linseed oil, beeswax, naphtha or kerosene in a restricted airflow. 
The resulting imperfect combustion produced a fine black soot that could be collected on the inside of a cone or tent of paper or a sheepskin placed above the flame. 
The soot—lampblack—was then mixed with gum arabic and water. 
The carbon particles in the ink did not dissolve but remained suspended in the water, thanks to the emulsifying qualities of the gum. 
When the ink was applied to the paper, the particles remained on the surface, offering a smooth appearance. 
In case of an error, they could be easily wiped or scraped away. 
In contrast, most modern inks are solutions that are absorbed into the fibers of the paper.

According to Sudanese sources, gum arabic was an article of commerce as early as the 12th century BC. 
Gum arabic was collected in Nubia and exported north to Egypt for use in the preparation of inks, watercolors and dyes. 
Herodotus, writing in the fifth century BC, mentions Gum arabics use in embalming in Egypt. 
In the ninth century of our era, the Arab physician Abu Zayd Hunayn ibn Ishaq al-Ibadi, writing in his Ten Treatises on the Eye, described gum arabic as an ingredient in poultices or eye compresses.
By the Middle Ages, gum arabic was valued in Europe among scribes and illustrators. 
Following the gilding of letters in illuminated manuscripts, the application of color was the final stage. 
For this, illustrators mixed pigment in a binding medium. 
Until the 14th century, the most common medium was glair, which was obtained from egg whites. 
However, glair was not only difficult to prepare, Gum arabic also reduced the intensity of the colors. 
When it was discovered that gum arabic—so readily soluble in water—could be applied more thinly and that the resulting colors were more transparent and intense, gum replaced glair.

Pharmacology
Gum arabic slows the rate of absorption of some drugs, including amoxycillin, from the gut.
Nomadic populations of the Sahel and Arabia have known the beneficial effects of gum arabic for ages. 
In Europe, pharmaceutical applications were also among the first uses.

Background
Gum Arabic (acacia Senegal) is a complex polysaccharide indigestible to both humans and animals. 
Gum arabic has been considered as a safe dietary fiber by the United States, Food and Drug Administration (FDA) since the 1970s. 
Although its effects were extensively studied in animals, there is paucity of data regarding Gum arabics quantified use in humans. 
This study was conducted to determine effects of regular Gum Arabic (GA) ingestion on body mass index and body fat percentage among healthy adult females.

Methods
A two-arm randomized, placebo controlled, double-blind trial was conducted in the Department of Physiology at the Khartoum University. 
A total of 120 healthy females completed the study. 
They were divided to two groups: A test group of 60 volunteers receiving GA (30 gm /day) for 6 weeks and a placebo group of 60 volunteers receiving pectin (1 gm/day) for the same period of time. 
Weight and height were measured before and after intervention using standardized height and weight scales. 
Skin fold thickness was measured using Harpenden Skin fold caliper. 
Fat percentage was calculated using Jackson and Pollock 7 caliper method and Siri equation.

Appearance
Unground acacia gum is a white or yellowish-white spheroidal tears with different sizes. 
Also available in the form of flakes, granular, powder or spray-dried powder. 

Solubility
Gum arabic is a cold water-soluble polysaccharide and a multi-functional hydrocolloid.
1g dissolves in 2 mL cold water; insoluble in ethanol. 

Viscosity
Gum arabic has a low viscosity, and its viscosity of 30% gum arabic solution is lower than 1% of CMC at low shear rates. 

Gum acacia, which is derived from the acacia tree, is a natural solution for product texture and stability challenges, from creating innovative confectionery products to stabilizing emulsions, particulates and flavours in beverages. 
Gum arabic ingredients are fully soluble in water, provide consistent functionality in a range of applications and are available as a spray-dried fine powder or a novel fast-dissolving granulated version.

What’s the application of gum arabic?
Acacia Gum is commonly used in food, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals for its thickening, emulsifying and binding properties. 
Not only is Gum arabic used for Gum arabics functional benefits, Gum arabic’s also valued as a natural ingredient that contributes dietary fiber.

Confectionary
Gum arabic can be used as a glaze or coating in confectionery and the common uses are in chocolates, candies and chewing gum. 
Generally, the purpose is to prevent sugar crystallization, modify texture, keep the emulsion stable and distribute fatty components evenly. 

Drinks
Gum arabic can be used in soft drinks due to such advantages: 
-the low viscosity: that will not make a change to the overall viscosity of the beverage.
-excellent solubility in aqueous solution.
-stable in a wide PH range.
-as a stabilizer in oil in water emulsions. 
-strengthen the foam stability in beer and soft drinks. 
-as a fining/clarifying agent in winemaking.
-low calorie.
-as a carrier for flavor encapsulation.

Food
Food grade gum arabic powder is a widely edible gum that can be found in the bakery, confectionery, beverage, dairy and so on. 
More than 80% of gum arabic is used in the food production for emulsification, encapsulation, coating, gum candies and so on.

Bakery
Generally, in the baking industry, gum arabic is used for Gum arabics low water absorption, viscoelastic properties and high soluble fiber characteristics. 

Bread
Gum arabic can be used as an emulsion stabilizer, also Gum arabic imparts smooth, increases dough height, as well as enlarges the volume of bread.

Egg Substitute
Gum arabic can replace eggs for generating an attractive glossy coating, which will be appropriate for vegetarians and people allergic to eggs.

Frozen dough
Gum arabic reduces ice crystallization in frozen dough.

Tortilla
Gum arabic increases tortilla roll-ability, water retention, and shelf life.

Cosmetics
Per the “European Commission database for information on cosmetic substances and ingredients”, guar gum can function as a film forming and masking agent in cosmetic and personal care products.

Acacia gum, more commonly known as Gum Arabic, is obtained from the Acacia senegal and several related species of small Acacia trees native to the hot dry regions of northern and central Africa and the Middle East.  
Acacias are various species of small trees or shrubs 10 to 25 feet in height with a spread of 10 to 15 feet.
Small 'tears' of gum oozes naturally from the trunk, but is stimulated by cutting thin strips of bark from the trees, about 2-3 feet long and 2 inches wide.  
The gum thickens on exposure to the air, and the oval 'tears' are then collected.  
Gum Arabic is water soluble, odorless and tasteless.
Gum Arabic is widely used as an emulsifier, thickening agent, stabilizer and flavor enhancer in commercial food production.  
Gum arabic is used in the manufacture of such products as beverages, dairy products, snack foods, chewing gum, candy, confections, and fats.  
Gum Arabic retards sugar crystalization in candy and confections, smooths the texture of ice cream, enhances the flavor of fruit beverages, and stabilizes the foam in beers.   
Gum arabic is also in the manufacture of paper, ink, textiles, adhesives, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics.

We can find the following personal care products contain Gum arabic: 
-Mascara
-facial moisturizer
-anti-aging 
-body wash 
-liquid hand soap
-hair spray
-lipstick and others

Uses
Due to Gum arabics high soluble fiber content, acacia fiber is thought to help lower cholesterol levels, keep blood sugar in check, protect against diabetes, and aid in the treatment of digestive disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).
Soluble fiber (one of the main types of dietary fiber) dissolves in water and forms a gel-like substance in the intestines.
In addition, acacia fiber is said to suppress appetite, reduce gut inflammation, alleviate constipation, relieve diarrhea, and support weight loss efforts (by helping you stay full for longer).
Acacia fiber is also said to be prebiotic (a non-digestible food ingredient in dietary fiber that can stimulate the growth of beneficial bacteria in the intestines).

Results
Pre and post analysis among the study group showed significant reduction in BMI by 0.32 (95% CI: 0.17 to 0.47; P<0.0001) and body fat percentage by 2.18% (95% CI: 1.54 to 2.83; P<0.0001) following regular intake of 30 gm /day Gum Arabic for six weeks. 
Side effects caused by GA ingestion were experienced only in the first week. 
They included unfavorable viscous sensation in the mouth, early morning nausea, mild diarrhea and bloating abdomen.

CAS: 9000-01-5
MDL Number: MFCD00081264
Synonym: Acacia

Four forms of gum arabic
Gum arabic can be classified into 4 forms (raw material, middle, powdered and spray-dried) according to the degree of the manufacturing process.

1. Raw gum arabic
Gum arabic is the raw form only through manual treatment sorting out the lumps, according to the size, colour, and visual aspect. 
Gum arabic is mainly used for food application: confectionery and wine.

2. Kibbled acacia gum 
Gum arabic is the raw acacia gum after grinding process, in order to reduce the size of the gum lumps. 
The wood / bark particles and any other foreign materials can be removed after kibbling flow. 
The kibbled form is traditionally used in confectionery production.

3. Powdered acacia gum
Gum arabic is the fine powder obtained from the finely milling of the kibbled acacia gum, which looks like flour. 
This powder is dusted on the surface of candies in confectionery production; and in pharmaceuticals application where special powder density is needed for pills.

4. Spray-dried Acacia gum
Gum arabic is pure form and the main use of the product over the world. 

Description
A water soluble gum commonly used in binding media of paints. 
Gum arabic is the amorphous exudate from the stem of several species of Acacia trees, especially Acacia senegal and Acacia arabica, found in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. 
Most gum arabic coming from the sub-Sahara region in Africa. 
Gum arabic contains Arabinose, Galactose, Rhamnose, and glucuronic acid. 
Gum arabic is sold in the form of round lumps, granules, thin flakes or as a powder; all of which may be white or slightly yellowish. 
Gum arabic is completely soluble in hot and cold water, yielding a viscous solution. 
However, heating a gum arabic solution to the boiling point will cause it to darken and will change its adhesion properties. 
Aqueous solutions of gum arabic will precipitate or gel with the addition of ferric salts, Borax, alcohol, or Sodium silicate. 
Gum arabic is used in watercolor paints, inks, lithographs, and for textile sizing. 
The earliest known inks consisted of gum arabic and Lampblack.

How is it made?
Acacia gum is the result of a bacterial or fungal infection mostly on the wild trees also in cultivated gardens. 
Gum arabic is exuded or produced only from unhealthy trees which were stimulated by heat, poor nutrition and drought. 
Generally, the following are 6 steps manufacturing process of gum arabic powder.

Tapping
The farmers of West & South East Sudan start tapping the two species of arabic trees, acacia senegal and acacia seyal in Autumn. 
They make small cuts in the bark to allow the glue-like sap to seep out. 

Collection
The hardened gum arabic nodules are gathered under the sun for a few days to make it dry.

Manual cleaning
The dried gum is then cleaned manually to remove small bark fibers and any other impurities.

Dry purification processing
Using kibbling, sieving and pulverization to remove vegetable and mineral impurities.

Aqueous solution purification
This step is much more efficient. 
Dissolve the gum in water and all the impurities can be removed by a series of filtration steps.

Beverage formulators working on a new product must work within a matrix of needs encompassing technical formulation challenges, marketing department desires and cost considerations.
Do you want the drink to be all natural? Organic? GMO free? Do you need a fibre source? 
A clear or cloudy emulsion? What mouthfeel are you trying to promote? What oils are you trying to emulsify? 
What is the flavour oil concentration going to be? How shelf-stable does Gum arabic need to be? 
Or might Gum arabic be an instant beverage sold in a powder form for consumer reconstitution?
When formulators begin filling in the criteria for this multi-dimensional matrix, the answers will determine which of the different approaches should be taken in picking the emulsifier.
Gum acacia is widely known throughout the beverage industry as a robust multi-functional emulsifier. 
Gum arabic lends itself well to beverages for a variety of reasons. 
Gum arabic acts as the primary emulsifier for flavour oils, permitting dispersion of the oil into the water and stabilizing the beverage to avoid ringing and creaming. 
Gum arabic is stable in low pH environments, often an important criteria for beverages. 
At the same time, Gum arabic has a low viscosity response in water, so Gum arabic can provide mouthfeel without any adverse effect on the original beverage texture.

Dry
With roller drying or spray dried processes to concentrate the gum syrup and get rid of bacterial contamination.
Nowadays spray dried method is the common way to produce acacia gum. 
Gum arabic can keep all properties of the raw gum while roller drying method reduces Gum arabics emulsifying properties by drastic thermal treatment.
Spray dried acacia gum has the lower content of water (loss on drying not more than 10%) than the not spray-dried acacia gum (loss on drying not more than 15%).

Two grades of gum arabic
Arabic gum is mainly divided into two types based on the two tree sources: acacia senegal (hashab grade) and acacia seyal (talha grade).
Both grades have the same compositions and sugar residues but with different content. 
The average molecular mass of the gum obtained from A. senegal is higher than from that of A. seyal.
Most internationally traded gum arabic comes from acacia senegal.

1.Hashab
Acacia senegal is a bushy tree, having a wide distribution in Africa and Western Africa. 

2.Talha 
Acacia seyal is a small to medium size tree, up to 10 -12m height. 
Talha grade is more brittle than Hashab grade.

Acacia has been used in medicines, baking ingredients, tools, and woodwork for centuries. 
Gum arabic has a long history in civilizations as ancient as the Egyptians and the aboriginal tribes of Australia. 
These kingdoms and tribes used acacia in surprisingly diverse ways, from making desserts to treating hemorrhoids. 
The first species ever discovered was given the name Acacia nilotica by the Swedish scientist Carl Linnaeus in the 1700s, and since then, nearly 1,000 species have been added to the Acacia genus.
Acacia still sits on grocery store shelves in crushed, ground, and whole form. 
The name Acacia itself refers to a genus of plant that includes many different types of plants, such as trees and shrubs. 
Gum arabic can be used in a variety of applications. 
The acacia that you can buy today may come from one or more of these species. 
Most of the time, the acacia in food or medicine is Acacia senegal (L.) Willd. 
This type of acacia is usually in gum form, and Gum arabic will say acacia gum on labels and packaging.

A natural additive obtained from the bark of the acacia tree, Gum Arabic is colorless, tasteless and odorless and is used in commercial food processing to thicken, emulsify and stabilize foods such as candy, ice cream, sweet syrups, used to strengthen royal icing and to make an edible glue for gum paste. 
Gum glue is used to fasten Gum Paste flowers and figures together.

How long has gum arabic been used in foods?
Gum arabic has most likely been consumed for thousands of years, and has been used as a food additive for hundreds.

Does gum arabic contain genetically modified organisms (GMOs)?
No, gum arabic does not contain GMOs.

How does the production and use of gum arabic impact the environment?
Acacia trees are beneficial to their environment, nourishing the surrounding soil and help to prevent desertification.

Pharmaceuticals
In the Pharmaceutical industry, acacia gum is used as an excipient, e.g. as a suspending and emulsifying agent, as an adhesive and binder in tableting and demulcent syrups, as EFSA mentioned.

Others
Gum arabic is the traditional binder used in watercolor paint for artists as it can easily dissolve in water and other color pigments are suspended in the acacia gum that results in watercolor paint. 

Other uses including ceramics, photography, lithography, inks (calligraphy), printmaking and so on.

Is Gum Arabic Safe to eat?
Yes, Gum arabic almost has no side effects and the safety has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), as well as the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA).

Additional Information: Agar, Starch, Tragacanth, dextrin, sucrose: Absent
Arsenic (As): 3ppm max.
Ash: Total ash: < 4.0%
Density: 1.3500g/mL
Heavy Metals (as Pb): 40ppm max.
Identification: Passes Test (per Eur. Pharm.)
Insoluble Matter: 0.1% max.
Physical Form: Powder
Infrared Spectrum: Authentic
Loss on Drying: 15.0% max. (1 g, 105°C)
Packaging: Plastic bottle
Solubility: Solubility in water: soluble. Other solubilities: insoluble in alcohol
Specific Gravity: 1.35
Color: Beige-Yellow to White
Quantity: 250g
Chemical Name or Material: Gum arabic

FDA
The FDA claimed gum arabic added directly to human food affirmed as generally recognized as safe (GRAS). 
The following food may contain it and with the max uses levels (from high to low): 
-Soft candy: 85.0%
-Hard candy and cough drops: 46.5%
-Confections and frostings: 12.4%
-Nuts and nut products: 8.3%
-Quiescently frozen confection products: 6.0%
-Chewing gum: 5.6%
-Snack foods: 4.0%
-Gelatins, puddings, and fillings: 2.5%
-Beverages and beverage bases: 2.0%
-Fats and oils: 1.5%
-Dairy product analogs: 1.3%
-All other food categories: 1.0%

Why is gum arabic necessary in foods and beverages?
When used as an emulsifier, gum arabic helps bind water and oil molecules, creating a smooth, homogeneous solution which consumers expect.
When used as a stabilizer, gum arabic helps provide a smooth texture in a product, provide body and mouthfeel, and help keep nutrients and other components in the product from separating, which is key in meeting consumer expectations and preventing nutrients from calcifying at the bottom of the product.
When used as a thickener, gum arabic helps increase the viscosity of a liquid product without altering other qualities. 
All of these functions help extend shelf life and allow products to have different textures.

Uses: Used as a stabilizer, thickener and emulsifier in: Candy making, ice cream, marshmallows, soda, art and photography.
Substitutes:Xanthan Gum, Guar Gum, Locust Bean Gum, Clear Jel Instant and Lecithin Powder.

How does gum arabic make food more affordable?
Gum arabic acts as a stabilizer, which can help extend a product’s shelf life. 
If the common foods associated with gum arabic did not contain that ingredient, their shelf life would decrease drastically contributing to food waste and additional costs to consumers.

Synonyms and Related Terms
goma arábiga (Esp.); gomme d'acacia (Fr.); gomme arabique (Fr.); gomma di acacia (It); gomma arabica (It); kordofan; picked turkey; white sennar; senegal gum; ghezineh gum; gomme blonde; gomme blanche; gum acacia, East India gum; kami; wattle gum

Symbolic value
In the work of Shakespeare, Jacob Cats and many other European poets of the 13th to 17th centuries, gum arabic represented the "noble Orient". 
In the Sahel, Gum arabic is a symbol of the purity of youth.

Gum arabic, also known as gum acacia, is the dried gummy exudate from tropical and subtropical  Acacia senegal trees.  
The exudate is a proteinaceous polysaccharide, the protein content ranging from ca.1.5% to 3% for samples from different producing areas.  
The proteinaceous components of eight bulk commercial gum arabic samples, and for eleven gum specimens secured from Acacia senegal trees show that their amino acid compositions vary considerably, particularly with respect to the three major components (hydroxyproline, serine and proline), although the proportions of other amino acids (e.g., alanine, cysteine, isoleucine, methionine, threonine, tyrosine and valine) are remarkably constant.  
Gum arabic consists of several high-molecular-weight polysaccharides and their salts, which on hydrolysis yield arabinose, galactose, rhamnose and glucoronic acid

The trees of Acacia seyal grow under extreme climatic conditions in Eastern Africa and the Gum Arabic exudate is collected naturally from the stem. 
The exudate hardens into the Gum Arabic and Nagaad Gums, in collaboration with the local communities, harvests the gum for further processing and sales.
The Gum Arabic from Acacia seyal is a superior product and being edible and soluble in water Gum arabic is used primarily as a stabilizer in the food industry. 
The gum also has a wide range of industrial applications such as use in the production of paints, inks, cosmetics, glue, and viscosity control in textile industries.
Acacia seyal is also highly valued for Gum arabics medicinal properties and used for colds, diarrhoea, haemorrhages, jaundice, headaches and burns. 
Gum arabic is even used as an analgesic.
This product is free from any contaminates as analysed by our laboratory facilities. 
Gum arabic is 100% organic as the trees grow naturally and wildly.

Gum arabic is used primarily in the food industry as a stabilizer. 
Gum arabic is edible and has E number E414. 
Gum arabic is a key ingredient in traditional lithography and is used in printing, paint production, glue, cosmetics and various industrial applications, including viscosity control in inks and in textile industries, though less expensive materials compete with it for many of these roles.

Synonyms :
ACACIA GUM, ACACIA , ACACIA SEYAL, ARABIC GUM

Hydrolysis products
Identify arabinose, galactose, rhamnose and glucuronic acid as follows:

Boil a mixture of 100 mg of the sample and 20 ml of 10% sulfuric acid for 3h. 
Allow to cool and add excess barium carbonate, mixing with a magnetic stirrer until the solution is of pH 7, and filter. 
Evaporate the filtrate in a rotary evaporator at 30-50° in vacuum until a crystalline or syrupy residue is obtained. 
Dissolve in 10 ml of 40% methanol. 
This is the hydrolysate.

Place 1 to 10 m l spots of the hydrolysate on the starting line of two chromatoplates and spots containing 1 to 10 m g of arabinose, galactose, rhamnose and glucuronic acid, expected to be present in the hydrolysate. 
Use two solvent systems one for each plate: A. a mixture of formic acid, methyl ethyl ketone, tertiary butanol and water (15:30:40:15 by volume) and B. a mixture of isopropanol, pyridine, acetic acid and water (40:40:5:20 by volume) to develop the plates. 
After development, spray with a solution of 1.23 g anisidine and 1.66 g phthalic acid in 100 ml ethanol and heat the plates at 100° for 10 min. 
A greenish yellow colour is produced with hexoses, a red colour with pentoses and a brown colour with uronic acids. 
Compare sample spots with those for the solutions of arabinose, galactose, rhamnose and glucuronic acid. 
Additional spots corresponding to mannose, xylose, and galacturonic acid should be absent.

Useful For 
Establishing the diagnosis of an allergy to gum arabic

Defining the allergen responsible for eliciting signs and symptoms 

Identifying allergens:
-Responsible for allergic disease and/or anaphylactic episode
-To confirm sensitization prior to beginning immunotherapy
-To investigate the specificity of allergic reactions to insect venom allergens, drugs, or chemical allergens

How Much Gum Arabic to Use
A typical ratio for stabilization and thickening is 1.0-45.0% gum Arabic by weight.

Dispersion and Hydration of Gum Arabic
Gum Arabic can be hydrated in hot or cold liquids by blending.

DEFINITION

Gum Arabic is a dried exudate obtained from the stems and branches of Acacia senegal (L.) Willdenow or closely related species of Acacia (fam. Leguminosae). 
A. seyal is a closely related species. 
Gum arabic consists mainly of high-molecular weight polysaccharides and their calcium, magnesium, and potassium salts, which on hydrolysis yield arabinose, galactose, rhamnose, and glucuronic acid. 
Items of commerce may contain extraneous materials such as sand and pieces of bark which must be removed before use in food. 
Gum arabic from A. seyal is sometimes referred to as gum talha.

CAS Number: 9001-01-5
Hazard Info: Allergen
Density (g/mL): 1.35-1.49
Solubility: Water
Synonyms: Acacia, Aracia Gum
Shelf Life (months): 36
Storage: Green

Gum arabic is a complex polysaccharide indigestible to both animals and humans. 
Gum arabic has been considered as a safe dietary fibre by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) since the 1970s. 
Acacia gum contains water-soluble dietary fibers that are not only good fibre for diet but also help control sugar levels and lower blood cholesterol. 
Gum arabic is extensively used in the food and beverages and pharmaceuticals industries.

Gum arabic is stable in acid conditions and is widely used as an emulsifier in the production of concentrated citrus and cola flavor oils for application in soft drinks. 
The gum is able to inhibit flocculation and coalescence of the oil droplets over several months and furthermore the emulsions remain stable for up to a year when diluted up to ~ 500 times with sweetened carbonated water prior to bottling. 
In the preparation of the emulsion a weighting agent is normally added to the oil in order to increase the density to match that of the final beverage and thus inhibit creaming. 
Typical weighting agents that are used, subject to legislation in various parts of the world, are glycerol ester of wood, gum damar, and sucrose acetate isobutyrate (SAIB). 
SAIB is not normally used by itself but usually in conjunction with rosin or gum damar.


4-) GUAR GUM          

Guar gum = Guaran

CAS Number: 9000-30-0 
E number: E412

Guar gum, also called guaran, is a galactomannan polysaccharide extracted from guar beans that has thickening and stabilizing properties useful in food, feed, and industrial applications. 
The guar seeds are mechanically dehusked, hydrated, milled and screened according to application.
Guar gum is typically produced as a free-flowing, off-white powder.
Guar gum is a food additive that is used to thicken and bind food products. 
Guar gum’s high in soluble fiber and low in calories.

Guar has been used for centuries in Pakistan and India as a vegetable (eaten green like snap beans), as cattle food, and as a green manure crop in agriculture.
Guar Gum belongs to the pea family that is majorly produced in India and Pakistan and the minor producers being China, Africa, the USA, Australia, and a few more.
Reputed manufacturers and exporters use an advanced process to de-husk, screen mill, and further pulverized to obtain refined guar powder that is used in diverse industries. 
Guar gum is extracted from the guar bean and is extensively used as a thickening agent and emulsifier in food industries.

Gum is derived from guar seeds or cyamopsis tetragonoloba termed as Guar Gum. 
Guar Gum can also be termed as guaran. 
These seeds have high low-shear viscosity as evaluated with other hydrocolloids like (locust bean gum). 
Guar Gums are effective thickeners and stabilizers.
Guar Gum is relatively cost effective as compared to other thickeners and stabilizers along with Guar gum being an effective binder, plasticizer and emulsifier. 
One of the important properties of guar gum, a polysaccharide, is that Guar gum is high on galactose and mannose. 
Guar gum is also known as guarkernmehl, guaran, goma guar, gomme guar and galactomannan.

Guar gum is used as an emulsifier, a firming agent, a formulation aid, a stabiliser, and a thickener. 
Guar gum is used in baked goods and baking mixes, cereals, beverages, cheeses and other milk products, dairy product analogues, fats, oils, gravies, jams, jellies, sauces, soup mixes and soups, syrups, toppings, vegetable juices, processed vegetables and deep-frozen foods.

Guar gum also known as Guaran, gellan gum, Goma Guar is the term used for the fiber which can be derived from the seed of the guar plant, Cyanaposis tetragonolobus of family Leguminosae. 
This plant is abundantly found in many countries in Asia Minor and in several places in the United States of America for centuries, where Guar gum is one of the most important crops, used as a food for both humans and animals. 
Guar gum is frequently used as a food additive in many processed foods. 
Guar gum’s especially useful in food manufacturing because Guar gum’s soluble and able to absorb water, forming a gel that can thicken and bind products. 
Guar gum is a food additive that’s found throughout the food supply.
Guar gum is a common ingredient in both processed foods and gluten-free baking. 
Guar gum can also be found in dairy products, condiments and baked goods. 
Guar gum’s also used as an additive in non-food products as well. 
Guar gum is sold in powdered form as a thickener and binder for baking and cooking and is often used in gluten-free recipes. 
Whether you choose to use Guar gum in cooking or take Guar gum as a supplement, guar gum can help you lower your cholesterol, manage your blood sugar and improve digestive health. 
Guar gum can also help balance ‘good’ bacteria in your system and may be useful as an add-on treatment. 
Guar gum has been linked to multiple health benefits, Guar gum has also been associated with negative side effects and even banned for use in some products.

Use
Guar gum is a food additive/thickener. 
Guar gum has been shown to reduce serum cholesterol and appears to have positive effects on blood glucose. 
Guar gum may be useful in reducing recurrence of anal fissures and mitigating postprandial hypotension. 
Guar gum should not be used to promote weight loss.

Guar gum powder exporters claim Guar gum to have almost eight times better than corn starch or similar food agents. 
Guar gum is added in sauces, jams, dairy products, and baking mixes to give a good thickening to a product so that a nice consistency is achieved.
Guar gum manufacturers also cater to a plethora of industries like the oil drilling, paper manufacturing, construction, mining, textiles, printing, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, beverage, food industry, pet foods and much more.
Industrial products which make massive use of Guar gum include body lotions, instant soups, yogurts, coconut, bottled soya and almond milk. 
Guar gum has immense properties of stabilization, thickening, texturization, and emulsification.

Guar gum is a fiber from the seed of the guar plant.
Guar gum is used as a laxative. 
Guar gum is also used for treating diarrhea, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), obesity, and diabetes; for reducing cholesterol; and for preventing “hardening of the arteries” (atherosclerosis).
In foods and beverages, guar gum is used as a thickening, stabilizing, suspending, and binding agent.
In manufacturing, guar gum is used as a binding agent in tablets, and as a thickening agent in lotions and creams.

Guar gum is typically milled from the endosperm of the guar bean. 
The final powder is a type of carbohydrate called a galactomannan.
The beans are sourced from India and India continues to be a major supplier for the world's guar gum. 
Guar gum is used commercially primarily in food industry because Guar gum thickens in small amounts and is available for low prices.
Guar gum is also known as guaran.

Guar gum is a water soluble carbohydrate derived from the guar plant seed. 
Guar gum is used throughout the food industry for its superior thickening, gelling, emulsifying, and stabilizing properties as a result of its high viscosity.
Guar Gum Powder, also known as Guaran, is a soluble fiber derived from the seed of the Guar Plant. 
Guar gum is most often used to stabilize, thicken, and emulsify certain types of foods and industrial products. 
Guar gum is also commonly used in gluten free recipes and gluten free baked goods because it can be used in place of binding products such as wheat flour. 
Guar Gum powder does not require heat for thickening and is relatively tasteless, so Guar gum is useful when thickening cold or room temperature foods such as yogurt, frozen desserts, sauces and and dressings. 
You can also use Guar gum to thicken homemade cosmetics such as lotions and toothpastes.

Guar Gum Applications
Guar gum can be used for thickening cold and hot liquids, to make hot gels, light foams and as an emulsion stabilizer. 
For general thickening, you could use guar gum in place of xanthan gum or in combination with it, but xanthan gum works more quickly.
But, guar gum outshines xanthan in two other ways. 
First, guar gum in large concentrations develops more of a sticky texture than xanthan's distinctive and undesirable "snotty" texture. 
Second, guar gum strongly binds water, which means that it helps to prevent syneresis (the separation of liquid water out of a sauce or emulsion).
Guar gum is often used in ice creams to improve texture and in gluten-free baking to provide some of the structure that is lost when gluten is removed. 
Guar can be used to make dondurma, a traditional "chewy" Turkish ice cream.
In our recipe Oyster with Parsley Champagne we use guar gum in combination with xanthan gum to make a fluid of apple juice and olive oil.

What foods and beverages contain guar gum?
Guar gum can be found in soups, stews, ice cream, yogurt, and marinades. 
Guar gum is also used in plant-based milks such as flax, almond, coconut, soy, and hemp.

What is guar gum?
Also known as guaran, guar gum is made from legumes called guar beans.
Guar gum’s a type of polysaccharide, or long chain of bonded carbohydrate molecules, and composed of two sugars called mannose and galactose.
Guar gum is frequently used as a food additive in many processed foods.
Guar gum’s especially useful in food manufacturing because Guar gum’s soluble and able to absorb water, forming a gel that can thicken and bind products.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) considers Guar gum to be generally recognized as safe for consumption in specified amounts in various food products.
The exact nutrient composition of guar gum differs between producers. 
Guar gum is generally low in calories and mainly composed of soluble fiber. 
Guar gums protein content may range from 5–6%.

Guar has been used:
to maintain viscosity during in vitro starch digestion assay
to reduce the thinning rate of agarose gel
to study its effects on establishing 3D-like neural networks on microelectrode arrays (MEAs)
Guar gum is used in feeding to cattle, or used in green manure.
Guar gum is used in Textile industry for sizing, finishing and printing.
Guar gum is used in Paper industry,Pharmaceutical industry,Cosmetics and toiletries industries,Mining and food industry.
A natural emulsifier and thicking agent that does not need to be heated.
Guar gum, also called guaran, is a galactomannan.

Products that contain guar gum
Guar gum is widely used throughout the food industry.
The following foods often contain Guar gum:
-ice cream
-yogurt
-salad dressing
-gluten-free baked goods
-gravies
-sauces
-kefir
-breakfast cereals
-vegetable juices
-pudding
-soup
-cheese
In addition to these food products, guar gum is found in cosmetics, medications, textiles, and paper products

What is guar gum?
Guar gum is a fine powdered fiber created from the ground seeds of the guar plant. 
Guar gum is used in food products as a thickener and a binder. 
Guar gum is often considered to resemble Locust Bean and Carob Bean Gum.

Guar gum is one of those ingredients in food that most people don’t really know about. 
Guar gum is actually a powder that is produced from guar seed and extensively used in food industries as a stabilizer, emulsifier or thickener. 
Guar gum can also be used in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals but the majority is used as a drilling aid in the fracking of shale to retrieve gas and oil.

Guar is a galactomannan polysaccharide that forms a viscous gel when placed in contact with water. 
Guar gum forms solutions that range from slightly acidic to neutral pH. 
Even at low concentrations (1% to 2%), guar gum forms gels in water. 
The viscosity of these gels is generally unaffected by the pH of the solution.
Food grade guar gum contains approximately 80% guaran (a galactomannan composed of D-mannose and D-galactose units) with an average molecular weight of 220 kDa. 
The overall ratio of mannose to galactose is approximately 2:1.3 However, guar gum is not a uniform product and its viscosity may vary in proportion to the degree of galactomannan cross-linking.
Because of this physical composition, guar gum–based matrix tablets are currently being evaluated as a method of administering sustained-release drugs, including diltiazem,4, 5 and for colonic drug delivery of corticosteroids to patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

How is guar gum made?
Guar gum is created by de-husking, then milling, and finally sorting the pea-related plant called the guar bean. 
Guar gum is then ground into a powder form.

This is by far the best stabilizing agent which is derived from cluster or guar beans which are majorly produced in India. 
The potential benefits of guar beans are many and thus demanded globally. 
They deliver the best results while preparing gluten-free baked items or when required to be added to ice-creams, gravies, or pudding.

Why is guar gum in my food?
Guar gum acts as a thickening, stabilizing, suspending, and binding agent for food products. 
Guar gum keeps ingredients like fat and oils from separating.

Guar Gum (E412) is a readily soluble in cold water, forming a high viscosity solution at low concentrations which increases in viscosity as temperature rises. 
Guar gum is widely used for its gelling, thickening and stabilizing effect on emulsions and suspensions and often blended with other rheology modifiers, particularly Xanthan gum as the two combine to give greatly increased effects. 

Guar gum is found in dairy products, condiments, and baked goods. 
Guar gum’s also used as an additive in non-food products.

Guar gum is commonly used in fat-reduced or fat-free spreads, and is a thickening agent frequently used in gluten-free foods. 
Notably, Guar gum functions synergistically with xanthan gum by increasing the viscosity of a product. 
This is why we so often find both ingredients in commercial pet foods.

In addition, guar gum is touted as a natural remedy for the following conditions:
-Constipation
-Diabetes
-Diarrhea
-High cholesterol
-Irritable bowel syndrome

Guar gum is a functional food ingredient that may be present in packaged foods. 
However, guar gum is not likely a regular cooking ingredient, and you can reap many of soluble fiber’s health benefits by including foods such as oats and barley in your diet. 
Most fresh fruits and vegetables also contribute soluble fiber to your diet in the form of compounds called pectins. 
Like guar gum, pectins have thickening properties in your stomach and small intestine and are fermented in your large intestine, contributing to blood cholesterol and glucose control and colon health.

How does it work?
Guar gum is a fiber that normalizes the moisture content of the stool, absorbing excess liquid in diarrhea, and softening the stool in constipation. 
Guar gum also might help decrease the amount of cholesterol and glucose that is absorbed in the stomach and intestines.
There is some interest in using guar gum for weight loss because Guar gum expands in the intestine, causing a sense of fullness. 
This may decrease appetite.

Guar gum is well known for its ability to thicken and stabilize food products, but Guar gum may also provide some health benefits.
Studies indicate that Guar gum could be beneficial for a few specific areas of health, including digestion, blood sugar and cholesterol levels, and weight maintenance.

Guar gum is a fiber from the seed of the guar plant.
Guar gum is used for constipation, diarrhea, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), high cholesterol, and high blood pressure. 
There is limited scientific research to support the use of guar gum for other conditions.

Advantages of Guar Gum 
Guar gum possesses double the ability to thicken than flour and almost eight times that of the corn starch powder
Guar gums usage avoids the formation of any lump and does not break down easily like the corn starch. 
Guar gum eliminates the need for heat to thicken and can get to hydrate itself very quickly
Experts suggest the appropriate ratio which works well with guar gum manufacturers as an excess of it may form lumps in the whole recipe
Almost Seventy Percent of the food industry applications of the fast-paced industries use the guar gum powder due to its varied and multiple benefits. 
Guar gum is also expected to grow exponentially looking at the current demand scenario.
Guar gum is always wise to opt for a reputed guar gum powder exporter as this miraculous powder offers health benefits like reduction of weight and easy bowel movement. 
The guar gum powder needs to be boiled in hot water and is beneficial for people who want a reduction of weight as it reduces the calories inside the human body.

NOW Guar Gum is a thickening agent derived from guar beans that has enjoyed much use in various baking applications. 
Guar gum is primarily used in hypoallergenic recipes that use different types of whole grain flours. 
Because the consistency of these flours allows the escape of gas released by leavening, guar gum is needed to improve the thickness of these flours, allowing them to rise as normal flour would.
Guar gum works by thickening the dough to the proper consistency to prevent the escape of gas released by leavening. 
Guar gum is especially useful as a binder in gluten-free baking.

Benefits
Although research on the health effects of guar gum is fairly limited, there's some evidence that guar gum may offer certain advantages.

The water retention capacity of the Guar Powder is also eight times more than the corn starch. 
Guar gum is an effective natural alternative for baking and cooking and a great ingredient in the preparation of gluten-free flours for household and beauty concoctions.

Medicinal Properties of Guar Gum Powder
Guar gums healing properties are ideal to cure snakebites and boost the vision and power of the eyes
The inherent anti-bacterial properties can fight skin diseases like fungal infections and ringworms
If toddlers face the constipation problem along with fever and cold this remedial measure can be started immediately. 
Guar gum also helps to manage teething issues in children. 
Guar gum has potential health maintenance capacities and can fight against typhoid effectively
Find the Reputed Guar Gum Powder Manufacturer and Guar Gum Exporters who provide superior quality powdered gum at the most suitable prices

This gum has the property of getting dispersed into the water while hydrating and swelling quickly to form a viscous solution. 
The viscosity depends on factors like temperature, pH value, agitation rate, size of the particle, and concentration. 
Lower Temperatures mean lower viscosity and such tips are offered by reputable manufacturers. 
They also suggest that above the temperature of 80 degrees the final viscosity gets slightly reduced. 
While choosing the quality Guar gum is also essential to check for the finer gum powder as Guar gum swells up more rapidly than the coarsely powdered gum.

Guar gum is extracted from the guar bean. 
The guar seeds are de-husked, milled and screened to obtain the guar gum . 
Guar gum is typically produced as a free flowing, pale, off-white colored, coarse to fine ground powder.  
Guar gum is a member of a group of products known as starches, gums, and emulsifiers.
Guar gum is economical because Guar gum has almost 8 times the water-thickening potency of cornstarch - only a very small quantity is needed for producing sufficient thickening. 
Thus Guar gum can be used to prevent oil droplets from separating out in salad dressing or to prevent solid particles from settling out.
Guar gum retards ice crystal growth in food like ice cream and sherbet. 
Guar gum shows good stability during freeze-thaw cycles.
The largest market for guar gum is in the food industry. 
Guar gum is generally recognized as safe (GRAS) in the US .

In baked goods, guar increases dough yield, gives greater elasticity, and improves texture and shelf life. 
In pastry fillings, guar prevents "weeping" of the filling, thus keeping the pastry crisp.
Guar gum is primarily used in recipes that use non-gluten types of whole grain flours. 
Because these flours allow the escape of gas released during leavening, guar gum is needed to replace the elasticity provided by gluten, allowing the baked goods to rise as they would with gluten flours. 
In dairy foods guar thickens milk, yogurt, kefir, and liquid cheese products; helps maintain uniformness of ice creams and sherbets and perserves the "mouth" or smooth texture of frozen desserts.
In dressing and sauces guar improves the "mouth" and appearance of salad dressings, barbecue sauces, relishes, ketchups and others by maintaining the blend of ingredients. 
Guar gum is also used in dry soups, sweet desserts, canned fish in sauce, frozen food items and animal feed to maintain the stability, mouth, and as a thickener.
No nutritional information is available at this time. 

Digestive health
Because guar gum is high in fiber, Guar gum may support the health of your digestive system.
One study found that Guar gum helped relieve constipation by speeding movement through the intestinal tract. 
Partially hydrolyzed guar gum consumption was also associated with improvements in stool texture and bowel movement frequency (4Trusted Source).
Additionally, Guar gum may act as a prebiotic by promoting the growth of good bacteria and reducing the growth of harmful bacteria in the gut (5Trusted Source).
Thanks to Guar gums potential ability to promote digestive health, Guar gum may also help treat irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).
One 6-week study following 68 people with IBS found that partially hydrolyzed guar gum improved IBS symptoms. 
Plus, in some individuals, Guar gum reduced bloating while increasing stool frequency (6Trusted Source).

Blood sugar
Studies show that guar gum may lower blood sugar.
This is because Guar gum’s a type of soluble fiber, which can slow the absorption of sugar and lead to a reduction in blood sugar levels.
In one study, people with diabetes were given guar gum 4 times per day for 6 weeks. 
Guar gum found that guar gum led to a significant decrease in blood sugar and a 20% drop in LDL (bad) cholesterol.
Another study observed similar findings, showing that consuming guar gum significantly improved blood sugar control in 11 people with type 2 diabetes.

Production and trade
The guar bean is principally grown in India, Pakistan, U.S., Australia and Africa. India produces about 2.5 - 3 million tons of guar annually, making it the largest producer, with about 80% of world production. 
In India, Rajasthan, Gujarat and Haryana are the main producing regions, and Jodhpur, Sri Ganganagar and Hanumangarh in Rajasthan are the major Guar trading markets. 
The US has produced 4,600 to 14,000 tonnes of guar over the last 5 years.
Texas acreage since 1999 has fluctuated from about 7,000 to 50,000 acres.
The world production for guar gum and its derivatives is about 1.0 Million tonnes. 
Non-food guar gum accounts for about 40% of the total demand.

Blood cholesterol
Soluble fibers such as guar gum have been shown to have cholesterol-lowering effects.
Fiber binds to bile acids in your body, causing them to be excreted and reducing the number of bile acids in circulation.
This forces the liver to use cholesterol to produce more bile acids, leading to a decrease in cholesterol levels.
One study had 19 people with obesity and diabetes take a daily supplement containing 15 grams of guar gum. 
They found that Guar gum led to lower levels of total blood cholesterol, as well as lower LDL cholesterol, compared to a placebo.
An animal study found similar results, showing that rats fed guar gum had reduced blood cholesterol levels, in addition to increased levels of HDL (good) cholesterol.

Weight maintenance
Some studies have found that guar gum could aid weight loss and appetite control.
In general, fiber moves through the body undigested and may help promote satiety while reducing appetite.
In fact, one study showed that eating an additional 14 grams of fiber per day may lead to a 10% decrease in calories consumed.
Guar gum may be particularly effective at reducing appetite and calorie intake.
One review of three studies concluded that guar gum improved satiety and reduced the number of calories consumed from snacking throughout the day.
Another study looked at the effects of guar gum on weight loss in women. 
They found that consuming 15 grams of guar gum per day helped women lose 5.5 pounds (2.5 kg) more than those who took a placebo.

Guar gum is a fiber from the seed of the guar plant.
Guar gum is used as a laxative. 
Guar gum is also used for treating diarrhea, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), obesity, and diabetes; for reducing cholesterol; and for preventing “hardening of the arteries” (atherosclerosis).
In foods and beverages, guar gum is used as a thickening, stabilizing, suspending, and binding agent.
In manufacturing, guar gum is used as a binding agent in tablets, and as a thickening agent in lotions and creams

CAS Number: 9000-30-0
Solubility: Water
Synonyms: Guar Flour
Shelf Life (months): 36
Storage: Green

Properties
Chemical composition
Chemically, guar gum is an exo-polysaccharide composed of the sugars galactose and mannose.
The backbone is a linear chain of β 1,4-linked mannose residues to which galactose residues are 1,6-linked at every second mannose, forming short side-branches. 
Guar gum has the ability to withstand temperatures of 80 °C (176 °F) for five minutes.

Guar Gum powder is a Natural fiber derived from guar beans that has enjoyed much use in various baking applications.
Guar gum is primarily used as a thickening, instabilizing, suspending, and binding agent.
Guar gums Especailly great for Hypoallergenic recipes that use different types of whole grain flours Or just any kind of flour needing that rising or consistency boost .
Because the consistency of these flours allows the escape of gas released by leavening, guar gum is needed to improve the thickness of these flours, allowing them to rise as normal flour would. 
Guar Gum also especially useful as a binder in gluten-free baking.

Solubility and viscosity
Guar gum is more soluble than locust bean gum due to Guar gums extra galactose branch points. 
Unlike locust bean gum, Guar gum is not self-gelling.
Either borax or calcium can cross-link guar gum, causing Guar gum to gel. 
In water, Guar gum is nonionic and hydrocolloidal. 
Guar gum is not affected by ionic strength or pH, but will degrade at extreme pH and temperature (e.g. pH 3 at 50 °C).
Guar gum remains stable in solution over pH range 5-7. 
Strong acids cause hydrolysis and loss of viscosity and alkalies in strong concentration also tend to reduce viscosity. 
Guar gum is insoluble in most hydrocarbon solvents. 
The viscosity attained is dependent on time, temperature, concentration, pH, rate of agitation and particle size of the powdered gum used. 
The lower the temperature, the lower the rate at which viscosity increases, and the lower the final viscosity. 
Above 80°, the final viscosity is slightly reduced. 
Finer guar powders swell more rapidly than larger particle size coarse powdered gum.

Guar gum shows a clear low shear plateau on the flow curve and is strongly shear-thinning. 
The rheology of guar gum is typical for a random coil polymer. 
Guar gum does not show the very high low shear plateau viscosities seen with more rigid polymer chains such as xanthan gum. 
Guar gum is very thixotropic above 1% concentration, but below 0.3%, the thixotropy is slight. 
Guar gum shows viscosity synergy with xanthan gum. 
Guar gum and micellar casein mixtures can be slightly thixotropic if a biphase system forms.

Guar gum has eight times the thickening power of cornstarch and is used to control viscosity and build texture. 
Guar gum is an all-natural hydrocolloid from the guar bean and is considered a dietary fiber in certain regions, including the USA. 
Guar gum is used in a variety of dairy and plant-based foods and beverages.
-All natural
-Consumer and label friendly
-Easy to formulate with
-Process tolerant
-No negative interactions with other ingredients

What is Guar Gum?
Guar gum is a low-cost all-purpose thickener derived from the endosperm of the plant Cyamopsis tetragonoloba that grows in India and Pakistan. 
Since this gum comes from a seed, Guar gum is widely accepted as a label-friendly ingredient.
Guar gum can be used alone or in combination with other gums to change the texture or stabilize a range of foods and beverages. 
Guar gum is often used to prevent ice crystal formation in soft serve ice cream, thicken and add mouthfeel in sauces and dressings or prevent runny instant oatmeal.

Features
-Thickens beverages, sauces, and gravies
-Binds water and controls ice crystal formation in ice cream
-Provides mouthfeel to dairy products
-Controls water and extends shelf life of baked goods

Guar gum is an excellent natural thickener for shampoos, conditioners, and liquid soaps. 
Guar gum can be used in almost all cosmetic type products due to Guar gums moisturizing and softening effects. 
Providing a smooth feel, Guar gum works well in shampoos to add conditioning properties.
Guar gum, also called guaran, has been grown and manufactured in India for centuries. 
Guar gum is a high molecular weight carbohydrate that works beautifully with most ingredients, specifically with cationic ingredients. 
Guar gum is composed of the hull (14-17%), the endosperm (35-42%) and the germ (43-47%) of the natural seed of the guar plant.

Guar gum, also called guaran, comes from the seed of a bean-like (legume) plant, sometimes referred to as the Indian tree. 
The husks are removed from the guar seeds and the seeds are milled into a powder. 
Guar gum is used as an additive in baked goods to increase dough yield, create more resiliency, and improve texture and shelf life. 
According to Bob's Red Mill Guar Gum product literature, "Guar Gum has eight times the thickening power as cornstarch."
Like xanthan gum, measure carefully when using guar gum in gluten-free recipes or you may end up with heavy, stringy baked goods. 
Guar gum is a high-fiber product and has been associated with gastrointestinal upset in some people.

Our organic guar gum powder is used as a binder, thickener, and volume enhancer in food preparations. 
Guar gum consists primarily of the ground inner seed of guar beans after they are dehusked, milled and screened. 
Guar gum is highly soluble in water and actually naturally binds with water molecules.
Guar gum is well-known as an economical thickening agent as Guar gum has almost eight times the water-thickening potency of cornstarch, and only a very small quantity is needed for producing sufficient viscosity. 
Guar gum also retards ice crystal growth nonspecifically by slowing mass transfer across the solid/liquid interface. 
In other words, Guar gum shows good stability during freeze-thaw cycles, making Guar gum a popular ingredient in ice cream. 
Guar gum is also popularly in gluten-free recipes and gluten-free products.

Guar Gum, also called Guaran or Guarkernmehl (German), is an important and widely available polymer that can turn detergent and water into an excellent "bubble juice". 
Guar gum is generally sold as a powder and in many countries (including the U.S.A.) is often available in local stores (unlike many other bubble-friendly polymers which need to be ordered on the Internet).
When used at the appropriate level, Guar gum can be very self-healing and produce giant bubbles even on a par with PEO. 
Guar-based juices can create bubbles that last considerably longer than PEO-based and HEC-based recipes.
See this recipe for an example of a recipe with easily found ingredients that can create giant bubbles in a wide variety of conditions. 
Guar gum benefits from the presence of either the baking soda/citric acid combination or baking powder. 
See the recipe for recommendations about hydrating the guar. 
Guar gum is a friendly and easy-to-mix polymer if you use an appropriate method -- see the recipe for tips

Thickening
One use of guar gum is a thickening agent in foods and medicines for humans and animals. 
Because Guar gum is gluten-free, Guar gum is used as an additive to replace wheat flour in baked goods.
Guar gum has been shown to be beneficial to health. 
Guar gum has been shown to reduce serum cholesterol and lower blood glucose levels.
Additional benefits have been seen in one's efforts to lose weight where, when ingested, Guar gums water-absorbing properties cause Guar gum to swell in the stomach causing a 'full' sensation sooner.
Guar gum is economical as well. 
Because Guar gum has almost eight times the water-thickening ability of other agents (e.g.cornstarch), only a small quantity is needed for producing sufficient viscosity.
Because less is required, costs are reduced.
In addition to guar gum's effects on viscosity, Guar gums high ability to flow, or deform, gives Guar gum favorable rheological properties. 
Guar gum forms breakable gels when cross-linked with boron. 
Guar gum has several applications in baked goods including its role as a stabilizer, thickener, emulsifier and fat replacer. 
Guar gums functional performance is enhanced when combined with other polysaccharides, mainly xanthan gum.

Assay Percent Range: 100% w/v
Packaging: Solid
Color: White-Yellow
Quantity: 100g
Chemical Name or Material: Guar Gum

Gum is derived from guar seeds or cyamopsis tetragonoloba termed as Guar Gum. 
Guar Gum can also be termed as guaran. 
These seeds have high low-shear viscosity as evaluated with other hydrocolloids Guar Gums are effective thickeners and stabilizers.
Guar Gum is relatively cost effective as compared to other thickeners and stabilizers along with it being an effective binder, plasticizer and emulsifier. 
One of the important properties of guar gum, a polysaccharide, is that Guar gum is high on galactose and mannose. 
Guar gum is also known as guarkernmehl, guaran, Goma guar, gomme guar and galactomannan
Guar gum is best stabilizing agent that is generally derived from cluster or guar beans which is largely produced in India. 
The benefits of guar beans are just the endless. 
They are usually taken best to prepare gluten free baked items and also added in ice-creams, gravies or pudding etc. 
When taken practically, Guar gum has eight times more thickening properties as compared to corn starch.

Guar gum is a fiber that normalizes the moisture content of the stool, absorbing excess liquid in diarrhea, and softening the stool in constipation. 
Guar gum also might help decrease the amount of cholesterol and glucose that is absorbed in the stomach and intestines.
There is some interest in using guar gum for weight loss because Guar gum expands in the intestine, causing a sense of fullness. 
This may decrease appetite.

Guar gum (also sometimes called gellan gum) is a common powdered product used to stabilize, emulsify and thicken the texture of certain foods and industrial products. 
You’ll find guar gum in products such as: bottled coconut or almond milks, yogurts, soups, fiber supplements and body lotions.
Guar gum’s created by dehusking, milling and sorting the type of legume called the guar bean. 
The “guar plant” used to make this product has the species name Cyamopsis tetragonolobus.
When used as a food additive, guar gum is usually found in powder form. 
A very little bit of guar goes a long way, since Guar gum has a very high water-absorbing ability and quickly increases viscosity, even in cold water. 
In fact, research shows the water-holding capacity and gel-forming tendencies of guar gum allow it to swell in size 10- to 20-fold.
While Guar gum has some benefits and can improve the texture of foods, on the other hand, like other emulsifiers added to many processed foods, consuming guar gum may come with potential drawbacks.
In some people Guar gum can trigger digestive issues, so Guar gum’s not something you necessarily want to purposefully consume a lot of. 
That being said, in moderation Guar gum seems to be a better choice than other emulsifier options.

What does guar gum do to your body?
Guar absorbs a large amount of liquid in the digestive system. 
This means Guar gum might be beneficial for normalizing blood sugar and cholesterol levels. 
However, there’s one thing to be cautious of when Guar gum comes to consuming guar gum: Watch out for any strong weight-loss claims tied to diet products containing guar gum.
Guar is now sometimes used in meal replacement products, diet pills or other weight-loss supplements because manufacturers claim it can help curb your appetite by swelling and absorbing water in the digestive system.

Guar gum is used in various multi-phase formulations for hydraulic fracturing, in some as an emulsifier because Guar gum helps prevent oil droplets from coalescing, and in others as a stabilizer to help prevent solid particles from settling and/or separating.
Fracking entails the pumping of sand-laden fluids into an oil or natural gas reservoir at high pressure and flow rate. 
This cracks the reservoir rock and then props the cracks open. 
Water alone is too thin to be effective at carrying proppant sand, so guar gum is one of the ingredients added to thicken the slurry mixture and improve its ability to carry proppant. 
There are several properties which are important . 

Thixotropic: the fluid should be thixotropic, meaning Guar gum should gel within a few hours. 
Gelling and de-gelling: The desired viscosity changes over the course of a few hours. 
When the fracking slurry is mixed, Guar gum needs to be thin enough to make Guar gum easier to pump. 

Then as Guar gum flows down the pipe, the fluid needs to gel to support the proppant and flush it deep into the fractures. 
After that process, the gel has to break down so that Guar gum is possible to recover the fracking fluid but leave the proppant behind. 
This requires a chemical process which produces then breaks the gel cross-linking at a predictable rate. 
Guar+boron+proprietary chemicals can accomplish both of these goals at once.

Guar Gum, also known as Guaran, is made from the seeds of the Indian cluster bean plant. 
The Guar seeds are dehusked and milled into a fine white powder that is popular in gluten free recipes. 
Guar Gum acts like the gluten protein and prevents the oil droplets in a recipe from sticking together and separating. 
Guar gum thickens and increases dough yield by trapping air bubbles, resulting in light and fluffy baked goods.
Guar Gum is also used for thickening and improving the texture of cold foods like ice cream, salad dressings and pastry fillings. 
For best results, separately mix the Guar Gum and oil in a recipe before adding other ingredients.

Guar gum, available as a yellowish-white powder, has 5-8 times the thickening power of starch, and the unique ability among gums to hydrate rapidly in cold water. 
Guar gum is insoluble in oils, grease, hydrocarbons, ketones, and esters.

CAS Number: 9000-30-0 
ChemSpider: none
ECHA InfoCard: 100.029.567
E number: E412 (thickeners, ...)
UNII: E89I1637KE 
CompTox Dashboard (EPA): DTXSID3020675

Is guar gum safe for children?
Foods containing guar gum are safe when consumed in moderation.

Gum solutions may be prepared along with the other ingredients in the batch or separately, sometimes in concentrated form. 
Processing methods vary widely according to the scale of manufacture, ingredients and viscosity of the end product, but basic requirements are the same. 
These include:
Where the gum is added along with other ingredients in the batch, Guar gum is usually preferable to disperse and hydrate the gum first to avoid reactions with other ingredients such as salt or acids like vinegar; the presence of these in the formulation can slow the hydration rate dramatically.
Guar gum (like other rheology modifiers) has a strong tendency to form lumps when added to the water. 
To reduce this risk Guar gum may be premixed with other powdered ingredients such as sugar (which will not effect hydration rate) this acts as a dispersion aid to reduce the formation of agglomerates by separating the particles.
Similarly the gum may be dispersed into non-aqueous phase liquids such as oils, alcohols or glycols. 
This “slurry” is then added to the aqueous phase allowing the gum to hydrate with a reduced risk of lump formation. 
Where separate or concentrated gum solutions are prepared dispersion aids are obviously not an option. 
The powder has to be added to the liquid under vigorous agitation at a controlled rate to reduce the formation of agglomerates.
With readily soluble gums such as guar the powder must also be added rapidly because addition of powder becomes increasingly difficult as the viscosity increases. 

The guar plant produces beans that contain an endosperm that’s high in the type of sugar called polysaccharides, specially the polysaccharides galactomannans, mannose and galactose. 
Depending on Guar gums uses, once Guar gum’s formed from the endosperm of the guar bean it may be cleaned with alcohol or another cleansing agent to prevent the growth of bacteria.
When combined with water or liquid, Guar gum thickens to form a gel-like texture, usually which can be well-maintained through moderate changes in temperature or pressure.
The powder has a white to yellowish-white color that doesn’t usually change the appearance of other ingredients in recipes. 
Guar gum also doesn’t have much taste or odor at all — in fact, Guar gum’s considered virtually odorless — therefore Guar gum makes a convenient addition to many types of different food products.
And because guar gum works in the same way as more highly processed thickening or stabilizing agents, such as carrageenan, Guar gum therefore makes a good natural alternative when preparing other DIY beauty/household recipes.
Finally, a unique attribute of guar gum is that Guar gum’s insoluble in oils, grease, hydrocarbons, ketones and esters, meaning Guar gum’s very useful for stabilizing fatty substances.

Applications of guar gum are increasing in the pharmaceutical industry, petroleum industry and many others, which will lead to propel growth of guar gum market across the globe. 
Since, India is being one of the major guar producers, any volatility in the local market will ultimately effect the global guar gum market. 
Guar gum which is also called as guaran are the fabricated beans and used in number of industries due to its stabilizing and thickening properties. 
The guar seed are screened, de-husked, cleaned and milled to form finalized off white powder and classed as galactomannan products named guar gums with stable pH value around 5-7.

Is guar vegan? 
Yes, since Guar gum’s sourced from a bean plant.

how long has guar gum been used in foods?
Guar gum has been used more commonly in foods since the 1940s, right after World War II.

Ice crystal growth
Guar gum retards ice crystal growth by slowing mass transfer across the solid/liquid interface. 
Guar gum shows good stability during freeze-thaw cycles. 
Thus, Guar gum is used in egg-free ice cream. 
Guar gum has synergistic effects with locust bean gum and sodium alginate. 
May be synergistic with xanthan: together with xanthan gum, Guar gum produces a thicker product (0.5% guar gum / 0.35% xanthan gum), which is used in applications such as soups, which do not require clear results.
Guar gum is a hydrocolloid, hence is useful for making thick pastes without forming a gel, and for keeping water bound in a sauce or emulsion. 
Guar gum can be used for thickening cold and hot liquids, to make hot gels, light foams and as an emulsion stabilizer. 
Guar gum can be used for cottage cheeses, curds, yoghurt, sauces, soups and frozen desserts. 
Guar gum is also a good source of fiber with 80% soluble dietary fiber on a dry weight basis.

How does Guar gum work ?
Guar gum is a fiber that normalizes the moisture content of the stool, absorbing excess liquid in diarrhea, and softening the stool in constipation. 
Guar gum also might help decrease the amount of cholesterol and glucose that is absorbed in the stomach and intestines.
There is some interest in using guar gum for weight loss because Guar gum expands in the intestine, causing a sense of fullness. 
This may decrease appetite.

Guar Gum Powder
Guar gum powder is odourless, having dissolving capacity in cold and hot water and making high viscosity paste. 
Guar gum powder viscosity is based on various factors like concentration, temperature and time. 
Guar gum is generally white to yellow white in nature.
Amba guar gum is almost insoluble with all organic solvents & soluble in hot &cold water.
A broad range of PH & non-ionic is maintained with stability in high viscosity.
With the increase of water the stickiness of guar gum solution also increases.
There is a great influencing factor of salt, temperature & pH levels upon viscosity of guar gum form.
When Guar gum is hydrated in cold water Guar gum has high sticky colloidal dispersions.
There are usually various factors to ensure absolute hydration in water like which grade of powder is used, temperature & equipments to achieve maximum gumminess.
Amba Guar gum is very compatible with wide variety of organic & inorganic substance with also few dyes & various constituents of food.
Guar gum is an excellent thickening, stabilizing, film forming & emulsifying properties.
Guar gum is observed that in low concentration, guar gum carries excellent settling properties & Guar gum also acts as filter aid.
Guar gum powder carries sturdy hydrogen bonding properties.
Guar Gum is reasonably cost effective as compared to any other thickening agent or effective binder, plasticizer.
Guar gum is also popularly known as gomme guar, goma guar, galactomannan, guarkernmehl, and guaran.

Guar is extracted from the seeds of Cyamopsis tetragonoloba. 
Guar gum contains polysaccharides of galactomannans. 
Guar is used in thickening dye solution, production of paper and as a primary gelling agent in water-based slurry explosives. 
Guar gum acts as a fiber deflocculent and dry-strength additive and serves as an additive to dynamite for water blocking. 
Guar is used as a stabilizer, emulsifier and thickener in food products. 
Guar gum lowers cholesterol and glucose level. 
Guar aids weight loss and obesity prevention.

Studies suggest that guar gum could improve digestive health and decrease blood sugar, blood cholesterol, appetite, and calorie intake.

Properties of Guar Gum
Guar gum acts as a gelling agent in water.
Surprisingly guar gum plant is draught resistant.
Basically Guar gum has rationally more thickening property then corn starch.
Guar gum prevents growth of ice crystal

Manufacturing process
Depending upon the requirement of end product, various processing techniques are used. 
The commercial production of guar gum normally uses roasting, differential attrition, sieving, and polishing. 
Food-grade guar gum is manufactured in stages. 
Guar split selection is important in this process. 
The split is screened to clean Guar gum and then soaked to pre-hydrate it in a double-cone mixer. 
The prehydrating stage is very important because Guar gum determines the rate of hydration of the final product. 
The soaked splits, which have reasonably high moisture content, are passed through a flaker. 
The flaked guar split is ground and then dried. 
The powder is screened through rotary screens to deliver the required particle size. 
Oversize particles are either recycled to main ultra fine or reground in a separate regrind plant, according to the viscosity requirement.
This stage helps to reduce the load at the grinder. 
The soaked splits are difficult to grind. 

Guar Gum, also known as Guaran, is made from the seeds of the Indian cluster bean plant. 
The Guar seeds are dehusked and milled into a fine white powder that is popular in gluten free recipes. 
Guar Gum acts like the gluten protein and prevents the oil droplets in a recipe from sticking together and separating. 
Guar gum thickens and increases dough yield by trapping air bubbles, resulting in light and fluffy baked goods.
Guar Gum is also used for thickening and improving the texture of cold foods like ice cream, salad dressings and pastry fillings. 
For best results, separately mix the Guar Gum and oil in a recipe before adding other ingredients.

Food applications
The largest market for guar gum is in the food industry. 
In the US, differing percentages are set for its allowable concentration in various food applications.
In Europe, guar gum has EU food additive code E412. 
Xanthan gum and guar gum are the most frequently used gums in gluten-free recipes and gluten-free products.

WHY DO PET FOOD COMPANIES USE GUAR GUM?
Guar gum is used to prevent separation in the manufacturing process. 
Pet food companies make canned food in huge batches. 
They add meat, fruits, veggies, and several other ingredients to the formula. 
They then divide the batch into individual cans. 
Guar gum prevents the heavier ingredients from settling to the bottom. 
This process keeps some cans from being filled with mostly carrots and others from being all meat. 
Guar gum also keeps the ingredients in each individual can from separating. 
This way you don't have to stir up the contents after you open Guar gum.

Application of Guar Gum Powder in Different Industries
Guar gum powder is used in ice creams, soft serves that controls the growth of crystals, moisture & freezing point.
In breads, cakes &amp; pastries and other bakery products Guar gum is used as moisture retaining and binding agent that makes Guar gum soft and spongy.
To improve the mouth feel and maintain the viscosity, guar gum powder is used as suspending agent in beverages.
Guar gum is also widely been used in pharmaceutical industry as a binding &amp; disintegrating agent in manufacturing of tablets.
Due to the binding property of guar gum powder Guar gum is used in paper industry in manufacturing of paper, crafts that helps to increase the tensile, strength etc.
In textile industry Guar gum is also used in silk, rayon, cotton in order to increase the strength of the wrap and reduce the dusting of the sizing machine.
There are also many more industries where guar gum powder is widely been used like water based paints, ceramics, wallpapers etc.

Concentration Range: For lightly thickening cold liquids that are not clear such as flavored milks, use 0.35% guar gum. 
Use together with Xanthan for thicker results (0.5% Guar Gum / 0.35% Xanthan Gum) in applications such as hot soups and coating sauces that do not require clear results. 
For hot gels such as a terrine that can be cut, use 0.2% Guar Gum with 0.4% Agar Agar. 
As an emulsion stabilizer for cold and hot applications use guar gum in the range 0.1-0.6%. 
To make a light foam with coarse bubbles such as a dairy-free milk shake use 0.15% guar gum with 0.25% xanthan gum.
Dispersion: Like xanthan gum, guar gum disperses readily into both cold and hot water. 
To avoid clumps, add the gum to a small amount of cold water and form a slurry as you would with cord starch. 
If you are having trouble with clumps or the mixture becomes to thick, you can add some sugar or alcohol to help the guar gum disperse.
Hydration: Guar gum will hydrate in cold water, but expect the viscosity to increase over the course of several hours. 
Hot water accelerates hydration, much like xanthan gum. 
Several companies make versions of fast-hydrating or pre-hydrated guar gum that will reduce hydration times.

Temperature: Disperses and hydrates in hot or cold water.
Texture/mouthfeel: Thick sticky paste, similar to locust bean gum, a close cousin.
Appearance: Opaque, not suitable for clear liquids.
Flavor release: Unknown. 
Some users of guar gum describe Guar gum as having an undesirable "bean-y" flavor, though this flavor appears to depend on the particular brand of guar gum being used.
Freeze / Thaw stable: Unknown
Syneresis (weeping): Not directly relevant, since guar gum does not form a gel, but Guar gum does help prevent syneresis in other products.

HOW DOES GUAR GUM AFFECT YOUR KITTY’S HEALTH?
Ultimately, guar gum is a type of fiber. 
The right kind of fiber is healthy in the proper amounts. 
Guar gum improves digestive health by promoting good bacteria in your cat’s gut. 
These bacteria decrease inflammation and boost immunity in other parts of your kitty’s body. 
Fiber also protects the lining of your cat’s gastrointestinal tract. 
However, just like with your favorite snacks and treats, too much of a good thing can be harmful. 
As the fiber in your cat’s diet increases, digestibility decreases, and fewer nutrients are absorbed. 
In this case, too much fiber will cause your kitty to have loose stools or poop more than twice a day.

Applications include:
In baked goods, Guar gum increases dough yield, gives greater resiliency, and improves texture and shelf life; in pastry fillings, it prevents "weeping" (syneresis) of the water in the filling, keeping the pastry crust crisp. 
Guar gum is primarily used in hypoallergenic recipes that use different types of whole-grain flours.
Because the consistency of these flours allows the escape of gas released by leavening, guar gum is needed to improve the thickness of these flours, allowing them to rise as a normal flour would.
In dairy products, Guar gum thickens milk, yogurt, kefir, and liquid cheese products, and helps maintain homogeneity and texture of ice creams and sherbets. 
Guar gum is used for similar purposes in plant milks.
For meat, Guar gum functions as a binder.
In condiments, Guar gum improves the stability and appearance of salad dressings, barbecue sauces, relishes, ketchups and others.
In canned soup, Guar gum is used as a thickener and stabilizer.
Guar gum is also used in dry soups, instant oatmeal, sweet desserts, canned fish in sauce, frozen food items, and animal feed.
The FDA has banned guar gum as a weight loss pill due to reports of the substance swelling and obstructing the intestines and esophagus.

Guar gum is a novel agrochemical processed from endosperm of cluster bean. 
Guar gum is largely used in the form of guar gum powder as an additive in food, pharmaceuticals, paper, textile, explosive, oil well drilling and cosmetics industry. 
Industrial applications of guar gum are possible because of its ability to form hydrogen bonding with water molecule. 
Guar gum is chiefly used as thickener and stabilizer. 
Guar gum is also beneficial in the control of many health problems like diabetes, bowel movements, heart disease and colon cancer. 
This article focuses on production, processing, composition, properties, food applications and health benefits of guar gum.

Why is guar gum necessary in foods and beverages?
Guar gum adds texture, thickness, and creaminess to foods like soups or stews. 
Guar gum also binds together ingredients like fats and oils to keep them from separating.

Saturated Fat 0g: 0%
Trans Fat 0g: 0%
Cholesterol 0mg: 0%
Sodium 0mg: 0%
Total Carbohydrate 9g: 3%
Dietary Fiber 9g: 32%
Total Sugars 0g: 0%
Protein 0g: 0%
Vitamin A: 0%
Vitamin C: 0%
Calcium 5mg: 0%
Iron: 0mg

Guar gum also called guaran, guar flour or Gum cyamopsis, is mainly consisting of high molecular weight (50,000-8,000,000) polysaccharides composed of galactomannan with the mannose:galactose ratio about 2:1. 
Guar gum is extracted from the endosperm of the seed (guar beans) of the guar plant that has thickening and stabilizing properties useful in the food, feed and industrial applications. 
Guar gum is used as thickener, stabilizer and emulsifier, and approved in most areas of the world. 
Guar gum food additive is E 412. 
The guar seeds (guar beans) are mechanically dehusked, hydrated, milled and screened according to application. 
Guar gum is typically produced as a free-flowing, off-white powder. 
Commercial food‐grade guar gum is reported to contain usually about 80% guaran, 5–6% crude protein, 8–15% moisture, 2.5% crude fiber, 0.5–0.8% ash, and small amounts of lipids composed mainly of free and esterified plant fatty acids.

Nutritional and medicinal effects
Guar gum, as a water-soluble fiber, acts as a bulk-forming laxative. 
Several studies have found Guar gum decreases cholesterol levels. 
These decreases are thought to be a function of its high soluble fiber content.
Moreover, Guar gums low digestibility lends Guar gums use in recipes as a filler, which can help to provide satiety or slow the digestion of a meal, thus lowering the glycemic index of that meal. 
In the late 1980s, guar gum was used and heavily promoted in several weight-loss drugs. 
The US Food and Drug Administration eventually recalled these due to reports of esophageal blockage from insufficient fluid intake, after one brand alone caused at least 10 users to be hospitalized, and a death.
For this reason, guar gum is no longer approved for use in over-the-counter weight loss drugs in the United States, although this restriction does not apply to supplements. 
Moreover, a meta-analysis found guar gum supplements were not effective in reducing body weight.
Guar-based compounds, such as hydroxypropyl guar, have been in artificial tears to treat dry eye.

The applications of Guar Gum are diverse because Guar gum is cost effective, cold water soluble and synergistic with many other hydrocolloids. 
These applications fall into two major groups: thickeners and moisture management. 
Instant bakery mixes, instant oatmeal, instant hot or cold beverages and instant sauces utilize the cold water solubility of Guar Gum. 
Heated sauces, fillings and bakery products leverage the combination of thickening and moisture management to increase product quality and shelf life. 
These functionalties also contribute to increased freeze thaw stability in frozen desserts and entres. 
The addition of thickening in cold and hot liquids contributes to suspension and consistency of ingredient distribution in beverages, soup and sauce applications. 
The cost effectiveness of Guar Gum contributes to Guar gums widespread use in food and other industrial applications.

Guar gum is typically used as a natural food thickener and binding agent, similar to xanthan gum but with slightly different properties.
Despite the stigma surrounding this common keto-friendly additive, guar gum is safe for most people and provides many health benefits when consumed in moderation. 
However, there are some caveats that are important to understand before you use Guar gum or replace Guar gum with a suitable substitute.

Density: 0.8-1.0 g/mL at 25 °C
Acidity (pKa): 5-7

Guar gum is a white to cream powder made from the ground endosperm of the seeds of the guar plant (cyamopsis tetragonolobus). 
As a natural thickening agent and emulsifier, guar gum is used to thicken beverages and sauces, control ice crystal formation in ice cream, and extend the shelf life of baked goods. 
Guar gum provides a smooth mouthfeel, while binding water molecules to improve texture and consistency.
Guar gum is a galacto-mannan. 
Guar gum is similar in composition to Locust Bean Gum, however Guar gum is capable of creating a viscous colloidal solution in cold water. 
Excessive heat can degrade the gum, so Guar gum is best to use guar gum in the temperature range of 25 – 40 °C for optimal viscosity.

How does guar gum make food more affordable?
Guar gum thickens foods, which allows the producer to make more of a certain product at a lower cost. 
When Guar gum acts as a binder, Guar gum keeps key ingredients together in one solid product. 
This allows the product to stay fresh longer, furthering Guar gums shelf life and cutting down on food waste.

PH Tolerance: Viscosity decreases with lower pH, though guar will function in the 4-10 pH range.
Other Tolerances: We've seen some sources say guar does not tolerate alcohol well, but we haven't tested this.
Synergies with other ingredients: Has synergistic effects with locust bean gum and sodium alginate. 
May be synergistic with xanthan. 
Use together with Xanthan for thicker results (0.5% Guar Gum / 0.35% Xanthan Gum) in applications such as soups that do not require clear results.

Appearance: White to cream powder
Solubility: Cold soluble with moderate to rapid hydration
Viscosity: 100 – 8000 cps
pH: 5.0 – 6.8
pH Stability Range: 3.5 – 8.0

What is Guar Gum?
Guar gum or guaran is a carbohydrate composed of mannose and galactose with a 2:1 ratio. 
This galactomannan is taken from the seeds of guar plant by dehusking, milling and screening. 
The end product is a pale, off-white, loose powder. 
Guar gum is hydrophilic and swells up when exposed to cold water or liquids.
Guar gum is most commonly used as a thickening agent and stabilizer for sauces and dressings in the food industry. 
Baked goods such as bread may also use guar gum to increase the amount of soluble fiber in it. 
At the same time, Guar gum also aids with moisture retention in bread and other baked items.
Being a derivative of a legume, Guar gum is considered to be vegan and a good alternative to starches. 
In modern cuisine, guar gum is used for the creation of foams from acidic liquids, fluid gels, and for stabilizing foams.

The applications of guar gum are endless. 
Guar gum is used in many products that we eat daily – ice cream, cake, cheese, dough, and some sauces. 
Guar gum is used frequently due to its great thickening ability and for Guar gums great stabilizer ability to hold ingredients together (such as keeping cake from being crumbly). 
And for the kids: Guar gum makes great slime just mixing a little with water!!!
Guar gum is almost eight times as powerful as cornstarch for thickening applications. 
Guar gum is easy to use because Guar gum does not require heat to thicken liquids. 
Guar gum is made from a bean called the cluster bean or guar bean which is grown in Pakistan and India. 
Guar gum has similar properties to xanthan gum and they can substituted for each other in many instances.

Guar gum is a polysaccharide composed of the sugars galactose and mannose. 
The backbone is a linear chain of ß 1,4-linked mannose residues to which galactose residues are 1,6-linked at every second mannose, forming short side-branches.

Guar Gum is primaraily used as a thickener in the food and cosmetic industry, and has a very high viscosity. 
In water Guar gum is nonionic and hydrocolloidal. 
Guar gum is not affected by ionic strength or pH, but will degrade at pH extremes at temperature (e.g. pH 3 at 50°C). 
Guar gum remains stable in solution over pH range 5-7. 
Strong acids cause hydrolysis and loss of viscosity, and alkalies in strong concentration also tend to reduce viscosity. 
Guar gum is insoluble in most hydrocarbon solvents.

Guar gum is a water soluble carbohydrate derived from the guar plant seed. 
Guar gum is used throughout the food industry for Guar gums superior thickening, gelling, emulsifying, and stabilizing properties as a result of its high viscosity.

Guar Gum is derived from the ground endosperm of the guar plant, Cyanmopsis tetragonolobus belonging to the family Leguminosae. 
The guar plant is mainly grown in India and Pakistan from the month of July to December. 
At harvest time, the seeds are extracted from the pod of the plant and then ground into guar gum.
Guar Gum is water soluble. 
When adding Guar Gum to a mixture Guar gum is best to add small quantities at a time. 
Be sure to stir for a while after each addition. 
If Guar Gum is added too quickly or in large quantities, Guar gum will gel or clump together. 
Guar Gum works well in mixtures that freeze but not in extreme heat or in pH (above pH8 or below pH5). 
Do not use if your formula contains Borax or Calcium.

How is it used?
Guar gum is used in the manufacturing of textiles, paper, explosives, and cosmetics, but its largest market is in the food industry. 
Guar gum is used in baking, and condiments and in dairy products and processed meats as a binding agent. 
Similarly to xanthan gum, guar gum is frequently used in gluten-free recipes as a binder to serve the purpose of the missing gluten. 
Because guar gum is sourced from the guar bean, Guar gum has far less allergenic potential than xanthan gum, which may be sourced from wheat, corn, dairy, or soy.

Laxative Effects
Guar gum is a water-soluble fibre that can act as a bulk-forming laxative that can help to gently relieve constipation. 
This type of fibre can also help to reduce blood cholesterol, and regulate blood sugar levels. 
For more information on the benefits of fibre, please click here.

How do I use guar gum in gluten-free baking?
As mentioned above, guar gum can easily be added into most gluten-free recipes to help return some of the properties to baked goods that are lost when gluten is not present. 
Gluten is a natural part of wheat flour that keeps baked goods moist and held together. 
Guar gum is the lack of gluten that makes gluten-free baking often turn out dense and dry. 
Guar gum can help to overcome this problem. 
When adding this substance to your baking Guar gum is important to measure Guar gum carefully. 

Hair and Fur
The properties of guar gum are also beneficial to hair and fur! 
The invisible layer guar gum creates over hair strands will protect against potential breakage. 
Guar gum helps to seal in moisture, adding shine and softness as well. 
Guar gum is a great ingredient to help against static electricity and tangles, making hair styling and maintenance a lot easier.

Direct grinding of those generates more heat in the grinder, which is not desired in the process, as Guar gum reduces the hydration of the product. 
Through the heating, grinding, and polishing process, the husk is separated from the endosperm halves and the refined guar split is obtained. 
Through the further grinding process, the refined guar split is then treated and converted into powder. 
The split manufacturing process yields husk and germ called “guar meal”, widely sold in the international market as cattle feed. 
Guar gum is high in protein and contains oil and albuminoids, about 50% in germ and about 25% in husks. 
The quality of the food-grade guar gum powder is defined from Guar gums particle size, rate of hydration, and microbial content.

Manufacturers define different grades and qualities of guar gum by the particle size, the viscosity generated with a given concentration, and the rate at which that viscosity develops. 
Coarse-mesh guar gums will typically, but not always, develop viscosity more slowly. 
They may achieve a reasonably high viscosity, but will take longer to achieve. 
On the other hand, they will disperse better than fine-mesh, all conditions being equal. 
A finer mesh, such as a 200 mesh, requires more effort to dissolve.
Modified forms of guar gum are available commercially, including enzyme-modified, cationic and hydropropyl guar.


5-) GELATIN

CAS Number: 9000-70-8
EC Number: 232-554-6

Gelatin or gelatine is a translucent, colorless, flavorless food ingredient, commonly derived from collagen taken from animal body parts. 
Gelatin is brittle when dry and gummy when moist. 
Gelatin may also be referred to as hydrolyzed collagen, collagen hydrolysate, gelatine hydrolysate, hydrolyzed gelatine, and collagen peptides after it has undergone hydrolysis. 
Gelatin is commonly used as a gelling agent in food, beverages, medications, drug and vitamin capsules, photographic films and papers, and cosmetics.
Substances containing gelatin or functioning in a similar way are called gelatinous substances. 
Gelatin is made by cooking collagen. 
Gelatin is almost entirely protein and has many health benefits. 

Gelatin is a protein made from animal products.
Gelatin is used for aging skin, osteoarthritis, weak and brittle bones (osteoporosis), brittle nails, obesity, and many other conditions, but there is no good scientific evidence to support these uses.
In manufacturing, gelatin is used for preparation of foods, cosmetics, and medicines.
Gelatin can be used in food production, eaten as bone broth or taken as a supplement.
Gelatin is an irreversibly hydrolyzed form of collagen, wherein the hydrolysis reduces protein fibrils into smaller peptides; depending on the physical and chemical methods of denaturation, the molecular weight of the peptides falls within a broad range. 
Gelatin is in gelatin desserts, most gummy candy and marshmallows, ice creams, dips, and yogurts.
Gelatin for cooking comes as powder, granules, and sheets. 
Instant types can be added to the food as they are; others must soak in water beforehand.

Uses
Probably best known as a gelling agent in cooking, different types and grades of gelatin are used in a wide range of food and nonfood products. 
Common examples of foods that contain gelatin are gelatin desserts, trifles, aspic, marshmallows, candy corn, and confections such as Peeps, gummy bears, fruit snacks, and jelly babies.
Gelatin may be used as a stabilizer, thickener, or texturizer in foods such as yogurt, cream cheese, and margarine; it is used, as well, in fat-reduced foods to simulate the mouthfeel of fat and to create volume. 
Gelatin also is used in the production of several types of Chinese soup dumplings, specifically Shanghainese soup dumplings, or xiaolongbao, as well as Shengjian mantou, a type of fried and steamed dumpling. 
The fillings of both are made by combining ground pork with gelatin cubes, and in the process of cooking, the gelatin melts, creating a soupy interior with a characteristic gelatinous stickiness.
Gelatin is used for the clarification of juices, such as apple juice, and of vinegar.
Isinglass is obtained from the swim bladders of fish. 
Gelatin is used as a fining agent for wine and beer.
Besides hartshorn jelly, from deer antlers (hence the name "hartshorn"), isinglass was one of the oldest sources of gelatin.
Gelatin is a flavorless, colorless, stabilizer and thickener that is used to make desserts such as pudding, mousse, marshmallows, candy, cakes, ice cream, some yogurts, and of course fruit gelatin, such as Jell-O. 
Gelatin is also used to make some non-food items such as shampoos or skincare products.

Cosmetics
In cosmetics, hydrolyzed collagen may be found in topical creams, acting as a product texture conditioner, and moisturizer. 
Collagen implants or dermal fillers are also used to address the appearance of wrinkles, contour deficiencies, and acne scars, among others. 
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved its use, and identifies cow (bovine) and human cells as the sources of these fillers. 
According to the FDA, the desired effects can last for 3–4 months, which is relatively the most short-lived compared to other materials used for the same purpose.

Other technical uses
-Certain professional and theatrical lighting equipment use color gels to change the beam color. 
Historically, these were made with gelatin, hence the term, color gel.
-Originally, gelatin constituted the shells of all drug and vitamin capsules to make them easier to swallow. 
While it typically still does hypromellose, a vegetarian-acceptable alternative to gelatin which is more expensive to produce, is also used.
-Some animal glues such as hide glue may be unrefined gelatin.
-Gelatin is used to hold silver halide crystals in an emulsion in virtually all photographic films and photographic papers. 
Despite significant effort, no suitable substitutes with the stability and low cost of gelatin have been found.
-Gelatin is used as a carrier, coating, or separating agent for other substances, for example, Gelatin makes β-carotene water-soluble, thus imparting a yellow color to any soft drinks containing β-carotene.
-Ballistic gelatin is used to test and measure the performance of bullets shot from firearms.
-Gelatin is used as a binder in match heads and sandpaper.
-Cosmetics may contain a non-gelling variant of gelatin under the name hydrolyzed collagen (hydrolysate).
-Gelatin was first used as an external surface sizing for paper in 1337 and continued as a dominant sizing agent of all European papers through the mid-nineteenth century.
In modern times, Gelatin is mostly found in watercolor paper, and occasionally in glossy printing papers, artistic papers, and playing cards. 
Gelatin maintains the wrinkles in crêpe paper.
-Biotechnology: Gelatin is also used in synthesizing hydrogels for tissue engineering applications.
Gelatin is also used as a saturating agent in immunoassays, and as a coat.
Gelatin degradation assay allows visualizing and quantifying invasion at the subcellular level instead of analyzing the invasive behavior of whole cells, for the study of cellular protrusions called invadopodia and podosomes, which are protrusive structures in cancer cells and play an important role in cell attachment and remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM).

What is gelatin used for?
-binders for paper money
-cosmetics
-bonding for the tip of matches
-bakery products
-photographic film
-whipping agent in dairy products
-medicine emulsions
-hardening of jams and jellies
-treatment of wounds as a sponge
-marshmallows

What is gelatin made from?
Gelatin is usually made from pig skins, bovine hides and beef and porcine bones.
This is because Gelatin have a high concentration of raw collagen. 
These raw materials are by-products of the meat industry. 
If there was no use for these materials, they would be thrown away. 
So gelatin production helps to prevent wastage and is therefore considered sustainable and a part of the circular economy.

Healthy body tissues
A 240-gram (g)Trusted Source cup of a gelatin dessert provides 0.82 g of protein.
The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2015–2020 recommend that adults consume 46–56 gTrusted Source of protein or 10–35% of their daily calorie intake each day, depending on their age and sex.
Protein is a macronutrient, which means the body needs significant amounts of Gelatin to function.

Gelatin: safe, natural and well-regulated
The manufacturing of gelatin is governed by strict rules that ensure a careful selection of raw materials and their suppliers. 
All raw materials used in the production of gelatin undergo strict testing and control to guarantee maximum quality, safety and traceability.

Gelatin comes from a natural source, gelatin is considered a common foodstuff and not an additive, meaning it doesn’t require an E-number.
Gelatin is also non-GMO, cholesterol-free and non-allergenic, meaning Gelatin complies with clean-label standards.

What are the key characteristics of gelatin?
Gelatin is valued for Gelatins unique properties and functionalities.

Proteins are essential for:
building and maintaining body tissues
the proper functioning of various organs
Gelatin is a soluble protein which functions as a clear gelling agent and thickener in food products. 
Gelatin is extracted from animal collagen, bones or connective tissues or fish.
Gelatin is a polymer of amino acids joined by peptide bonds
Faintly yellow, tasteless and odorless granular powder
A half a percent of gelatin dissolves in hot water and forms a thermoreversible gel when cooled1
Due to some social and religious concerns, several plant-based gelatin replacers have been suggested such as agar from seaweed extracts.

1. Energy
Proteins are made up of various amino acids. 
The human body makes some amino acids, but most people need to take in extra through their diet.
Meat is a source of protein, but Gelatin can be high in unhealthful fat. 
Gelatin is a protein source that does not contain fat.
A 2017 studyTrusted Source suggested that a supplement combining vitamin C and gelatin may help prevent or repair body tissues in athletes. 
However, the study looked at supplementation rather than dietary intake.

2. Skin care
Collagen gives skin Gelatins healthy and youthful appearance. 
As people age, they lose collagen. 
Their skin becomes less firm, and wrinkles and lines develop.
Gelatin may be a natural way to boost collagen and improve the skin’s appearance. 
A 2016 studyTrusted Source found that consuming collagen improved facial moisture and reduced wrinkles in humans.
However, experts are not sure that consuming gelatin would have the same effect.

3. Digestion
Gelatin contains glutamic acid, a substance that may help promoteTrusted Source a healthy mucosal lining in the stomach. 
This could help with digestion.
Gelatin may also help digestion by stimulating the production of gastric juices. 
Gelatin also binds to water, which might help food move through the digestive system.

4. Easing joint pain
The collagen in gelatin may decrease joint pain associated with inflammation.
According to the National Library of Medicine, some clinical studies indicate gelatin may reduce pain and improve joint function in people with osteoarthritis. 
However, further research is needed.

5. Managing blood sugar
One study has indicated that glycine, which is an amino acid in gelatin, may help people with type 2 diabetes manage their condition.
People who took glycine as a treatment saw a fall in their A1C levels and inflammation, suggesting that glycine may help prevent complications, such as tissue damage.
However, some gelatin based products, such as gummy candies, have a high sugar content. 
These are not a suitable source of gelatin for people with type 2 diabetes.

6. Bone strength
Gelatin contains lysine, which helps strengthen the bones. 
Gelatin also helps the body absorb calcium, which helps keep the bones strong and prevents bone loss.
Some people consume gelatin to reduce their risk of osteoporosis, which causes bones to become weak or brittle.
A 2001 studyTrusted Source found no significant difference in bone density between mice who consumed gelatin and those who consumed another protein source.
However, other researchTrusted Source, published in 2017, found that when rats with a magnesium deficiency consumed gelatin, this had a positive impact on one aspect of bone density.
However, more research is necessary to confirm whether eating gelatin can improve bone health.

7. Sleep quality
The glycine in gelatin may improve sleep quality in some people.
In a studyTrusted Source published in 2006, people who took 3 grams (g) of glycine around bedtime reported sleeping better and feeling more lively and clear headed in the morning.
The following year, a more detailed studyTrusted Source confirmed the findings and suggested that glycine could play a role as a sleep enhancer.
However, the studies did not recommend consuming gelatin to improve sleep.

8. Weight loss
Some scientists have suggested that gelatin may help promote weight loss due to Gelatins high protein levels and low calorie content. 
Protein helps people feel full, making them less likely to overeat.
However, a 2011 study that compared the effects of consuming a gelatin-milk protein diet with another milk protein diet did not find that people lost more weight with the gelatin option.
In addition, some sources of gelatin, such as chewy candies and marshmallows, have a high sugar content. 
People should opt for healthful, low-sugar sources of gelatin where possible.

9. Hair
Some people take gelatin capsules in the hope that the lysine Gelatin contains will improve hair growth.
In 2004, scientists observed a significant increase in hair shaft length after mice took a gelatin derivative for 10 days.
However, this does not guarantee that taking gelatin capsules will improve a person’s hair growth.

10. Nails
In the 1950s, various studies suggested that consuming gelatin may help prevent brittle nails. 
However, no current evidence appears to support this use.
Get some tips here on how to strengthen your nails.

What Is Gelatin?
Gelatin comes from the collagen found in the bones, connective tissue, and skin of pigs, cattle, and other animals. 
Collagen may also be derived from fish bones. 
Boiling the bones extracts the protein, which "sets up," or partially solidifies, as Gelatin cools. 
This is what produces the gelatinous, fatty layer on top of a pot of homemade stock. 
Gelatin sold commercially for culinary purposes is purified before Gelatin's dried and packaged.

Varieties
Gelatin comes in sheets or powder. 
Professional chefs tend to prefer the thin, flat sheets, also called leaf gelatin, because Gelatin dissolves slowly and results in a clearer final product, with a more pure taste. 
The individual grains in gelatin powder disperse more easily throughout a dish and dissolve faster.
Sheet gelatin can be found in four distinct strengths: bronze, silver, gold, and platinum. 
The "bloom strength" distinguishes each level. 
The higher the bloom strength, the higher the melting points of the gel and the shorter the gelling set time.

Gelatin Uses
Gelatin thickens puddings, yogurt, gummy candies, fruit gelatin desserts, ice cream, panna cotta, marshmallows, and more. 
Gelatin can be mixed into any number of liquids or semi-solid substances to create structure and form.
Packets of gelatin sold in most grocery stores typically contain 1/4 ounce, or one tablespoon, of gelatin powder. 
This amount is enough to thicken approximately two cups of liquid, although you can use more to produce a firmer end product. 
You need four gelatin sheets for the same amount of liquid. 
Some cooks find Gelatin easier to count sheets than to measure or weigh out the powder.
Gelatin solidifies as Gelatin cools and generally requires refrigeration. 
The concentration and grade of gelatin determine the exact temperatures at which Gelatin solidifies and melts. 
Most gelatin has a melting point near body temperature, which gives foods made with gelatin a smooth, creamy mouthfeel similar to chocolate.

Gelatin, animal protein substance having gel-forming properties, used primarily in food products and home cookery, also having various industrial uses. 
Derived from collagen, a protein found in animal skin and bone, Gelatin is extracted by boiling animal hides, skins, bones, and tissue after alkali or acid pretreatment. 
An easily digested, pure protein food, Gelatin is nutritionally an incomplete protein, deficient in certain amino acids. 
Unflavoured, granulated gelatin, almost tasteless and odourless, ranges from faint yellow to amber in colour. 
Gelatin is also available as a finely ground mix with added sugar, flavouring, acids, and colouring. 
When stored in dry form, at room temperature, and in an airtight container, Gelatin remains stable for long periods.

How to Cook With Gelatin
Gelatin must be dissolved into another substance to be activated. 
This means any recipe that contains gelatin must have a liquid component that's heated in order for the gelatin to dissolve. 
The food must then subsequently be chilled to allow the gelatin to set.
Mix powdered gelatin with warm water before adding it to a recipe. 
Use about three tablespoons of water per tablespoon of gelatin, stir the granules in and let Gelatin sit for a few minutes. 
As the gelatin absorbs the water, Gelatin will thicken to the consistency of applesauce. 
Soak leaf gelatin sheets in cold water for five minutes to soften, then gently wring out the leaves to remove excess moisture before using.
Gelatin should not be boiled as the high heat can break down Gelatins structure and destroy its ability to solidify. 
Certain fruits, such as pineapple, guava, and papaya, contain enzymes that can also inhibit gelatin's ability to solidify. 
The canning and pasteurization process typically destroys these enzymes, which means canned versions of these fruits can be successfully used with gelatin.

Gelatin is pure protein and a natural foodstuff. 
Gelatin’s made from the skins of pigs and cows or from demineralized animal bones - all of which are approved for human consumption by the veterinary authorities. 
They contain the collagen protein that we use to manufacture gelatin.
Collagen is the most important scleroprotein in the bodies of humans and animals. 
The basic unit comprises a protein chain of about 1050 amino acids. 
These intertwine in groups of three to form triple helix structures. 
Cross-linking between many of these triple helices produces collagen fibrils that have a three-dimensional network structure. 
And Gelatin’s these structures that form the connective tissue in skin and bone.
The amino acid composition of collagen is atypical for proteins, particularly with respect to its high hydroxyproline content. 
The most common motifs in the amino acid sequence of collagen are glycine-proline-X and glycine-X-hydroxyproline, where X is any amino acid other than glycine, proline or hydroxyproline.

Early history of food applications
The first use of gelatin in foods is documented in the 15th century in medieval Britain, where cattle hooves were boiled for extended periods of time to produce a gel. 
This process was laborious and time-consuming, confined mainly to wealthier households.
The first recorded English patent for gelatin production was granted in 1754.
By the late 17th century, French inventor Denis Papin had discovered another method of gelatin extraction via boiling of bones.
In 1812, the chemist Jean-Pierre-Joseph d'Arcet (fr) further experimented with the use of hydrochloric acid to extract gelatin from bones, and later with steam extraction, which was much more efficient. 
The French government viewed gelatin as a potential source of cheap, accessible protein for the poor, particularly in Paris.
Food applications in France and the United States during 19th century appear to have established the versatility of gelatin, including the origin of Gelatins popularity in the US as Jell-O.
From the mid 1800s, Charles and Rose Knox of New York manufactured and marketed gelatin powder, diversifying the appeal and applications of gelatin.

Characteristics
Properties
Gelatin is a collection of peptides and proteins produced by partial hydrolysis of collagen extracted from the skin, bones, and connective tissues of animals such as domesticated cattle, chicken, pigs, and fish. 
During hydrolysis, some of the bonds between and within component proteins are broken. 
Gelatins chemical composition is, in many aspects, closely similar to that of its parent collagen.
Photographic and pharmaceutical grades of gelatin generally are sourced from cattle bones and pig skin. 
Gelatin is classified as a hydrogel.

CAS Number: 9000-70-8
MDL number: MFCD00081638
NACRES: NA.24

Gelatin and hydrolyzed collagen (also called collagen hydrolysate or collagen peptides) are nutritionally similar. 
Both are made by cooking and breaking down collagen-rich foods, like bone, cartilage and hooves. 
This process breaks down the amino acids in collagen, making Gelatin easier to digest and absorb in your intestinal tract.
Because they come from the same sources, gelatin and hydrolyzed collagen provide the same valuable amino acids and nutrition profiles, with slightly different properties:
The extra processing used to make hydrolyzed collagen breaks the amino acids into smaller pieces, which some people find easier to absorb
Hydrolyzed collagen (like Bulletproof Collagen Protein) can dissolve in hot or cold water, while gelatin requires hot water
Gelatin causes liquid to gel when Gelatin cools.
That’s how gelatin adds thickness to sauces, jellies or even ice cream
Bulletproof Collagelatin is a blend of beef gelatin and hydrolyzed collagen from pasture-raised cows. 
That means you get both proteins in one versatile powder that gels when Gelatin cools.
Use Collagelatin anytime you’d reach for standard gelatin—Gelatin’s unflavored, so Gelatin’s great in anything from soups to desserts.

GELATIN is flavorless, translucent substance derived from the processing of animal connective tissue and bones to extract collagen, an insoluble fibrous protein.  
Gelatin is derived by the selective hydrolysis of collagen from the skin, the connective tissue and/or bones of animals.  
Once extracted and powdered, gelatin dissolves in hot liquids and becomes more solid as Gelatin cools.  
Gelatin contains half of the 18 essential amino acids, needed for survival.
I know this may sound totally GROSS to some folks, but just think about Gelatin for a minute. 
In times past,  when an animal was used for the purpose of food, people used as much of the animal as possible.  
The organ meats were consumed.  
The bones were cooked down into broth.  
Not only was this essential for survival for folks but also showed reverence and respect for the gift of food given to them.  
Gelatin is only recently that we have moved to just eating the muscle meats, missing out on all the nourishment that the rest of the animal can provide.

Gelatin is nearly tasteless and odorless with a colorless or slightly yellow appearance.
Gelatin is transparent and brittle, and Gelatin can come as sheets, flakes, or as a powder.
Polar solvents like hot water, glycerol, and acetic acid can dissolve gelatin, but Gelatin is insoluble in organic solvents like alcohol.
Gelatin absorbs 5–10 times Gelatins weight in water to form a gel.

The gel formed by gelatin can be melted by reheating, and it has an increasing viscosity under stress (thixotropic).
The upper melting point of gelatin is below human body temperature, a factor that is important for mouthfeel of foods produced with gelatin.
The viscosity of the gelatin-water mixture is greatest when the gelatin concentration is high and the mixture is kept cool at about 4 °C (39 °F). 
Commercial gelatin will have a gel strength of around 90 to 300 grams Bloom using the Bloom test of gel strength.
Gelatin's strength (but not viscosity) declines if Gelatin is subjected to temperatures above 100 °C (212 °F), or if Gelatin is held at temperatures near 100 °C for an extended period of time.

Gelatins have diverse melting points and gelation temperatures, depending on the source. 
For example, gelatin derived from fish has a lower melting and gelation point than gelatin derived from beef or pork.

Originally, gelatin was a luxury food item, finding use in jelly dishes for aristocrats and royalty such as Henry VIII of England (1491-1547). 
Then, during the Napoleonic era with the invention of the pressure cooker, Gelatin served as a source of protein when meat was scarce. 
The pressure cooker could soften bones and produce a stock for soup as well as gelatin for protein.

How does Gelatin work ?
Gelatin is made from collagen. 
Collagen is one of the materials that make up cartilage, bone, and skin. 
Taking gelatin can increase the production of collagen in the body. 
Some people think gelatin might help for arthritis and other joint conditions. 
The chemicals in gelatin, called amino acids, can be absorbed in the body.

Gelatin is a protein substance derived from collagen, a natural protein present in the tendons, ligaments, and tissues of mammals. 
Gelatin is produced by boiling the connective tissues, bones and skins of animals, usually cows and pigs. 
Gelatin's ability to form strong, transparent gels and flexible films that are easily digested, soluble in hot water, and capable of forming a positive binding action have made it a valuable commodity in food processing, pharmaceuticals, photography, and paper production.
As a foodstuff, gelatin is the basis for jellied desserts; used in the preservation of fruit and meat, and to make powdered milk, merinque, taffy, marshmallow, and fondant. 
Gelatin is also used to clarify beer and wine. 
Gelatin's industrial applications include medicine capsules, photographic plate coatings, and dying and tanning supplies.

Composition
When dry, gelatin consists of 98–99% protein, but Gelatin is not a nutritionally complete protein since Gelatin is missing tryptophan and is deficient in isoleucine, threonine, and methionine.
The amino acid content of hydrolyzed collagen is the same as collagen. 
Hydrolyzed collagen contains 19 amino acids, predominantly glycine (Gly) 26–34%, proline (Pro) 10–18%, and hydroxyproline (Hyp) 7–15%, which together represent around 50% of the total amino acid content.
Glycine is responsible for close packing of the chains. 
Presence of proline restricts the conformation. 
This is important for gelation properties of gelatin.
Other amino acids that contribute highly include: alanine (Ala) 8–11%; arginine (Arg) 8–9%; aspartic acid (Asp) 6–7%; and glutamic acid (Glu) 10–12%.

Production
The worldwide demand of gelatin was about 620,000 tonnes (1.4×109 lb) in 2019.
On a commercial scale, gelatin is made from by-products of the meat and leather industries. 
Most gelatin is derived from pork skins, pork and cattle bones, or split cattle hides.
Gelatin made from fish by-products avoids some of the religious objections to gelatin consumption.
The raw materials are prepared by different curing, acid, and alkali processes that are employed to extract the dried collagen hydrolysate. 
These processes may take several weeks, and differences in such processes have great effects on the properties of the final gelatin products.
Gelatin also can be prepared at home. 

Gelatine has demonstrated Gelatins versatility in applications for the pharmaceutical industry and medicine. 
Gelatin can be used in the production of capsules or tablets or as a constituent of wound dressings, hemostatic sponges, or blood volume substitutes.
Industrial gelatin can not be eaten by humans. 
The raw material is different from the edible or pharmaceutical gelatin. 
Although Gelatin is not edible, Gelatin can play an important role in the technical area. 
Generally speaking, industrial gelatin does not have too many requirements as edible gelatin except photographic film. 
The main function is the stickiness and filming. 
The glue and photographed film is the main application.

USES & EFFECTIVENESS
Insufficient Evidence to Rate Effectiveness for:
-A kind of arthritis called osteoarthritis. 
There is some clinical evidence that gelatin might relieve pain and improve joint function in patients with osteoarthritis.
-Brittle bones (osteoporosis).
-Strengthening bones and joints.
-Strengthening fingernails.
-Improving hair quality.
-Weight loss.
-Shortening recovery after exercise and sports-related injury.
-Other conditions.

Boiling certain cartilaginous cuts of meat or bones results in gelatin being dissolved into the water. 
Depending on the concentration, the resulting stock (when cooled) will form a jelly or gel naturally, this process is used for aspic.
While many processes exist whereby collagen may be converted to gelatin, they all have several factors in common. 
The intermolecular and intramolecular bonds that stabilize insoluble collagen must be broken, and also, the hydrogen bonds that stabilize the collagen helix must be broken.

The manufacturing processes of gelatin consists of several main stages:
Pretreatments to make the raw materials ready for the main extraction step and to remove impurities that may have negative effects on physicochemical properties of the final gelatin product.
Hydrolysis of collagen into gelatin.
Extraction of gelatin from the hydrolysis mixture, which usually is done with hot water or dilute acid solutions as a multistage process.
The refining and recovering treatments including filtration, clarification, evaporation, sterilization, drying, rutting, grinding, and sifting to remove the water from the gelatin solution, to blend the gelatin extracted, and to obtain dried, blended, ground final product.

GELATIN. Gelatin (also gelatine, jelly in Britain, jelly powder in Canada, and gelée in France) is a flavorless, transparent thickener derived from animal collagen that dissolves when heated and congeals when cooled, allowing foods to set. 
This versatile ingredient provides unique textural and sensory properties to both savory and sweet foodstuffs such as mousses, gummy bears, Turkish Delight, nougat, jellied soups, Bavarian cream, aspic, and Jell-O.
Gelatin is composed of protein molecules, made up of chains of amino acids. 
When placed in liquid, the molecules swell and then dissolve, and the chains separate. 
After cooling, they re-form as tightly as before. 
In the warmth of the mouth, they melt, providing excellent flavor release. 
This property and gelatin's easy digestability and absorption by the body makes gelled desserts appropriate for children, invalids, and the elderly.

Gelatin is a protein obtained by boiling skin, tendons, ligaments, and/or bones with water. 
Gelatin is usually obtained from cows or pigs. 
Gelatin is used in shampoos, face masks, and other cosmetics; as a thickener for fruit gelatins and puddings (such as Jell-O); in candies, marshmallows, cakes, ice cream, and yogurts; on photographic film; and in vitamins as a coating and as capsules, and it is sometimes used to assist in “clearing” wines. 
Gelatin is not vegan. 
However, there is a product called “agar agar” that is sometimes marketed as “gelatin,” but Gelatin is vegan. 
Gelatin is derived from a type of seaweed.

Collagen and gelatin have been widely used in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries due to their excellent biocompatibility, easy biodegradability, and weak antigenicity. 
Fish collagen and gelatin are of renewed interest, owing to the safety and religious concerns of their mammalian counterparts. 
The structure of collagen has been studied using various modern technologies, and interpretation of the raw data should be done with caution. 
The structure of collagen may vary with sources and seasons, which may affect Gelatins applications and optimal extraction conditions. 

Numerous studies have investigated the bioactivities and biological effects of collagen, gelatin, and their hydrolysis peptides, using both in vitro and in vivo assay models. 
In addition to their established nutritional value as a protein source, collagen and collagen-derived products may exert various potential biological activities on cells in the extracellular matrix through the corresponding food-derived peptides after ingestion, and this might justify their applications in dietary supplements and pharmaceutical preparations. 
Moreover, an increasing number of novel applications have been found for collagen and gelatin. 
Therefore, this review covers the current understanding of the structure, bioactivities, and biological effects of collagen, gelatin, and gelatin hydrolysates as well as their most recent applications.

Pretreatments
If the raw material used in the production of the gelatin is derived from bones, dilute acid solutions are used to remove calcium and other salts. 
Hot water or several solvents may be used to reduce the fat content, which should not exceed 1% before the main extraction step. 
If the raw material consists of hides and skin; size reduction, washing, removal of hair from hides, and degreasing are necessary to prepare the hides and skins for the hydrolysis step.

Gelatin is a clear, tasteless protein that thickens and solidifies liquid and semi-liquid foods, such as soups, marshmallows, and old-fashioned aspic molds. 
Commonly associated with Jell-O brand products, gelatin comes from animal collagen. 
Gelatin's also used in personal care products, cosmetics, drug capsules, and photography.

Where does gelatin come from?
Gelatin is a mild-tasting protein derived from the collagen in animal tissue, and Gelatin’s the only protein with the power to thicken liquids. 
You can see Gelatins effect every time you roast meat. 
The drippings in the bottom of the roasting pan owe their slightly sticky consistency to gelatin. 
That viscosity allows you to boil those juices into a luscious sauce without the addition of any other thickener. 
Gelatin’s also why the juices set into a solid gel as they cool. 
Unlike starch- and flour-thickened sauces that are opaque and creamy, sauces thickened with gelatin are crystal clear and syrupy.
Most gelatin is produced from pig skin, which contains about 30% collagen by weight. 

Collagen is the connective tissue protein that gives strength to muscles and tendons and resiliency to an animal’s skin and bones. 
To make gelatin, pig skin is soaked in dilute acid for about 24 hours, which unravels the crosslinking protein bonds in the collagen. 
The resulting free protein chains are extracted, filtered, purified, and dried into sheets or granules (powder) that are around 90% gelatin, 8% water, and 2% salts and glucose.

How does gelatin work?
Gelatin is unlike any other protein used in the kitchen. 
Typically, food proteins respond to heat by unraveling, then bonding to one another and coagulating into a firm, solid mass, For example, think of a frying egg. 
The liquid protein of the white, called albumin, firms up into a solid mass of egg white as it heats. 
But gelatin proteins don’t readily form bonds with one another. 
Heat causes them to initially unravel and disperse just like any protein. 
They never form new bonds, though, so the liquid in which they’re dispersed stays fluid. 
Because gelatin proteins are long and stringy, they tend to become interwoven, causing the hot liquid in which they are suspended to thicken, but not completely solidify when warm. 
As gelatin cools (as in a pan of cooled meat drippings), the protein strands line up next to each other and twist into long ropes, transforming the liquid into a firm gel.

How should gelatin be handled in the kitchen?
First, soak gelatin in cold water or another cool liquid to hydrate its dried protein network so that Gelatin dissolves easily. 
(If you add gelatin directly to hot liquid, Gelatin will stick together and form lumps.) 
After soaking, simply heat the water/gelatin mixture (or add hot liquid) and stir to dissolve the gelatin. 
Gelatin is hygroscopic (Gelatin absorbs and retains water easily), so Gelatin’s best to store Gelatin in an airtight container in a dry, well-ventilated area. 
When stored this way, Gelatin has an indefinite shelf life.

What’s the difference between sheet and powdered gelatin?
Chefs generally prefer sheet gelatin to powdered gelatin because sheet gelatin has less surface area, so when the hydrated sheets are stirred into the hot liquid, less air becomes incorporated, creating better clarity in the finished gel. 
Sheet gelatin isn’t as readily available as powdered, but you can easily substitute powdered for sheets using this equation: 4 gelatin sheets = 1-1/4 oz. envelope (2-1/2 tsp.) powdered gelatin. 
That’s enough to lightly gel about 2 cups of liquid, creating a 1-1/2% gelatin solution, which is perfect for savory sauces and glazes. 
For a firmer effect, such as that in a typical gelatin dessert, use the same amount of gelatin to gel 1 cup of liquid, creating a 3% gelatin solution.

Are there vegetarian alternatives to gelatin?
Yes. Vegetarian substitutes for gelatin are made from carbohydrates rather than proteins. 
The most common vegetarian gelling agents are agar (aka kanten) and carrageenan (aka Irish moss), both extracted from red algae, a type of seaweed.

Popular in Asian cooking and widely available in health food stores and Asian markets, agar works much like gelatin in that Gelatin’s soaked in cold water and dissolved in hot liquid, which then firms up into a gelled solid upon cooling. 
The main difference for the cook is that gels made with agar must be boiled to completely dissolve the carbohydrates, whereas gels made with gelatin actually weaken if the mixture is boiled. 
The other difference is that while gelatin melts near body temperature (95°F to 100°F), agar melts at about 185°F, so agar gels will not melt into a tongue-coating liquid in your mouth. 
Agar gels also tend to have a more fragile and crumbly texture than gelatin gels. 

However, agar has an even greater gelling capacity than gelatin-you need only about 1/2 teaspoon of agar powder to firmly gel 1 cup of liquid as opposed to 2-1/2 teaspoons for powdered gelatin.
Carrageenan (Irish moss) has a unique property: Gelatin can thin under pressure, yet return to its original viscosity once the pressure is released. 
For this reason, Gelatin’s often used in industrial food production, where Gelatin can be pumped through factory pipelines without losing its thickening ability. 
Gelatin’s a preferred thickener for ice creams and bottled sauces.
There are three classes of carrageenans: kappa, iota, and lambda. 
Kappa carrageenans produce firm gels; iota carrageenans produce softer, more elastic gels; and lambda carrageenans gel only when mixed with proteins, such as those in dairy products.
Some studies suggest that carrageenans may result in the development of gastrointestinal inflammation; however, the Federal Drug Administration and the National Organic Program currently consider carrageenans safe for human consumption.

Tips for Working with Gelatin
Avoid heating gelatin over high heat or for long periods of time, both of which weaken its gelling ability. 
Gelatin’s best to add dissolved gelatin to liquids that have already been boiled or simmered. 
The same goes for reheating sauces thickened with gelatin-heat gently to avoid weakening the gel.
Salty or acidic ingredients tend to soften gels, so you may need to use more gelatin when working with them.
Sugar or cream helps firm up gels. 

Gelatin (sometimes gelatine) is a common gelling agent and thickener that most people are familiar with. 
Gelatin is flavorless, colorless and brittle when dry. 
In Gelatins pure form, gelatin comes either as gelatin sheets, or as powder. 
Gelatin is made from animal bones and collagen, the most common source being pigskin.

Sugar is hygroscopic and pulls water from the gelatin molecules, strengthening their gelling effect, while cream makes the mixture more viscous, which thickens the mixture overall.
Avoid freezing gelatinthickened liquids, which causes liquid to seep from the gel when Gelatin is thawed.
Certain fresh ingredients- peaches, pineapple, papaya, mangos, melons, kiwi, figs, prickly pears, and ginger- contain enzymes known as proteases, which will digest the proteins in gelatin.
As a result, gels made with these fresh ingredients may not thicken properly. 
To neutralize the enzymes, boil the cut up ingredients for 5 minutes before using in a gelatin dessert, or use canned fruit (which has been heated during the canning process).
To suspend solids in a gel, let the gel cool until semifirm before stirring in the solids.
To release a chilled gel from a cup or decorative mold, dip the cup or mold in warm water for 5 to 10 seconds to reliquefy the outer edges of the gel, then loosen the edges by shaking or using a thin knife and invert.

Hydrolysis
After preparation of the raw material, i.e., removing some of the impurities such as fat and salts, partially purified collagen is converted into gelatin through hydrolysis. 
Collagen hydrolysis is performed by one of three different methods: acid-, alkali-, and enzymatic hydrolysis. 
Acid treatment is especially suitable for less fully cross-linked materials such as pig skin collagen and normally requires 10 to 48 hours. 
Alkali treatment is suitable for more complex collagen such as that found in bovine hides and requires more time, normally several weeks. 
The purpose of the alkali treatment is to destroy certain chemical crosslinks still present in collagen. 
Within the gelatin industry, the gelatin obtained from acid-treated raw material has been called type-A gelatin and the gelatin obtained from alkali-treated raw material is referred to as type-B gelatin.

Advances are occurring to optimize the yield of gelatin using enzymatic hydrolysis of collagen. 
The treatment time is shorter than that required for alkali treatment, and results in almost complete conversion to the pure product. 
The physical properties of the final gelatin product are considered better.

Culinary Uses
Gelation, binding of water, formation of texture, thickening agent, formation of emulsion, formation of foam, formation of a film. 
Note - gelatin has nothing directly to do with the process “gelatinization,” a technical term for what happens to starch molecules in the presence of heat and water.

Gelatin is made by cooking down collagen protein found in the skin, hooves, connective tissues and bones of animals. 
The cooking process breaks down the bonds between proteins to make smaller, more bioavailable building blocks that your body can easily absorb.
Like collagen, gelatin is packed with beneficial amino acids—especially the anti-aging superstars glycine and proline, which are lacking in the standard Western diet.
Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. 

Essential amino acids must come from food; your body naturally produces other amino acids, which are considered conditionally essential. 
These amino acids make gelatin especially powerful for supporting plump and hydrated skin, joint mobility and bone repair.
The same elastic properties that make collagen so beneficial to our skin and connective tissue also make Gelatin handy as a gelling agent in food. 
Gelatin has the unique ability to cause liquids to gel, giving foods like jellies, gravy and jam their unique texture. 
This feature opens up a whole new world of culinary possibilities, from rich sauces to fluffy pies.

What Is Gelatin Good For? Benefits, Uses and More
Gelatin is a protein product derived from collagen.

What Does Gelatin Taste Like?
Unflavored gelatin should have no taste or odor. 
Gelatin takes on the taste of whatever you make with Gelatin. 
The reason for using Gelatin is to create a gel-like consistency. 
Make sure you don't confuse gelatin with Jell-O, the flavored gelatin snack food.

Gelatin is an animal protein made by boiling the collagenous material from animal bones, hides, and skins. 
Pig and cattle bones are typically used to make gelatin. 
Gelatin has many uses, including use in cooking, industrial uses, cosmetics and photography.
In the pharmaceutical industry, gelatin is used primarily to make hard and soft gelatin capsules. 
Other uses include tablets, emulsions, suppositories and syrups. 
Gelatin has been used for over 125 years in the food industry.
Gelatin is generally recognized as safe by the FDA.

Gelatin Substitute
Because gelatin is made from animal collagen, Gelatin is not suitable for vegetarian or vegan diets. 
There are alternatives to gelatin that provide a similar gelling action. 
For instance, agar and carrageenan come from seaweed, and pectin is derived from fruit. 
Other possible substitutes include arrowroot, guar gum, xanthan gum, and kudzu, but they all thicken liquids differently, so research the best option for your intended application.
Gelatin marked with a "K" has been certified kosher and comes from sources other than pigs. 
For those who avoid cattle products, gelatin made from only pork or fish can be used. 

Gelatin has important health benefits due to its unique combination of amino acids.
Gelatin has been shown to play a role in joint health and brain function, and may improve the appearance of skin and hair.

What Is Gelatin?
Gelatin is a product made by cooking collagen. 
Gelatin is made almost entirely of protein, and Gelatins unique amino acid profile gives Gelatin many health benefits.
Collagen is the most plentiful protein found in humans and animals. 
Gelatin is found almost everywhere in the body, but is most abundant in the skin, bones, tendons and ligaments.
Gelatin provides strength and structure for tissues. 
For example, collagen increases the flexibility of the skin and the strength of the tendons. 
However, Gelatin is difficult to eat collagen because Gelatin is generally found in unpalatable parts of animals.
Luckily, collagen can be extracted from these parts by boiling them in water. 
People often do this when they’re making soup stock to add flavor and nutrients.

Thickening agents like gelatin can be made from different ingredients. 
Gelatin is made by boiling the skin, tendons, ligaments, or bones of animals (usually cows or pigs) in water. 
This process releases collagen, a protein that provides structure and also happens to be the most abundant protein in the human body. 
After the collagen is extracted Gelatin is concentrated and filtered, then cooled, extruded, and dried to make gelatin.

Because animal products are used to make gelatin, Gelatin is not a vegan-friendly food and even some non-vegans choose not to consume Gelatin to support animal rights. 
But there are also gelatin alternatives that are made from non-animal sources.

Gelatin Nutrition Facts
The following nutrition information is provided by the USDA for a single envelope or about one-tablespoon (7 grams) of gelatin.
However, a full envelope may not always represent a single serving.

According to Knox, a company that makes gelatin, a single serving is more likely to be 1.75 grams. 
The company states on their website that a single serving provides 6 calories, 0 grams fat, 0 grams carbohydrate, and 1.6 grams of protein. 
This serving size equals about a 1/2 cup serving when mixed with water.2

Calories: 23.4
Fat: 0g
Sodium: 13.7mg
Carbs: 0g
Fiber: 0g
Sugars: 0g
Protein: 6g

Transforming collagen into gelatin industrially
When you want to make large quantities of gelatin, you won’t use those high quality pieces of meat such as a shoulder to make the gelatin. 
Instead, you use the hides, skins, etc. to make the gelatin. 
In Gelatins essence the process is the same as you do when you make gelatin from your pulled pork, but Gelatin involves several additional steps to get all that collagen converted into gelatin efficiently.
The gelatin can’t be extracted from the animals that easily. 
The raw materials need to be pre-treated first to get a hold of pure collagen that can then be transformed into gelatin. 
During this pre-treatment fats, minerals and other undesired components are removed. 
The manufacturers also treat the raw materials with acids or alkali and enyzmes to help ‘loosen up’ the collagen. 
The collagen starts breaking down somewhat already and becomes easier to extract.
Once the materials have been pre-treated they are heated. 
During this well controlled process the collagen proteins break down further into smaller components. 
A manufacturer has to control all these processes well to ensure they make a gelatin with the desired properties. 
If the collagen breaks down too much Gelatin will form glue and if Gelatin doesn’t break down enough Gelatin will not form these flexible gels.

To Use Powdered Gelatin
-Sprinkle the granules of gelatin over the surface cold water or liquid. 
Use 1/4 cup, 60ml, or whatever quantity is called for in the recipe, per envelope. 
Do not dump the granules in as a pile as the granules in the middle won’t dissolve of “bloom” properly.
-Let stand for 5 to 10 minutes.
-Add warm liquid or heat gently, stirring until dissolved. 
To verify the granules are melted, lift the stirring utensil and make certain that there are no undissolved granules clinging to it.

To Use Sheet Gelatin
-Soak sheet(s) of gelatin in a bowl cold water for 5 to 10 minutes. 
-Once soft, lift sheets from the cold water.

-Wring gently to remove excess water, than add to warm liquid, stirring until dissolved. 
If adding to a cold mixture, melt the softened sheets in a saucepan or microwave over very low heat, stirring just until melted completely. 
Then stir in the cold mixture gradually.

The gelatin extracted during this process is flavorless and colorless. 
Gelatin dissolves in warm water, and takes on a jelly-like texture when Gelatin cools.
This has made Gelatin useful as a gelling agent in food production, in products such as Jell-O and gummy candy. 
Gelatin can also be consumed as bone broth or as a supplement.
Sometimes, gelatin is processed further to produce a substance called collagen hydrolysate, which contains the same amino acids as gelatin and has the same health benefits.
However, Gelatin dissolves in cool water and doesn’t form a jelly. 
This means Gelatin may be more palatable as a supplement to some people.
Both gelatin and collagen hydrolysate are available as supplements in powder or granule form. 
Gelatin can also be purchased in sheet form.
Nevertheless, Gelatin is not suitable for vegans because Gelatin is made from animal parts.

Extraction
Extraction is performed with either water or acid solutions at appropriate temperatures. 
All industrial processes are based on neutral or acid pH values because although alkali treatments speed up conversion, they also promote degradation processes. 
Acidic extraction conditions are extensively used in the industry, but the degree of acid varies with different processes. 
This extraction step is a multistage process, and the extraction temperature usually is increased in later extraction steps, which ensures minimum thermal degradation of the extracted gelatin.

Gelatin is one type of protein produced by the partial hydrolysis of native collagen. 
Depending on the process used, two types of gelatin, namely type A (acid hydrolysis) and type B (alkaline hydrolysis) are generally obtained. 
Gelatin has been exploited as a drug carrier agent, owing to its unique chemical and physical nature. 
In addition, gelatin is a biocompatible and non-immunogenic substrate of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). 
Chitosan conjugated gelatin, poly(DL-lactide)-grafted gelatin, PEG-modified gelatin, and thiolated derivatives of gelatin were some of the reported gelatin derivatives with wide pharmaceutical applications. 
Gelatin–DNA nanospheres have also been reported as a potent gene delivery vehicle. 
Desolvation, coacervation, and water-in-oil (W/O) emulsion are a few commonly employed techniques for preparation of gelatin nanoparticles. 

Tips and Facts About Gelatin
– One envelope of powdered gelatin (about 1/4 ounce) is about 2 1/4 to 2 1/2 teaspoons.
-If the recipe calls for packets (ie; 2 packets), use packets of gelatin for measuring.
-If the recipe calls for a specific amount (ie: 2 teaspoons gelatin), open the packets and measure the gelatin granules with a measuring spoon.
-1 envelope of gelatin will firmly set 2 cups of liquid, enough to unmold a dessert.
-1 envelope of gelatin will softly set 3 cups of liquid. You will not be able to unmold this type of dessert.
-Both sheet and powdered gelatin should be dissolved in cold water. 

If hot water is used, granules of gelatin will swell on the outside too quickly, preventing the water from getting into the center.
-Don’t boil things made with gelatin. High heat can make the gelatin lose its efficacy.
-Desserts made with gelatin should chill for at least eight hours, but twenty-four hours is best. 
After twenty-four hours, gelatin will not set any further.
-Substituting sheet gelatin for powdered gelatin is perhaps the most controversial ratio known to the baking world. 
I’ve seen everything from 1 envelope equals 3, up to 5 sheets. 
Three-and-a-half sheets seem to work best for me. 
I use sheets that are 3-inches by 5-inches.

What is gelatin?
Gelatin is a protein that’s full of amino acids, the building blocks of proteins. 
Gelatin comes from collagen-rich animal parts like skin, connective tissue, and bones.
Collagen is the most abundant protein in your body, and Gelatin’s an important component of your skin, cartilage, tendons, and bones.
Gelatin has a ton of uses in the pharmaceutical and food industries. 
For example, Gelatin’s used to give gummy candies their characteristic texture, and Gelatin helps add volume to reduced-fat products like cheeses.
You can also buy gelatin supplements in powder or capsule form.

-Some people prefer to use sheet gelatin, claiming Gelatin has no odor and the gel sets finer. 
Another advantage is there’s also no chance of undissolved granules when using sheet gelatin.
-Gelatin is graded by “bloom’, which is a measure of the stiffness and strength of the gelatin. 
Knox gelatin is 225 bloom, sheet gelatin (gold) is 200 bloom. 
Here’s a guide to the various types of gelatin in this post by Modernist Pantry.
-If you want something made with gelatin to set faster, chill the mold or container first. 
Also you can stir the mixture constantly in a metal bowl placed in an ice bath until Gelatin begins to set, then pour Gelatin into the mold or container.
-Gelatin lasts forever according to the Gelatin Manufacturer’s of America. 
If the packet gives an expiration date, Gelatin has to do with a “degradation of the packaging.” 
So if the packaging is damaged or old, you may want to toss Gelatin and use a new batch.

-Certain tropical fruits, such as pineapple, kiwifruit, and ginger, have an enzyme (bromelin) that can prevent gelatin from setting. 
Heating the fruit completely through before using will destroy the enzyme.
-Adding gelatin to food can make Gelatin non-Kosher, Halal, or inappropriate for those on vegetarian diets. 
Most gelatin is derived from beef or pork, which isn’t always mentioned on the packet. (In France, Gelatin’s noted when Gelatin’s derived from pork.)
-Some folks add gelatin to sorbets to keep them softer when frozen. 
If so, for 1 quart (1l) of mixture, dissolve 1 teaspoon of gelatin in 2 tablespoons or so of the cold sorbet mixture and let soften for 5 minutes. 

Warm a small amount of the sorbet mixture and pour Gelatin into the gelatin, stirring until dissolved, then mix the gelatin back into the sorbet mixture before churning.
*Because there are many different producers of sheet gelatin, various brands will vary in strength and size. 
Use what’s recommended by the company where you buy your gelatin sheets, or on the package, as the manufacturer best to advise on the correct usage of their particular gelatin. 
For those concerned about the detailed math of the conversion, there’s an interesting discussion thread on eGullet.
For those of you who don’t want to get out your calculator, if you’re making a gelatin dessert that needs to be unmolded, err on the side of more gelatin. 
If making a gelée or spoonable custard, you can err on the side of less.

Do we actually need to supplement with gelatin?
For most people, the answer is yes. 
Traditional diets of our ancestors typically included higher amounts of gelatin, since a “nose-to-tail” eating approach of animals was popular.
Today, the average person runs low on gelatin (and other animal-derived compounds like collagen) since many edible animal parts are often discarded. 
Gelatin’s not chicken breast or filet mignon that supplies gelatin naturally — Gelatin’s the “gelatinous” parts of the animals that aren’t usually consumed nowadays, including the animal’s skin, bone marrow and tendons.
While we can make some of the amino acids on our own, we might require more as we age and if we have high levels of inflammation, compromised digestion or weak joints.
Another group likely running very low in gelatin is vegetarians. 
Considering vegetarians and vegans don’t eat most or all animal products, they have no exposure to Gelatin on a normal basis, instead opting for gelatin substitutes like agar agar.
A mostly vegetarian diet might be healthy if done carefully, but Gelatin raises your risk for being low in all essential amino acids the human body requires since it eliminates “complete proteins” like meat, fish, and sometimes eggs and dairy.

Gelatin is largely made up of the amino acids glycine and proline. 
Gelatin is derived from the bones, fibrous tissues, and organs of animals. 
These amino acids are needed not only for proper skin, hair and nail growth, but for optimal immune function and weight regulation.

What Is Gelatin?
Gelatin is a protein derived from the collagen in animal parts; Gelatin acts as a kind of natural adhesive in foods like jams, jellies, and gummy candy like gummy bears. 
Gelatin’s also the gelling agent behind Jell-O’s signature wobble. 
Flavorless and colorless, gelatin products are found in powder or single-sheet form.

Recovery
This process includes several steps such as filtration, evaporation, drying, grinding, and sifting. 
These operations are concentration-dependent and also dependent on the particular gelatin used. 
Gelatin degradation should be avoided and minimized, so the lowest temperature possible is used for the recovery process. 
Most recoveries are rapid, with all of the processes being done in several stages to avoid extensive deterioration of the peptide structure.
A deteriorated peptide structure would result in a low gel strength, which is not generally desired.


6-) SODIUM ALGINATE

CAS Number: 9005-32-7
EC Number: 232-680-1
E number: E400 (thickeners, ...)
Chemical formula: (C6H8O6)n
Molar mass: 10,000 – 600,000


Sodium alginate is one of the best-known members of the hydrogel group. 
The hydrogel is a water-swollen, and cross-linked polymeric network produced by the simple reaction of one or more monomer. 
The ability of hydrogels to absorb water arises from hydrophilic functional groups attached to the polymeric backbone, while their resistance to dissolution arises from cross-links between network chains.
Sodium alginate is a naturally occurring anionic polymer typically obtained from brown seaweed, Sodium alginate consists of mannuronic (M) and guluronic (G) acids arranged in different combinations such as blocks rich in either M or G units, or blocks of alternating G and M units. 
In the presence of divalent Ca2+ cations, the guluronic acids from nearby chains form ionic crosslinks resulting in alginate hydrogel. 
The ratio of M and G units defines the physicochemical properties of the hydrogel.

Sodium alginate, also known as algin, is a carbohydrate product of a seaweed, Macrocystis pyrifera. 
Sodium alginate is used as a gel in pharmaceutical preparations. 
Sodium alginate is also used as a stabilizer, thickener and emulsifier for food products such as ice cream, yogurt, cream, and cheese. 
Sodium alginate acts as a thickener and emulsifier for salad, pudding, jam, tomato juice, and canned products. 
Sodium alginate is a hydration agent for noodles, bread, cool and frozen products. 
Sodium alginate is a cold gelling agent that needs no heat to gel. 
Sodium alginate is most commonly used with calcium lactate or calcium chloride in the spherification process.

Sodium alginate is a polysaccharide distributed widely in the cell walls of brown algae that is hydrophilic and forms a viscous gum when hydrated. 
With metals such as sodium and calcium, its salts are known as alginates. 
Sodium alginates colour ranges from white to yellowish-brown. 
Sodium alginate is sold in filamentous, granular, or powdered forms. 
Sodium alginate is a significant component of the biofilms produced by the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a major pathogen found in the lungs of some people who have cystic fibrosis.
The biofilm and P. aeruginosa have a high resistance to antibiotics, and are susceptible to inhibition by macrophages.
Sodium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-38-3) is the sodium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain brown algae. 
Sodium alginate is prepared by the neutralization of purified alginic acid with appropriate pH control agents.

Uses of Sodium alginate
Alginate absorbs water quickly, which makes it useful as an additive in dehydrated products such as slimming aids, and in the manufacture of paper and textiles. 
Sodium alginate also is used for waterproofing and fireproofing fabrics, in the food industry as a thickening agent for drinks, ice cream, cosmetics, and as a gelling agent for jellies. 
Sodium alginate is mixed with soybean flour to make meat analogue.
Alginate is used as an ingredient in various pharmaceutical preparations, such as Gaviscon, in which Sodium alginate combines with bicarbonate to inhibit reflux. 
Sodium alginate is used as an impression-making material in dentistry, prosthetics, lifecasting, and for creating positives for small-scale casting.
Sodium alginate is used in reactive dye printing and as a thickener for reactive dyes in textile screen-printing. 
Alginates do not react with these dyes and wash out easily, unlike starch-based thickeners.
As a material for micro-encapsulation.
Calcium alginate is used in different types of medical products, including skin wound dressings to promote healing, and may be removed with less pain than conventional dressings.

Description
Alginates are extracts derived from certain Brown Seaweeds (Kelp or Macrocystis). 
Kelp is commonly found in the northern Atlantic and Pacific Oceans and off the coast of California down through Chile. 
Alginic Acid exists naturally in the seaweed. 
Through the extraction and refining process alginic acid is converted to commercially functional Sodium Alginates. 
Sodium Alginates are used to produce heat-stable gels and to generate viscosity in a variety of fabricated foods, heat-stable fruit fillings, and cheese sauces.

Properties
Sodium alginates are soluble in both hot and cold water and are available in a variety of viscosity ranges with various gelling properties. 
Sodium Alginate solutions are converted, in the presence of calcium ions (calcium chloride or other soluble calcium salt), to Calcium Alginate, the heat-stable gelled form.

Sodium Alginate is extracted from naturally occurring seaweed, which is classified into four main groups: Chlorophyceae (green algae); Phaeophyceae (brown algae); Rhodophyceae (red algae); and Cyanophyceae (blue-green algae).
Chlorophyceae and Cyanophyceae, which live in salt water, fresh water, soil, and tree trunks are used primarily in food. 
Phaeophyceae and Rhodophyceae, salt water plants available in large quantities, are important commercially because of their specific polysaccharide content. 
Agar and carrageenan are extracted from various types of Rhodophyceae.

Sodium alginate reduces appetite and glycemia, when consumed in water- and sugar-based drinks. 
But, Sodium alginates effects when added to other commonly consumed beverages have not been reported. 
Because chocolate milk (CM) is criticized for raising blood glucose more than unflavored milk, the aim of our study was to investigate the effect of adding a strong-gelling sodium alginate to CM on glycemia, insulinemia, appetite and food intake.

Where is sodium alginate found?
Sodium alginate is a thickener found in the textile screen-printing and carpet jet-printing industry. 
Sodium alginate is also a food additive found in gel-like foods such as jam and pimento stuffing in prepared cocktail olives.

How can you avoid contact with sodium alginate?
Avoid products that list any of the following names in the ingredients:
-AI3-19772
-Algiline
-Algin
-Algin (Laminaria spp. and other kelps)
-Algin (polysaccharide)
-Alginate KMF
-Alginic acid, sodium salt
-Algipon L-1168
-Amnucol
-Antimigrant C 45
-Cecalgine TBV
-Cohasal-IH
-Darid QH
-Dariloid QH
-Duckalgin
-FEMA No. 2014
-HSDB 1909
-Halltex
-Kelco Gel LV
-Kelcosol
-Kelgin
-Kelgin F
-Kelgin HV
-Kelgin LV
-Kelgin XL
-Kelgum
-Kelset
-Kelsize
-Keltex
-Keltone
-L'-Algiline
-Lamitex
-Manucol
-Manucol DM
-Manucol KMF
-Manucol SS/LD2
-Manugel F 331
-Manutex
-Manutex F
-Manutex RS 1
-Manutex RS-5
-Manutex SA/KP
-Manutex SH/LH
-Manutex rS1
-Meypralgin R/LV
-Minus
-Mosanon
-Nouralgine
-OG 1
-Pectalgine
-Proctin
-Protacell 8
-Protanal
-Protatek
-Snow algin H
-Snow algin L
-Snow algin M
-Sodium alginate
-Sodium polymannuronate
-Stipine
-Tagat
-Tragaya

What are some products that may contain sodium alginate?
Carpets
Food Products
-Jams
-Jellies
-Preserves
Textiles

Forms
Alginates are refined from brown seaweeds. 
Throughout the world, many of the Phaeophyceae class brown seaweeds are harvested to be processed and converted into sodium alginate. 
Sodium alginate is used in many industries including food, animal food, fertilisers, textile printing, and pharmaceuticals. 
Dental impression material uses alginate as Sodium alginates means of gelling. 
Food grade alginate an approved ingredient in process and manufactured foods.
Brown seaweeds range in size from the giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera which can be 20–40 meters long, to thick, leather-like seaweeds from 2–4 m long, to smaller species 30–60 cm long. 
Most brown seaweed used for alginates are gathered from the wild, with the exception of Laminaria japonica, which is cultivated in China for food and its surplus material is diverted to the alginate industry in China.
Alginates from different species of brown seaweed vary in their chemical structure resulting in different physical properties of alginates. 
Some species yield an alginate that gives a strong gel, another a weaker gel, some may produce a cream or white alginate, while others are difficult to gel and are best used for technical applications where color does not matter.
Commercial grade alginate are extracted from giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera, Ascophyllum nodosum, and types of Laminaria. 
Alginates are also is produced by two bacterial genera Pseudomonas and Azotobacter, which played a major role in the unravelling of its biosynthesis pathway. 
Bacterial alginates are useful for the production of micro- or nanostructures suitable for medical applications.
Sodium alginate (NaC6H7O6) is the sodium salt of alginic acid. 
Sodium alginate is a gum.
Potassium alginate (KC6H7O6) is the potassium salt of alginic acid.
Calcium alginate (C12H14CaO12), is made from sodium alginate from which the sodium ion has been removed and replaced with calcium.

What is Sodium alginate?
Sodium alginate, also known as algin, is a carbohydrate product of a seaweed, Macrocystis pyrifera. 
Sodium alginate is used as a gel in pharmaceutical preparations. 
Sodium Alginate (E401) is extracted from brown seaweed. 
Sodium alginate is also used as a stabilizer, thickener and emulsifier for food products such as ice cream, yogurt, cream, and cheese. 
Sodium alginate acts as a thickener and emulsifier for salad, pudding, jam, tomato juice, and canned products. 
Sodium alginate is a hydration agent for noodles, bread, cool and frozen products. 
Sodium alginate is a cold gelling agent that needs no heat to gel. 
Sodium alginate is most commonly used with calcium lactate or calcium chloride in the spherification process.

Sodium alginate is a substance that the Food and Drug Administration has listed as generally recognized as safe. 
In production, sodium alginate is extracted from brown algae and is the sodium salt of alginic acid. 
Sodium alginate is highly viscous and is often used as an emulsifier and a gelling agent. 
These properties give sodium alginate a variety of uses in many industries.

Sodium alginate is a neutral salt in which the carboxyl groups of alginate are bonded with a sodium ion. 
Alginic acid is not soluble in water but sodium alginate is soluble in both cold and hot water to produce a smooth viscous solution.
When calcium ions are added to a sodium alginate solution, calcium ions react instantly with alginate to form a gel.
The time taken to form a gel can be controlled by controlling the calcium ions.
These unique properties result in sodium alginate being used as a thickener, gelling agent and stabilizer in a wide range of industries.

Applications of sodium alginate
Alginate is used in many foods and biomedical applications, due to its biocompatibility, low toxicity, relatively low cost, and mild gelation. 
In the food industry, alginate is used as a thickening agent, gelling agent, emulsifier, stabilizer, texture-improver. Nowadays, alginate is added to numerous kinds of food, such as ice cream, jelly, acid milk drinks, dressings, instant noodles, beer, etc. 
Sodium alginate is used in pharmaceutical applications, Sodium alginate is added into tablets as a carrier to accelerate tablet disintegration for a faster release of the medicinal component, in cosmetics due to its functionality as a thickener and moisture retainer. 
For example, alginate helps retain the color of lipstick on the lip surface by forming a gel-network.

General description
Sodium alginate is the sodium salt of alginic acid, a natural polysaccharide found in brown algae. 
Sodium alginate is generally used as a stabilizer and thickener in the food industry. 
Sodium alginate may undergo cross-linking in the presence of divalent cations such as Ca2+ to form biodegradable stable gels, which finds applications as a material for cell encapsulation and immobilization.

Application
Sodium alginate can be used to prepare:
Cationized casein-based polyelectrolyte complex for fragrance-controlled release applications.
Apple aroma microcapsules for cosmetic applications.

Sodium alginate
"Alginate" is the term usually used for the salts of alginic acid, but it can also refer to all the derivatives of alginic acid and alginic acid itself; in some publications the term "algin" is used instead of alginate. 
Alginate is present in the cell walls of brown algae as the calcium, magnesium and sodium salts of alginic acid. 
The goal of the extraction process is to obtain dry, powdered, sodium alginate. 
The calcium and magnesium salts do not dissolve in water; the sodium salt does. 

The rationale behind the extraction of alginate from the seaweed is to convert all the alginate salts to the sodium salt, dissolve this in water, and remove the seaweed residue by filtration. 
The alginate must then be recovered from the aqueous solution.
The solution is very dilute and evaporation of the water is not economic. 
There are two different ways of recovering the alginate.
The first is to add acid, which causes alginic acid to form; this does not dissolve in water and the solid alginic acid is separated from the water. 
The alginic acid separates as a soft gel and some of the water must be removed from this. 

Sodium Alginate is a natural polysaccharide product extracted from brown seaweed that grows in cold water regions. 
Sodium alginate is soluble in cold and hot water with strong agitation and can thicken and bind. 
In presence of calcium, sodium alginate forms a gel without the need of heat. 
In modernist cuisine, sodium alginate is mostly used with calcium salts to produce small caviar-like and large spheres with liquid inside that burst in the mouth. 
Sodium Alginate is also used in the food industry to increase viscosity and as an emulsifier. 
Sodium alginate is also used in indigestion tablets and it has no discernible flavor.

What is alginate? Alginate is a polysaccharide, made up of chains of sugar units that can be thousands of sugars long. 
Sugars in alginate consist of guluronate (G), mannuronate (M) or guluronate-mannuronate blocks, and the proportion of the different sugars determines how strong a gel is formed. 
An excellent, illustrated reference to the structure, discovery (late 1800s), history of use, and chemistry of alginate can be found at here. 
FMC (Fine Marine Colloids) is a major world wholesaler of two algal polysaccharides, alginate from brown seaweeds and carrageenan from certain red seaweeds.

Description
Sodium alginate is the sodium form of alginate. 
Alginate is a linear, anionic polysaccharide consisting of two form of 1, 4-linked hexuronic acid residues, β-d-mannuronopyranosyl (M) and α-l- guluronopyranosyl (G) residues. 
Sodium alginate can be arranged in the form of blocks of repeating M residues (MM blocks), blocks of repeating G residues (GG blocks), and blocks of mixed M and G residues (MG blocks). 
Commercially available alginate currently originates from algae. Alginate has wide applications. 
For example, one of its most important role is being used as wound dressing materials for the treatment of acute or chronic wounds. 
The use of alginate crosslinking to make hydrogels for cell encapsulation is also quite valuable. 
The emergence of various kinds of its derivatives recently has further extended its application.

Chemical Properties
Colorless or slightly yellow solid occur- ring in filamentous, granular, and powdered forms. 
Forms a viscous colloidal solution with water; insoluble in alcohol, ether, and chloroform. Com- bustible.

Chemical Properties
Sodium alginate occurs as an odorless and tasteless, white to pale yellowish-brown colored powder.

History
Sodium alginate is a natural polysaccharide product that was first described in a patent application by the British chemist Edward C C Stanford in 1881. 
To this day brown algae are still the main source used to extract sodium alginate from. 
This group includes many of the seaweeds, like kelps, found in chilly northern seas. 
In addition to the food industry, the gelling properties of sodium alginate have been used in medical, dental and cosmetic applications for years.

Uses
Sodium alginate can be used as a flavorless gum. 
Sodium alginate is used by the foods industry to increase viscosity and as an emulsifier. 
Sodium alginate is also used in indigestion tablets and the preparation of dental impressions.
Sodium alginate (NaAlg) and its modified forms have been widely used as membranes in pervaporation (PV) separation of aqueous‐organic solutions because of the hydrophilic nature and versatility to modify/tune their structures to achieve the desired separation.
Sodium alginate is a polymer which can be extracted from brown seaweed and kelps. 
Sodium alginate is one of the structural polymers that help to build the cell walls of these plants. 
Sodium alginate has some unusual properties and a wide variety of uses.

What seaweeds contain alginate? 
Alginate is found in the cells walls of brown marine algae such as kelps and rockweeds; photos of kelps are on the PSA's "Algae and Biodiversity" and "Algae and People" bookmarks (also on this webpage).

What do alginates do in brown seaweeds? 
Different parts of the same seaweed often contain different types and quantities of alginate in their cell walls. 
These alginates provide flexible, mechanical structure to the seaweeds and cushion them from possible injury when the seaweeds are subjected to strong water motion (waves, currents).

What products use alginate? 
Alginate is used to keep ingredients in foods from separating from each other (i.e., Sodium alginate is used as an emulsifier or stabilizer) and to create a tasty, smooth texture from "creamy foods" to "gelled foods". 
For example, alginate is commonly found in ice creams, salad dressings, fruit juices, and yogurt. 
Alginate is also used as an emulsifier or gelling agent in the manufacture of papers, textiles, pet foods, and pharmaceuticals. 
Alginate touches nearly every person's life, nearly every day.

How do I make a gel with alginate for fun? 
If you are a teacher or professor, the information in this exercise and its links will let you use alginate to teach students about hydrocolloids, polymers, diffusion, and the power of a chemical transformation (i.e., calcium bridges formed between alginate chains) to alter the shape and texture of a material.

After this has been done, alcohol is added to the alginic acid, followed by sodium carbonate which converts the alginic acid into sodium alginate. 
The sodium alginate does not dissolve in the mixture of alcohol and water, so Sodium alginate can be separated from the mixture, dried and milled to an appropriate particle size that depends on its particular application.
The second way of recovering the sodium alginate from the initial extraction solution is to add a calcium salt. 
This causes calcium alginate to form with a fibrous texture; Sodium alginate does not dissolve in water and can be separated from it. 
The separated calcium alginate is suspended in water and acid is added to convert Sodium alginate into alginic acid. 
This fibrous alginic acid is easily separated, placed in a planetary type mixer with alcohol, and sodium carbonate is gradually added to the paste until all the alginic acid is converted to sodium alginate. 
The paste of sodium alginate is sometimes extruded into pellets that are then dried and milled.
The process appears to be straightforward, certainly the chemistry is simple: convert the insoluble alginate salts in the seaweed into soluble sodium alginate; precipitate either alginic acid or calcium alginate from the extract solution of sodium alginate; convert either of these back to sodium alginate, this time in a mixture of alcohol and water, in which the sodium salt does not dissolve.
The difficulties lie in handling the materials encountered in the process, and to understand these problems a little more detail of the process is required.

Sodium Alginate Function
Sodium alginate is used to gel in presence of calcium, as shear-thinning thickener in absence of calcium, to stabilize emulsions or foams and to form films. 
In modernist cuisine, sodium alginate is mostly used with calcium salts to produce small caviar-like and large spheres with liquid inside that burst in the mouth. 
There are two main processes to create spheres, basic spherification and reverse spherification.

To extract the alginate, the seaweed is broken into pieces and stirred with a hot solution of an alkali, usually sodium carbonate. 
Over a period of about two hours, the alginate dissolves as sodium alginate to give a very thick slurry. 
This slurry also contains the part of the seaweed that does not dissolve, mainly cellulose. 
This insoluble residue must be removed from the solution. 
The solution is too thick (viscous) to be filtered and must be diluted with a very large quantity of water. 
After dilution, the solution is forced through a filter cloth in a filter press. 

However, the pieces of undissolved residue are very fine and can quickly clog the filter cloth. 
Therefore, before filtration is started, a filter aid, such as diatomaceous earth, must be added; this holds most of the fine particles away from the surface of the filter cloth and facilitates filtration. 
However, filter aid is expensive and can make a significant contribution to costs. 
To reduce the quantity of filter aid needed, some processors force air into the extract as it is being diluted with water (the extract and diluting water are mixed in an in-line mixer into which air is forced). 
Fine air bubbles attach themselves to the particles of residue. 
The diluted extract is left standing for several hours while the air rises to the top, taking the residue particles with it. 
This frothy mix of air and residue is removed from the top and the solution is withdrawn from the bottom and pumped to the filter.

Alginate hydrogels
Alginate may be used in a hydrogel consisting of microparticles or bulk gels combined with nerve growth factor in bioengineering research to stimulate brain tissue for possible regeneration.
In research on bone reconstruction, alginate composites have favorable properties encouraging regeneration, such as improved porosity, cell proliferation, and mechanical strength, among other factors.

Chemical formula: (C6H8O6)n
Molar mass: 10,000 – 600,000
Appearance: White to yellow, fibrous powder
Density: 1.601 g/cm3
Acidity (pKa): 1.5–3.5

Description    
Stabiliser, emulsifier, thickener, formulation aid [DFC] The chemical compound sodium alginate is the sodium salt of alginic acid. 
Sodium alginate is a gum, extracted from the cell walls of brown algae. 
As a flavorless gum, Sodium alginate is used by the foods industry to increase viscosity and as an emulsifier. 
As a food additive, sodium alginate is used especially in the production of gel-like foods. 
For example, bakers' "Chellies" are often gelled alginate "jam." 

Production of Sodium alginate:
The manufacturing process used to extract sodium alginates from brown seaweed fall into two categories: 
1) calcium alginate method and 2) alginic acid method.
Chemically the process is simple, but difficulties arise from the physical separations required between the slimy residues from viscous solutions and the separation of gelatinous precipitates that hold large amounts of liquid within the structure so they resist filtration and centrifugation.

Sodium alginate is a natural gelling agent taken from the cell walls of brown algae. 
Sodium alginate only gels when Sodium alginate comes in contact with calcium. 
Sodium alginate also has many uses other than spherification such as thickening, general gelling, and foaming. Whether or not you know it, each of us have eaten sodium alginate in many types of commercial foods such as ice cream or the pimento portion of stuffed cocktail olives!

Sodium Alginate is used for increasing the viscosity of animal glue when applying metal leaf.
Add 0.1ml of「Fungicide」to 99g of water, then add 1g of「Sodium Alginate」and stir well.
There will be lumps left behind, but leave Sodium alginate in the refrigerator overnight to allow the lumps to dissolve completely.

Other names
Alginic acid; E400; [D-ManA(β1→4)L-GulA(α1→4)]n

Sodium alginate (NaC6H7O6) is a linear polysaccharide derivative of alginic acid comprised of 1,4-β-d-mannuronic (M) and α-l-guluronic (G) acids. 
Sodium alginate is a cell wall component of marine brown algae, and contains approximately 30 to 60% alginic acid. 
The conversion of alginic acid to sodium alginate allows its solubility in water, which assists its extraction. 
Bacterial alginates are synthesized by only two bacterial genera, Pseudomonas and Azotobacter, and is used for protection from the environment and the synthesis of biofilms in order to adhere to surfaces. 
This method of synthesis allows the bacteria to produce alginates with a well-defined monomer composition, which may allow the production of “tailor-made” bacterial alginates.

Sodium alginate‚ which is a substance taken from brown algae‚ can be used to remove toxins and heavy metals from your body. 
Sodium alginate binds to several types of metals—such as strontium‚ cadmium‚ arsenic‚ and aluminum—in order to pull them. 
Sodium alginate can also be used to get rid of harmful environmental fumes. 
This is why supplements like Seroyal’s Sodium Alginate vegetarian capsules are helpful to many.

CAS Number: 9005-32-7 
ChemSpider: None
ECHA InfoCard: 100.029.697 
EC Number: 232-680-1
E number: E400 (thickeners, ...)
UNII: 8C3Z4148WZ 
CompTox Dashboard (EPA): DTXSID601010868

Alginate-based hydrogels are highly promising candidates for use as drug delivery systems and as biomedical implants as they are structurally similar to the macromolecular-based components in the body, and can often be delivered into the body via minimally invasive administration. 
Alginate is an excellent candidate for delivery of protein drugs, since proteins can be incorporated into alginate-based formulations under relatively mild conditions that minimize their denaturation, and the gels can protect them from degradation until their release.

Sodium alginate gels are increasingly being utilized as a model system for mammalian cell culture in biomedical studies. 
These gels can be readily adapted to serve as either 2-D or more physiologically relevant 3-D culture systems. 
The lack of mammalian cell receptors for alginate, combined with the low protein adsorption to alginate gels allows these materials to serve in many ways as an ideal blank slate, upon which highly specific and quantitative modes for cell adhesion can be incorporated. 
Further, basic findings uncovered with in vitro studies can be readily translated in vivo, due to the biocompatibility and easy introduction of alginate into the body.

As a flavorless gum, Sodium alginate is used by the foods industry to increase viscosity and as an emulsifier. 
Sodium alginate is also used in indigestion tablets and the preparation of dental impressions.
A major application for sodium alginate is in reactive dye printing, as thickener for reactive dyestuffs (such as the Procion cotton-reactive dyes) in textile screen-printing and carpet jet-printing. 
Alginates do not react with these dyes and wash out easily, unlike starch-based thickeners.
Sodium alginate is a good chelator for pulling radioactive substances from the body, such as iodine-131 and strontium-90, that have taken the place of their non-radioactive counterparts.
Sodium alginate is also used in immobilizing enzymes by inclusion.

Weight: 0.5 lbs
Dimensions: 3 × 3 × 3 in
Contents: 50 g vial
Storage: Room temperature

Sodium and potassium alginate are intended to be used as technological additives (functional groups: emulsifiers, stabilisers, thickeners, gelling agents and binders). 
Sodium alginate is intended to be used in feedingstuffs for pets, other non food-producing animals and fish, with no maximum recommended use level. 
Potassium alginate is intended to be used in feedingstuffs for cats and dogs at levels up to 40,000 mg/kg feed (on dry matter). 
Since the functional properties of the additives are determined by the alginate content, sodium and potassium alginate were considered equivalent. 
The maximum dose considered safe for cats, dogs, other non food-producing animals, salmonids and other fish is 40,000 mg alginates (sodium and potassium salts)/kg complete feed. 

The use of alginates in feedingstuffs for fish is of no concern for the consumer. 
Alginates are reported not to be irritant to the skin but mildly irritant to the eyes. 
They are considered as potential sensitisers to the skin and the respiratory tract. 
Alginates are high-molecular-weight polymers naturally occurring in brown algae. 
Their use in feedingstuffs for fish does not pose a risk for the aquatic environment. 
Alginates are effective as stabilisers, thickeners, gelling agent and binders. 
No conclusion could be drawn on the efficacy of alginates as emulsifiers.

Sodium alginate gelation process
Alginate hydrogels can be prepared by various cross-linking methods, and their structural similarity to extracellular matrices of living tissues allows wide applications. 
The most common method to prepare hydrogels from an aqueous alginate solution is to combine the solution with ionic cross-linking agents, such as divalent cations (i.e., Ca2+).

Calcium chloride (CaCl2) is one of the most frequently used agents to ionically cross-link alginate. 
Sodium alginate typically leads to rapid and poorly controlled gelation due to its high solubility in aqueous solutions. 
One approach to slow and control gelation is to utilize a buffer containing phosphate (e.g., sodium hexametaphosphate), as phosphate groups in the buffer compete with carboxylate groups of alginate in the reaction with calcium ions, and delay gelation. 
Calcium sulfate (CaSO4) and calcium carbonate (CaCO3), due to their lower solubilities, can also slow the gelation rate and widen the working time for alginate gels. 
The gelation rate is a critical factor in controlling gel uniformity and strength when using divalent cations, and slower gelation produces more uniform structures and greater mechanical integrity. 
Finally, thermo-sensitive hydrogels have been widely investigated to date in many drug delivery applications, due to their adjustable swelling properties in response to temperature changes, leading to on-demand modulation of drug release from the gels.

Alginate micro particles
Sodium alginate-based particles have emerged as one of the most searched drug delivery platforms due to their inherent properties, including good biocompatibility and biodegradability for improved delivery, stabilization and prolonged release of encapsulated drugs. 
They are also extensively used for the encapsulation of living cells in pharmaceutical research, tissue engineering, and regenerative medicine. 
Such microgels act as micrometer-sized 3D culturing units, allowing individual cells to be independently monitored or manipulated, for example to study the role of confinement on cell fate or to deliver cells for the repair of damaged tissue.

Sodium Alginates
Nalgin ULV Very low viscosity
Nalgin MV-120 Medium viscosity / medium gel
Nalgin 600 & Nalgin 800    High viscosity
Nalgin 1000 Very high viscosity
Nalgin HG High gel / medium viscosity
Applications and typical use levels:

Sodium alginate is a neutral salt in which the carboxyl groups of alginate are bonded with a sodium ion. 
Alginic acid is not soluble in water but sodium alginate is soluble in both cold and hot water to produce a smooth viscous solution.

Bakery and Dessert Gels    0.10% to 0.20%
Dry Mixes 0.10% to 0.30%
Frozen Desserts    0.10% to 0.30%
Icings 0.10% to 0.30%
Milk Puddings 0.50% to 0.80%
Pie Fillings 0.25% to 0.50%
Restructured Foods 0.75% to 1.50%
Sauces    0.20% to 0.35%
Syrups and Toppings 0.10% to 0.25%
Processed Cheese 0.10% to 0.25%
Salad Dressings    0.10% to 0.50%
Beverages 0.10% to 0.50%

Structure
Alginic acid is a linear copolymer with homopolymeric blocks of (1→4)-linked β-D-mannuronate (M) and α-L-guluronate (G) residues, respectively, covalently linked together in different sequences or blocks. 
The monomers may appear in homopolymeric blocks of consecutive G-residues (G-blocks), consecutive M-residues (M-blocks) or alternating M and G-residues (MG-blocks). 
Note that α-L-guluronate is the C-5 epimer of β-D-mannuronate.

What is Sodium Alginate Used For?Top 
There are two main ways to use sodium alginate to create spheres. 
The first is direct spherification, where the sodium alginate is blended into a flavorful liquid, which is then added by the spoonful into a calcium lactate or calcium chloride bath. 
The second is reverse spherification, where the calcium is added to the flavorful liquid and then spoonfuls of the liquid are added to a sodium alginate bath.

Sodium alginate works best in non-acidic mixtures. 
If you are trying to use Sodium alginate in something acidic you can usually add sodium citrate to alter the pH before adding the sodium alginate. 
If you want to gel a thicker substance such as a puree, add water to thin it down until the mixture reaches a better liquid consistancy.
Sodium alginate also has many uses other than spherification such as thickening, general gelling, and foaming.

Sodium alginate
9005-38-3
D-Galacturonic acid sodium salt
sodium;3,4,5,6-tetrahydroxyoxane-2-carboxylate
natriumglucuronat
Alginic acid monosodium salt
SCHEMBL20919851
EBD39195
FT-0621962
FT-0670280
K-4769
sodium;(2S,3R,4S,5R)-3,4,5,6-tetrahydroxyoxane-2-carboxylate

Sodium alginate (a food product derived from brown algae or seaweed) is a thickening and gelling agent that forms heat stable gels in the presence of calcium. 
This property allows cooks to make gelled spheres, in a technique known as spherification. 
Sodium alginate has been used in the food industry for many years for the production of gel-like foods – for example, the pimento stuffing in prepared cocktail olives. 
Sodium alginate is composed of long strands made up of carbohydrate units – these long stands allow it to act as a very efficient thickening agent at low concentrations (e.g. 1%). 
Gels formed from alginates have the amazing ability of withstanding heating to temperatures as high as 150ᵒC without melting, allowing them to be used in hot applications such as broths. 
When alginate is added to a liquid, it will act as a thickener. 
In the presence of calcium ions, a mixture containing alginate will form a gel. 
The calcium ions insert themselves between individual alginate strands and will allow them to interlock and form a gel.

SPHERIFICATION METHODS
There are two main methods for creating such spherification, which differ based on the calcium content in the product to be encapsulated in the gel bubble. 
For substances containing no calcium, a flavoured liquid is mixed with sodium alginate, and droplets of this mixture are dropped  into a room temperature solution made up of water and calcium lactate or calcium gluconate (both are less bitter than other forms of calcium). 
‘Reverse’ spherification, is a technique for use with substances which are rich in calcium, in this case additional calcium (if necessary) is blended into a flavoured liquid, and while the sodium alginate is blended into the water. 
Both methods give a similar result: a sphere of liquid held by a thin gel membrane, texturally similar to caviar.

Basic spherification is easier & ideal for obtaining spheres with an ultra thin membrane. 
The spheres are often referred to as caviar.

Chemical Formula C6H9NaO7
IUPAC name sodium 3,4,5,6-tetrahydroxyoxane-2-carboxylate
InChI Identifier InChI=1S/C6H10O7.Na/c7-1-2(8)4(5(10)11)13-6(12)3(1)9;/h1-4,6-9,12H,(H,10,11);/q;+1/p-1
InChI Key MSXHSNHNTORCAW-UHFFFAOYSA-M
Isomeric SMILES    [Na+].OC1OC(C(O)C(O)C1O)C([O-])=O
Average Molecular Weight 216.1212
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight 216.024597317

biological source: synthetic
Quality Level: 400
grade: Halal
reg. compliance:
FDA 21 CFR 117
FDA 21 CFR 150.161
FDA 21 CFR 173.310
Documentation: see Safety & Documentation for available documents
Featured Industry: Flavors and Fragrances
Organoleptic: odorless
food allergen: no known allergens

THE SCIENCE
The flavoured spherification liquid cannot be too high in calcium or acidic (pH level must be above 3.6). 
A concentration of about 0.5% (approx. 5g to 1tr) sodium alginate is dispersed into the flavoured liquid (this will vary depending on the properties of the liquid being used). 
A concentration of around 1% (approx. 10g to 1ltr) calcium (either gluconate or lactate are advised – due to lack of perceivable bitter taste) is dissolved in water and is called a ‘water bath’.

Melting point:99 °C
Density 1.0 g/cm3(Temp: 25 °C)
FEMA 2014 | ALGIN (LAMINARIA SPP. AND OTHER KELPS)
storage temp. Store at RT.
solubility Slowly soluble in water forming a viscous, colloidal solution, practically insoluble in ethanol (96 per cent).
form powder
color White to Off-white
PH6.0-8.0 (10mg/mL in H2O)
Water Solubility Soluble in water. Insoluble in alcohol, chloroform and ether.
Sensitive Hygroscopic
Merck 14,241
Stability:Stable. Incompatible with strong acids, strong bases, strong oxidizing agents.
Substances Added to Food (formerly EAFUS)ALGINATE, SODIUM
SCOGS (Select Committee on GRAS Substances)Sodium alginate
CAS DataBase Reference9005-38-3(CAS DataBase Reference)
FDA 21 CFR184.1724; 582.7724; 173.310
FDA UNIIC269C4G2ZQ
EPA Substance Registry SystemSodium alginate (9005-38-3)

What is Sodium Alginate?Top 
Sodium alginate is a natural polysaccharide product that was first described in a patent application by the British chemist Edward C C Stanford in 1881. 
To this day brown algae are still the main source used to extract sodium alginate from. 
This group includes many of the seaweeds, like kelps, found in chilly northern seas. 
In addition to the food industry, the gelling properties of sodium alginate have been used in medical, dental and cosmetic applications for years.


7-) PECTIN         

CAS Number: 9000-69-5
EC Number: 232-553-0    
E number: E440 

Pectin is a unique fiber found in fruits and vegetables.
Pectin is a soluble fiber known as a polysaccharide, which is a long chain of indigestible sugars. 
When Pectin is heated in the presence of liquid, pectin expands and turns into a gel, making Pectin a great thickener for jams and jellies.
Pectin also gels in your digestive tract after ingestion, a function that provides numerous health benefits.
Most pectin products are made from apples or citrus peels, both of which are rich sources of this fiber.
This article reviews what pectin is, Pectins nutritional content and health benefits, and how to use Pectin.

Uses of Pectin:
Pectin is a fiber and contains almost no calories or nutrients. 
Pectin’s a key ingredient in jams and jellies and used as a soluble fiber supplement.

Pectin is a natural and commercially produced essential ingredient in preserves, like jellies and jams. 
Without pectin, jellies and jams won't gel. 
Pectin is a type of starch, called a heteropolysaccharide, that occurs naturally in the cell walls of fruits and vegetables and gives them structure.
When combined with sugar and acid, Pectin is what makes jams and jellies develop a semisolid texture when they cool. 
Some fruits, like apples and quince, and the rinds, seeds, and membranes of citrus are naturally very high in pectin. 
Commercial pectins are usually made from citrus rinds. 
Pectin is sold as a dry powder and in liquid form and can be expensive.

Pectin is a high-molecular-weight carbohydrate polymer which is present in virtually all plants where Pectin contributes to the cell structure. 
The term pectin covers a number of polymers which vary according to their molecular weight, chemical configuration, and content of neutral sugars, and different plant types produce pectin with different functional properties. 
The word ‘pectin’ comes from the Greek word pektos which means firm and hard, reflecting pectin's ability to form gels.
The gelling properties of pectin have been known for centuries, but the isolation of commercial pectin only started at the beginning of the twentieth century. 
In this document we highlight the chemistry, origin and production, and the functional properties of pectin.

Pectin is a "gum" found naturally in fruits that causes jelly to gel. 
Tart apples, crab apples, sour plums, Concord grapes, quinces, gooseberries, red currants and cranberries are especially high in pectin.
Apricots, blueberries, cherries, peaches, pineapple, rhubarb and strawberries are low in pectin. 
Underripe fruit has more pectin than fully ripe fruit. 
Jellies and jams made without added pectin should use 1/4 underripe fruit (LSBU). 
Pectins are mainly used as gelling agents, but can also act as thickener, water binder and stabilizer. 
Many recipes call for the addition of pectin.

Pectin is available commercially either in powdered or liquid form. 
These two forms are not interchangeable, so use the type specified in the recipe. 
Powdered pectin is mixed with the unheated fruit or juice. 
Liquid pectin is added to the cooked fruit and sugar mixture immediately after it is removed from the heat. 
When making jellies or jams with added pectin, use fully-ripe fruit.

Pectin is used as a viscosifier in beverages and soft drinks, and high-ester pectins may be used as a mouth-feel improver. 
This use has been widely developed for juice drinks with a reduced juice content or sugar-free soft drinks.
Low-concentration pectin solutions can be considered Newtonian and show a low viscosity. 
This is of great relevance for the use of pectin in fruit beverages and soft drinks as the concentration used rarely exceeds 0.5%. 

Indeed, the clean mouth feel imparted by pectin compared with the tendency towards a slimy mouth feel with some other gums could be related to the low viscosity of pectin solutions at the shear rate applied in the mouth. 
This property makes pectin an ideal choice when trying to replace the mouth feel lost by the reduction in sugar content.
As most juice beverages and soft drinks contain calcium, pectin with a high degree of esterification is usually recommended to minimize the calcium sensitivity of the pectin and avoid any risk of gelling. 
A slight gelling of the product changes the rheology of the solution, resulting in undesirable pseudoplastic behavior. 
For this reason, the most commonly used pectin is of the rapid setting type. 
Pectin manufacturers usually offer rapid-set pectins standardized to a viscosity instead of gelling properties, so as to guarantee a consistent performance in a beverage application.

Pectin is a carbohydrate found mostly in the skin and core of raw fruit. 
In nature, Pectin functions as the structural "cement" that helps hold cell walls together. 
In solution, pectin has the ability to form a mesh that traps liquid, sets as it cools, and, in the case of jam, cradles suspended pieces of fruit.
Pectin needs partners, namely acid and sugar, to do the job of gelling properly. 
Acid helps extract pectin from fruit during gentle simmering and helps the gelling process, which will not take place unless the mixture is fairly acidic. 
If fruits (such as apricots) aren't sufficiently tart, a recipe will call for added lemon juice.

Pectin is a very important part of making jams. 
Pectin's not often that I'd make some without adding pectin. 
Here's a list of high pectin fruits that have enough pectin in them to make jam without adding pectin:
Apples, sour
Blackberries, sour
Crabapples
Cranberries
Currants
Gooseberries
Grapes (Eastern Concord)
Lemons
Loganberries
Plums (not Italian)
Quinces

Pectin is a heteropolysaccharide commercially derived from the cell wall of higher plants. 
Pectin is composed of partially methylated polygalacturonic acid units linked in the positions 1-4. 
The carboxylic group of the constituents of pectin can exist in the form of esters, free acids, ammonium, potassium or sodium salts or as acid amides.
Under the FDA regulation, pectin qualifies as a GRAS (generally recognized as safe) food substance. 
This status allows pectin to be used with no limitations.

Anything else needs pectin to be added. 
I often hear (erroneously) that strawberries are a high pectin fruit and adding pectin isn't needed. 
If you have under ripe berries you might be able to get away with it, but under ripe berries taste bad. 
Under ripe fruit often has higher pectin content than it's ripe version. 
When I preserve jam made of these fruits, I always add pectin:
Apricots
Blueberries
Figs
Grapes (Western Concord)
Guavas
Peaches
Pears
Plums (Italian)
Raspberries
Strawberries

What is Pectin?
Pectin is an extract from apples (with a tiny amount of citric acid and dextrose as binders) and doesn't change the flavor a bit.  
If you want to be specific, the University of California tell us it is n extract from "apple pomace and citrus peels". 
Pectin just helps thicken, allows you to use less sugar and less cooking! 
So unless you have a severe corn or apple allergy, there shouldn't be anything unsafe nor unnatural about it, there are demonstrated health benefits to pectin, see this page.
Most pectin you buy at the supermarket is produced in Europe and imported to the U.S.. 
Pectin has a limited shelf life; usually you don't want to keep it from year to year, as it's ability to gel will decrease.
After the jam has been heated and starts to cool, a gel starts to form.

Where can I find pectin?
Pectin is found naturally found in plants. 
Pectin exists primarily in plant cell walls and helps bind cells together.
Some fruits and vegetables are more pectin-rich than others. 
For example, apples, carrots, oranges, grapefruits, and lemons contain more pectin than cherries, grapes, and other small berries with citrus fruits containing the most pectin.
These natural sources of pectin are then processed to create the liquid and powdered pectin used in our home kitchens and by the food and medical industries. 
There are different types of pectin depending on the ingredients people combine pectin with and the desired outcome (e.g., a thick jelly or a thinner medication). 
When using pectin at home, Pectin’s important to note and use the pectin called for in your recipes.

Why is pectin important?
Pectin in fruits and vegetables helps provides necessary dietary fiber in our diets. 
This fiber aids in our health and digestion.
Pectin's important to note that pectin derived from fruits and used as a thickener for jams, jellies, and other foods does not provide the same dietary fiber as eating whole fruits and vegetable. 
Additionally, high-sugar jams and jellies should not replace a well-rounded, fiber-rich diet.
Manufacturers use pectin in some cosmetics as a safe and natural thickener and binder. 
Pectin also has medical applications and is used in some pharmaceutical and medical devices due to its unique gelling and binding composition.

Pectin is the substance which occurs naturally in the apples, berries and other fruits. 
Pectin was introduced in 1825 by Henri Braconnot. 
Pectin is produced as white to light brown powder that is extracted from citrus fruits. 
Pectin is used as gelling agent in foods especially jams and jellies. 
Pectin is also added to sweets, medicines, dessert fillings and fruit drinks. 
Pectin is the water soluble carbohydrate which is available on the intercellular tissues and cell walls of certain plants.  
Pectin helps to lower the low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels.  
Pectin helps to provide relief from diarrhea and slow down the passage of food from intestine. 
Other common names for pectin are Acide Pectinique, Apple Pectin, Acide Pectique, Citrus Pectin, Grapefruit Pectin, Fruit Pectin, MCP, Lemon Pectin, Modified Citrus Pectin, Pectine, Pectina, Pectine d’Agrume Mod and Pectine de Pomme.

Pectin is a fiber found in fruits. 
Pectin is used to make medicine.
People use pectin for high cholesterol, high triglycerides, and to prevent colon cancer and prostate cancer. 
Pectin is also used for diabetes and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). 
Some people use pectin to prevent poisoning caused by lead, strontium, and other heavy metals.
Pectin was used for years in combination with kaolin (Kaopectate) to control diarrhea. 
However, in April 2003, the FDA found ruled that scientific evidence does not support the use of pectin for diarrhea. 
Since April 2004, pectin has not been permitted as an anti-diarrhea agent in over-the-counter (OTC) products. 
As a result, Kaopectate no longer contains pectin and kaolin.
Some people apply pectin to the skin to protect raw or ulcerated mouth and throat sores.

Pectin is a component of the cell walls of plants that is composed of acidic sugar-containing backbones with neutral sugar-containing side chains. 
Pectin functions in cell adhesion and wall hydration, and pectin crosslinking influences wall porosity and plant morphogenesis. 
Despite Pectins low abundance in the secondary cell walls that make up the majority of lignocellulosic biomass, recent results have indicated that pectin influences secondary wall formation in addition to its roles in primary wall biosynthesis and modification. 
This mini-review will examine these and other recent results in the context of biomass yield and digestibility and discuss how these traits might be enhanced by the genetic and molecular modification of pectin. 
The utility of pectin as a high-value, renewable biomass co-product will also be highlighted.

Pectin is an interesting little ingredient. 
From simple jams and jellies, to high-end pastry and everything in between, pectin allows for fruit-based desserts and dessert components to have that perfect gel texture. 
The name sounds like something you would find on the periodic table – though not scientific, pastry chefs would agree that it is an important element in many successful dishes.

What Is Pectin?
Pectin is a naturally occurring, water-soluble fiber and gelling agent that can be found in most fruits and plants. 
The official definition of pectin, according to Merriam-Webster, is “a substance in some fruits that makes fruit jellies thick when the fruit is cooked.” 
Pectin comes in many forms such as powder, liquid and sheets.
Fruits with high pectin content, such as apples, oranges, berries and plums, can be used as a substitute for these commercial forms. 
Commercial pectin, sold in grocery stores and markets, is commonly made with extracted pectin from apples or citrus peels.

Protopectin – in hard immature fruits like green apples or the peel of citrus fruits
Pectin – as the fruit matures protopectin becomes soluble pectin, which is used in making jelly
Pectic acid – if fruit becomes overripe or a jelly is cooked too long, the pectin converts to pectic acid
There are two different classifications of pectin, high-methoxyl (HM) and low-methoxyl (LM). 
The HM type is further divided into two types – rapid-set and slow-set. 
Popular Science’s article “Pectin: Not Just for Jelly,” states, “Rapid-set HM pectin is often used for jellies that have ingredients suspended inside the gel structure, such as chunky marmalades or hot pepper jelly, while slow-set HM pectin is often used for clear jellies like apricot or grape.” 
LM pectin works well in conjunction with locust bean gum and is often used to produce low- or no-sugar jellies.

How Does It Work?
Pectin comes in many forms and therefore has differences in how each form works. 
When dealing with the powder form, which is the most common, the powder must be dissolved in water and quickly stirred so that it does not create lumps, which can cause an improper gelling of the mixture. 
The powder form can also be mixed with other water-soluble powders like sugar or salt and then mixed with the liquid ingredients for easier production. 
The liquid form of pectin dissolves easily in water and with more consistent results, but does have its own disadvantages. 

Pectin, whether powder or liquid, requires the ancillary ingredients used in recipes to have high sugar content or else the pectin will not thicken or gel properly. 
This could also allow yeast and mold to grow in the mixture. 
The recipe must also contain a certain calcium and acid content which are balanced accordingly, as adding the ingredients later in the process will cause the gelling efficiency of the pectin to decline.

The Difference Between Pectin and Gelatin
Pectin and gelatin have similar applications at a basic level – to create a gel texture; however they differ greatly in other uses and foundations. 
Pectin is a water-soluble fiber derived from non-animal byproducts, whereas gelatin is a protein derived from animals. 
This makes Pectin possible to create vegetarian and vegan recipes using pectin, providing the other ingredients are also non-animal byproducts. 
Some pectin are also unique because of their ability to return to a liquid state if the product is reheated, while gelatin will not. 
The most significant difference between gelatin and pectin would be how they are used in recipes. 
Pectin has more specific uses, while gelatin can be used in a wider variety of applications, but does not yield the same results.

What Is Pectin Used For?
Pastry chefs describe pectin as an essential ingredient for enhancing the quality of fruit-based jellies and dessert components because of the smooth texture it creates in the final product.
While pectin is used most commonly in jams, jellies, marmalades and desserts, pectin can also be used to stabilize acidic protein drinks, such as yogurt. 
“Using pectin will also improve the mouth-feel and the pulp stability in juice-based drinks and as a fat substitute in baked goods,” says Colin D. 
May in Science Direct’s article “Industrial Pectins: Sources, Production And Applications.” 
May also states that pectin’s applications range from desserts to dairy products, soft drinks and even pharmaceuticals. 
Pectin can also be found in the medical industry because of the fiber content, which can aid in curing gastrointestinal illnesses.

Other Name(s):
Acide Pectinique
Acide Pectique
Apple Pectin
Citrus Pectin
Fruit Pectin
Grapefruit Pectin
Lemon Pectin
MCP

Pectins are dietary fibers with different structural characteristics. 
Specific pectin structures can influence the gastrointestinal immune barrier by directly interacting with immune cells or by impacting the intestinal microbiota. 
The impact of pectin strongly depends on the specific structural characteristics of pectin; for example, the degree of methyl-esterification, acetylation and rhamnogalacturonan I or rhamnogalacturonan II neutral side chains. 
Here, we review the interactions of specific pectin structures with the gastrointestinal immune barrier. 
The effects of pectin include strengthening the mucus layer, enhancing epithelial integrity, and activating or inhibiting dendritic cell and macrophage responses. 
The direct interaction of pectins with the gastrointestinal immune barrier may be governed through pattern recognition receptors, such as Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 or Galectin-3. 
In addition, specific pectins can stimulate the diversity and abundance of beneficial microbial communities. 
Furthermore, the gastrointestinal immune barrier may be enhanced by short-chain fatty acids. 
Moreover, pectins can enhance the intestinal immune barrier by favoring the adhesion of commensal bacteria and inhibiting the adhesion of pathogens to epithelial cells. 
Current data illustrate that pectin may be a powerful dietary fiber to manage and prevent several inflammatory conditions, but additional human studies with pectin molecules with well-defined structures are urgently needed.

Modified Citrus Pectin
Pectina
Pectine
Pectine d'Agrume
Pectine d'Agrume Modifiée
Pectine de Citron
Pectine de Fruit
Pectine de Pamplemousse
Pectine de Pomme
Pectinic Acid.

Pectin (PEK-tin) is a mixture, not a compound. 
Mixtures differ from compounds in a number of important ways. 
The parts making up a mixture are not chemically combined with each other, as they are in a compound. 
Also, mixtures have no definite composition, but consist of varying amounts of the substances from which they are formed.

Pectin in an essential ingredient when making jams and jellies. 
Pectin’s a carbohydrate found in the skins and cores of most raw fruits. 
Pectin is what cements the fruit’s cell walls together. 
When pectin is dissolved in a solution, it forms a mesh that traps liquids. 
When pectin is heated with the correct amount of sugar and acid it forms a gel, giving jams and jellies their texture.
Pectin is sold as a powders and a liquid in the canning section of most grocery stores. 
Pectin makes jam and jelly-canning simple and consistent. 
The downside is that many commercial pectins require you to add a large amount of sugar in order for it to set properly. 
For the average home preserver, knowing the relative levels of natural pectin in fruits will help you make jams and jellies without buying the commercial stuff, and avoid an overly sweet end result.

Chemically, pectin is a polysaccharide, a very large molecule made of many thousands of monosaccharide units joined to each other in long, complex chains. 
Monosaccharides are simple sugars. 
The most familiar monosaccharide is probably glucose, the sugar from which the human body obtains the energy it needs to grow and stay healthy. 
The monosaccharides in pectin are different from and more complex than glucose.

Nutrition
Pectin provides little nutrition.
Pectin is a structural acidic heteropolysaccharide contained in the primary and middle lamella and cell walls of terrestrial plants. 
Pectins main component is galacturonic acid, a sugar acid derived from galactose. 
Pectin was first isolated and described in 1825 by Henri Braconnot.
Pectin is produced commercially as a white to light brown powder, mainly extracted from citrus fruits, and is used in food as a gelling agent, particularly in jams and jellies. 
Pectin is also used in dessert fillings, medicines, sweets, as a stabiliser in fruit juices and milk drinks, and as a source of dietary fibre.
One fluid ounce (29 grams) of liquid pectin contains:
Calories: 3
Protein: 0 grams
Fat: 0 grams
Carbs: 1 gram
Fiber: 1 gram

Powdered pectin has a similar nutrient content.
Neither the liquid nor powdered form contain significant amounts of vitamins or minerals, and all of its carbs and calories come from fiber.
That said, some products called pectin dry mixes contain added sugar and calories. 
These mixes can also be used to make jams and jellies.

Uses
Pectin is primarily used in food production and home cooking as a thickener.
Pectin’s added to commercially produced and homemade jams, jellies, and preserves. 
Pectin may likewise be added to flavored milk and drinkable yogurt as a stabilizer.
For home kitchen use, pectin is sold as a white or light-brown powder or a colorless liquid.
Pectin is also used as a soluble fiber supplement, which is often sold in capsule form. 
Soluble fiber may help relieve constipation, lower cholesterol and triglyceride levels, improve blood sugars, and promote a healthy weight (5Trusted Source).
Finally, this fiber is a key component of time-release coatings used in some medications.

Pectin Uses
Pectin is used to thicken recipes that include low-pectin fruits. 
Some fruits, especially very ripe ones, have relatively little pectin. 
Strawberries and raspberries, for example, are easily squashed, demonstrating how they are low in the "glue" that helps build the fruit's structure. 
For these fruits, without added pectin, making a properly set jelly or jam may require adding lots of sugar, cooking for excessively long times, or both, which results in a jam or jelly that tastes less like the fruit.
To find out how much pectin is in the fruit, combine 1 tablespoon of grain alcohol and 1 teaspoon of the fruit's juice. 
If Pectin sets up firm, Pectin's high in pectin. 
If the mixture becomes a loose, gelatinous mass, Pectin's medium on the pectin scale. 
If Pectin doesn't set at all or forms slivers of gel, Pectin's low in pectin.
Pectin can also be used in other dishes that require food to gel or thicken and as a fat substitute in some baked goods.

Pectins are a family of complex polysaccharides that contain 1,4-linked α-D-galactosyluronic acid residues. 
Pectins account for ~30% of the primary walls of dicotyledenous and non-graminaceous monocotyledenous plants and for between 5 and 10% of the walls of grasses. 
Pectins are also likely to be present in the walls of ferns, lycopods, and bryophytes. 
The presence of pectin in algal walls needs to be substantiated. 
There is no evidence that bacteria or fungi produce pectin.

Benefits
Supplementing with pectin may offer several potential health benefits.
Improves blood sugar and blood fat levels.
Some studies in mice have noted that pectin lowered blood sugar levels and improved blood-sugar-related hormone function, which could help manage type 2 diabetes .
However, studies in humans have not observed the same powerful effects on blood sugar control.
Pectin may also improve blood fat levels by binding with cholesterol in your digestive tract to keep Pectin from being absorbed, which could lower your risk of heart disease.
In one study in 57 adults, those who received 15 grams of pectin per day experienced up to a 7% reduction in LDL (bad) cholesterol compared with a control group.
Studies have also demonstrated the cholesterol and blood-fat-lowering properties of these supplements.
However, more research in humans is needed to better understand how pectin affects blood sugar and fat levels.

Pectin is the glue of the plant world. 
Consisting of long chains of polysaccharide molecules that bond together to form a gummy paste, pectin helps hold together the walls of plant cells, much as mortar holds up the bricks in a house. 
The pectin content in fruits varies depending on the type of fruit and the fruit’s ripeness.
You can also buy liquid or powdered pectin, which is made by extracting pectin from fruits. 
This commercial pectin can be used to thicken preserves made with low-pectin fruits, such as strawberries or peaches, or to make jellies from thin fruit juices. 
Food manufacturers use commercial pectin to make gummy candies and to improve the mouth-feel of low-fat yogurts and baked goods.

Pectin is a type of water-soluble fiber found in a variety of fruits and vegetables. 
Commercially, Pectin’s used to make jams and jellies because it turns into a sticky gel-like compound when combined with water. 
Pectin’s sticky properties also contribute to your health by attaching to cholesterol-rich bile within your intestines and carrying it out of your body. 
Citrus fruits and apples are particularly rich sources of pectin.

Pectin occurs in varying accounts in all plants and fruits. 
Pectin is not found in animal tissues. 
The skins, cores, and peels are a particularly rich source of pectin. 
During ripening, those substances convert naturally to pectin, but this conversion can be forced by long cooking, as in traditional methods of making jellies. 
Pectin is necessary to cook the fruit to extract the pectin. 
Jams and jellies have been produced for many years, and through experience our grandmothers knew that products made from apple, currant, and quince, turned out better than those made from other fruits. 
They stood over a hot, boiling pot, patiently stirring fruits until they cooked them down to a thicker consistency. 
Today, this process can be shortened by adding powdered pectin. 
What they did not know that those fruits were very rich in gelling pectin. 
They mixed pectin rich fruits or fruit extracts with fruits which do not set jams well, for example strawberry with gooseberry or with red currant. 
Extracts of apple peels and cores were also used for "difficult to set" jams.

Liquid or powdered pectin is a useful ingredient in the jam and jelly makers arsenal. 
If you have ever experienced a jam or jelly that just won’t seem to set then you may want to consider using pectin in your next attempt at making it.

Without pectin, jellies and jams won't gel, so Pectin's an essential ingredient. 
Unlike gelatin, which is made from animal parts, pectin comes from fruit. 
As a result, any food with pectin listed as an ingredient is both vegetarian and vegan. 
You can make all the jams, jellies and confectionaries you want without using sugar. 
Simply sweeten to your taste with any sweetener: sugar, honey, agave, maple syrup, frozen juice concentrate, stevia, xylitol, Sucanat, concentrated fruit sweetener, or Splenda and other artificial sweeteners.
Pectin is used in confectionery products such as candies for Pectins ability to stabilize soluble solids, as well as in puddings, fruit toppings and pie fillings.
Low methoxyl (LM) pectin, must be combined with calcium instead of sugar to create a set. 
So that our low methoxyl pectin is good for low- or no-sugar preserves. 
Pectin is especially important in low sugar diets for diabetics.
Low methoxyl pectin is used for those that want to decrease the amount of sugar used in making jam or jelly. 
This product creates a gel in the absence of sugar and acid for a quality product.

Pectin was first isolated in the 1820s, and shown to be the key to making jams and jellies. 
Commercial jam producers sought further supplies of pectin source materials. 
In Germany, apple juice producers started to dry the pomace residue left after pressing juice for sale to jam makers, who would cook the pomace in water with or without fruit juice to make a jellying juice. 
The first commercial production of a liquid pectin extract was recorded in 1908 in Germany, and from that time on there was rapid growth in the pectin industry in the United States and in Europe, followed recently by Brazil and Mexico.

Pectin should be noted that Pectin is impossible to make totally sugarless jam or jelly even with low sugar/no sugar pectin. 
The jam will gel fine, sugar substitutes will provide sweetness, but fruit contains Pectins own natural sugar, which will remain. 
Nevertheless, such products are the answer to diabetics and people on low calorie diets. 
The flavor of those products may not be exactly the same, but Pectin comes pretty close.

Pectin occurs in fruit in three forms:
Protopectin - hard immature fruits like green apples or the peel of citrus fruits.
Pectin - as the fruit matures protopectin becomes a soluble pectin, which is used in making jelly.
Pectin acid - if fruit becomes over-ripe or a jelly is cooked too long, the pectin converts to pectic acid.
The amount of pectin in fruit is rather small. 
Under ripe fruit contains more pectin than mature fruit but lacks the fully developed flavor. 
Only few fruits contain enough pectin and acid to produce quality jelly by cooking alone. Most fruit juices are very low in pectin.
During jelly production we usually add in extra pectin. 
This extra pectin is in a form of tasteless powder which is commercially produced by extracting pectin from citrus fruit or apples. 
Pectin is graded according to its jellifying strength and is used for making jams, jellies, marmalades and preserves. 
Powdered pectin does not easily dissolve in solutions which contain more than 25% sugar and Pectin is best to dissolve pectin first in water, or natural juice.

Pectin is a gelling agent. 
Pectin creates bonds with water (pectin-water) and with itself (pectin-pectin). 
Pectin-pectin bond gives the gel the strength and pectin-water bond gives jelly its softness. 
A different proportion between those two types of bonds give jam or jelly a different texture.

Pectin is one of the most versatile stabilizers available. 
Pectins gelling, thickening and stabilizing attributes makes it an essential additive not only in jams and jellies but in the production of many other food products, as well as in pharmaceutical and medical applications. 
The FDA recognizes pectin as GRAS (generally recognized as safe). 
Pectin may be used in all non-standardized foods.

Pectin is a type of soluble fiber that your body cannot absorb or digest. 
Pectin is found in the cells of all plants, but fruit skins and cores are especially high in pectin. 
Apples and citrus fruits are also naturally rich in pectin, particularly if they are underripe. 
Pectin is used to thicken jams and jellies, changing them from syrupy to spreadable. 
To make pectin powder at home, make pectin using green apples — as they are readily available — and dehydrate the pectin to make a powder.

The amount of pectin will vary from fruit to fruit. 
Underripe fruit generally has higher levels of pectin. 
The pectin is higher in the skins and cores of the fruit rather than the flesh. 
According to the National Center for Home Preservation, some fruits that contain high levels of pectin are:
Apples, sour
Blackberries, sour
Crabapples
Cranberries
Currants
Gooseberries
Grapes (Eastern Concord)
Lemons
Loganberries
Plums (not Italian)
Quinces
Using one of these fruits to make your homemade pectin will give you better results.

This wide range of applications explains the need for many different types of commercial pectins, which display different gelation characteristics and are sold according to their application, for example:
Rapid set pectin - traditionally used for jams and marmalades (pH 3.0-3.4)
Slow set pectin - used for jellies and for some jams and preserves, especially using vacuum cooking at lower temperatures. 
Also important for higher sugar products like bakery and biscuit jams, sugar confectionery, etc. (pH 2.8-3.2)

Low methyl ester and amidated pectins - used in a wide range of lower sugar products, reduced sugar preserves, fruit preparations for yogurts, dessert gels and toppings, and savory applications such as sauces and marinades. 
Can also be used in low acid high sugar products such as preserves containing low acid fruits (figs, bananas) and confectionery. 
Low methoxyl pectin (LMP) can gel at higher pH levels and has lower sugar requirements so Pectin is of special interest to people on low calorie diets. 
Pectin is also used as a fat replacer in meat, poultry, and fish products as well as in making low fat sausages.

Fractionated pectin – also known as modified citrus pectin – is a complex polysaccharide obtained from the peel and pulp of citrus fruits. 
Pectin's rich in galactoside residues – molecules that have an affinity for binding to certain types of unwanted cells. 
These galactoside residues will preferentially bind to the lectins on the cell membranes of the unwanted cell, in turn preventing the attachment of the unwanted cell to a normal cell, thus inhibiting the growth of the unwanted cell. 
Because Thorne's Fractionated Pectin Powder is a powder, Pectin can be taken in higher amounts for those desiring to do so. 
Pectin provides nutritional support for oncology patients and for liver detoxification.

Stabilizing pectins - used for stabilizing acidic protein products such as yogurts, whey and soya drinks against heat processing. 
Pectins can stop the milk protein in yogurt from curdling with heat, so heat treated long life yogurt drinks can be made.

Pectin is available from online suppliers, in health food stores and in local supermarkets. 
The grading system is based on the parts of sugar (water also present) that will be gelled by one part of pectin. 
For example, one part of 100 grade pectin gels 100 parts of sugar. 
One part of 150 grade pectin will gel 150 parts of sugar.

Pectin’s strength is determined on how ripe a fruit is when the pectin is extracted. 
The riper a fruit is, the less is found in the fruit. 
Very sour fruits such as under ripe citrus fruits have high levels of pectin. 
Thus creating a different pectin with enhanced properties. 
These properties include; constant gelling strength, heat resistance and the ability to rapidly dissolve. 
This kind has also been found to have anti-metastatic properties, therefore is included in a lot of health products.

Pectin is very commonly used in fillings, sweets, fruit juices, medicine, or as a source of dietary fibre. 
Normally, Pectin is a white to light brown powder that is extracted from fruits, vegetables, and seeds and is used as a thickening substance and stabiliser in food.

Decreases colon cancer risk
In test-tube studies, pectin has killed colon cancer cells.
In addition, this fiber helps decrease inflammation and cellular damage that can trigger colon cancer cell formation — thereby reducing the risk of colon cancer.
Researchers theorize that pectin can decrease colon cancer risk by binding with and inhibiting the absorption of galectin-3, high levels of which are associated with an increased risk of colon cancer.
Test-tube studies have also shown that pectin killed other types of cancer cells, including breast, liver, stomach, and lung cancer cells.
However, more research is needed to understand whether and how pectin affects cancer in humans.

How Much Pectin to Use?
How much pectin you will need in your recipe is a tricky question. 
Pectin really depends on the fruit you are using. 
However, even fruit known to have high levels of pectin can vary from season to season. 
The best way Pectin to follow a recipe from a reliable source and test your jams and jellies at various stages during the cooking process. 
The National Center for Home Preserving has a comprehensive guide on how to test your jams and jellies.

Promotes a healthy weight
Pectin may also promote a healthy body weight.
In human studies, increased fiber intake has been linked to a decreased risk of overweight and obesity. 
Pectin’s believed that this is because fiber is filling, and most high fiber foods are lower in calories than low fiber foods like refined grains.
Additionally, animal studies have demonstrated that pectin supplements promoted weight loss and fat burn in rats with obesity.
Specifically, one study in rats found that pectin promoted fullness and decreased calorie intake to a greater extent than a high protein diet. 
Similar studies have noted that pectin increased the levels of satiety — or fullness — hormones in mice.

Helps with gastrointestinal issues
As a soluble fiber with unique gelling properties, pectin aids digestion in many ways.
Soluble fibers turn into gel in your digestive tract in the presence of water. 
As such, they soften the stool and speed the transit time of material through the digestive tract, reducing constipation.
Also, soluble fiber is a prebiotic — a food source for the healthy bacteria living in your gut.
In a 4-week study in 80 people with slow-transit constipation, those who consumed 24 grams of pectin daily had higher populations of healthy bacteria in their gut and fewer symptoms of constipation than a control group.
Additionally, some animal studies have revealed that these supplements improve the health of gut bacteria, which can decrease inflammation and improve gastrointestinal symptoms.
Furthermore, this unique fiber may form a protective barrier around the gut lining to prevent harmful bacteria from entering your body.

Pectin is a naturally-occurring thickening agent that is most often used by adding Pectin to jams, jellies and similar products to help them gel and thicken. 
Pectin creates a thick, clear set when Pectin gels. 
Pectin is a carbohydrate (a polysaccharide) found in and around the cell walls of plants, and helps to bind those cells together. 
All fruit has pectin in Pectin, but the amount varies widely. 
Apples and oranges contain the most pectin, and the pectin from both fruits is used commercially to thicken many different types of products. 
Pectin generally needs a high sugar content and some acid, such as citric acid, to activate, and some commercially available pectins include citric acid as an ingredient to help ensure that consumers get their desired result when working with their products.
Pectin can be bought at the grocery store in both powder and liquid forms, and Pectin can also be introduced to a recipe by adding fruit that has a high natural pectin content, such as apples or plums.
Gelatin and pectin both produce clear gels with a high sheen, but the products are not the same. 
Pectin is a water-soluble fiber, while gelatin is a protein derived from animals. 
Pectin is used almost exclusively in high-sugar products, like jams. 
Gelatin, on the other hand, is used in a much wider variety of foods, including mousses, marshmallows and frostings because gelatin sets in a cool environment and does not require that specific ingredients be included to activate it.

Benefits of Pectin
Pectin is a type of carbohydrate - specifically a polysaccharide -- that’s found in the cell walls of plants, especially the leaves, roots and fruits. 
Pectin acts mainly to bind plant cells together. 
Pectin content varies widely among plants and even within the same plant over time. 
In general, pectin is broken down by enzymes as fruit ripens and becomes softer. 
Pectin and other dietary fibers do not contribute significantly to nutrition -- primarily because your intestines can’t digest them very well - but they do contribute to health. 
Pectin consumption impacts blood cholesterol levels and it help regulates blood glucose levels. 
Pectin also helps remove toxins such as lead and mercury from your body.

Citrus Fruit
The fruits containing the most pectin are citrus fruits, especially grapefruits, lemons and oranges. 
The majority of the pectin resides in the citrus peel, but the pulp also contains some. 
You'd need to eat a equivalent of 6 grapefruits to get a significant amount of pectin — however, you can easily get more from each grapefruit by using the peel via zest. 
Use citrus zest to add flavor to homemade salad dressings and marinades, or add Pectin to plain yogurt of cottage cheese.

Apples
Apples are also an excellent source of pectin. 
In practical terms, apples are often a better source than citrus fruit because most people eat the apple skins, which is where a significant proportion of the pectin resides. 
In contrast, the vast majority of people remove and discard the pectin-rich peel from citrus fruit. 
The amount of pectin in apple pulp ranges widely, from 0.14 to 1.15 percent of weight. 
Variety, growing conditions and ripeness affect pectin content.

Other Good Fruit Sources
A number of other fruits are very good sources of pectin - assuming you eat them with their skin - and these include all berries, peaches, apricots, cherries and grapes. 
Berries particularly notable for their pectin content include strawberries, blackberries, raspberries and dewberries. 
Bananas are also a good source, especially if you don’t let them get too ripe or soft before eating them.

Are there different types of pectin?
Yes. There are two main types of commercial pectin on the market: HM (high methoxyl) and LM (low methoxyl). 
HM pectin is the most widely available, even though Pectin isn’t always labeled as such. 
More often, you’ll see labels for the two subsets of HM pectin: rapid set and slow set.

Pectin is a naturally occurring carbohydrate in fruit that is concentrated in the fruit’s skin and the core. 
When cooked, Pectin solidifies to a gel, causing fruit preserves to set.
Fruit uses Pectin to build cell walls with. 
Generally, unripe fruit will have more Pectin than ripe fruit.

Rapid-set pectin works best when you want to suspend solid ingredients within a jelly, while slow set works best for clear jellies made from clarified fruit juices such as grape juice. 
Pull out the LM pectin when you want to make low-sugar and no-sugar jams and jellies or to make no-cook freezer preserves. 
LM pectin is often labeled “light” or for “low sugar or no sugar recipes.”

The most common variety that you will see in stores, high methoxyl pectin, is often referred to as either “fast-set” or “slow-set,” this type of pectin is used in most traditional canning recipes for jellies and jams. 
Fast-set is used for chunky mixtures, while slow-set is best for clear, smooth jellies. 
The other type of pectin, low methoxyl, is a good alternative for sugar-free preservation. 
Instead of sugar, calcium is used for that final set. 
This kind of pectin is often marketed as “light” or “sugar-free.” 

Fruits that are high in Pectin include Apples, Blackberries, Cape Gooseberries, Crab Apples, Cranberries, Gooseberries, Grapes, Medlars, Plums and Quince. 
Any citrus fruit peel is also very high in Pectin. 
Sometimes you will see recipes combining ripe and unripe fruit together. 
That is done for a reason. 

Fruit which is just underripe or just ripe contains the highest level of Pectin that the fruit is going to reach; past that, the Pectin levels will decrease. 
However, the flavour won’t be as developed in the unripe fruit: that will come from the fruit that is ripe.
Fruits that are low in Pectin include Apricots, Blueberries, Cherries, Peaches, Pears, Raspberries, Rhubarb and Strawberries.
When dissolved and let cool, Pectin forms invisible strands that hold liquid in. 
Acid (such as lemon juice) helps draw even more Pectin out of fruit when Pectin is heated. 
Water is attracted to sugar. 

Adding sugar causes some water to be drawn to the sugar molecules, leaving the Pectin molecules free to more easily get at and bind with each other, setting the preserve.
Pectin is available to consumers as an “extract” under the brand names of Certo, in North America and the UK, and SureJell in America, both are made by Kraft. 
Certo in the UK is made from apple Pectin that comes from apples that were pressed for other purposes, such as juice or cider. 
The pressed apples are filtered, concentrated, and have preservative added. 
Pectin comes as a liquid in bottles. 

Pectin is the most common type of pectin and is labeled as either rapid-set or slow-set. 
The gel strength of pectin remains high due to the increase in the degree of methylation; however, any further increase in the degree of methylation, i.e., more than 70%, leads to a decrease in its gel strength. 
Pectins are widely used in the production of jams and jellies, as they are used for thickening the product.

In North America, Certo is made from citrus peel (in 2004, Kraft says Lime peel, in fact), and is available as a liquid in bottles and as a powder in boxes. 
Powdered Pectin contains some type of sugar, such as dextrose or sucrose. 
The liquid Pectin tends to be used in jellies; the powdered tends to be used in jams and preserves. 
Apple Pectin is somewhat available in North America, but really only to commercial processors.
Pectin that doesn’t have much added sugar will probably still require you to make up for the sugar when you do your recipe, but lower-sugar Pectin does allow for recipes to cater to different types of fruit, as opposed to a high-sugar Pectin that blasts all types of fruit equally with sugar. 
If you add commercial Pectin to a recipe that didn’t originally call for Pectin, you have to use more sugar, often twice as much as originally called for, to give the Pectin something to react with.
Commercial Pectin is expensive. 

Some people who have access to “free” fruit — either because they have grown Pectin, or it has been dumped on them by desperate neighbours who can’t cope with the bounty of their own garden, or “bargain fruit” when it’s available in the fall by the bushels for a song, find that they end up spending way more on Pectin. 
But for the rest of us, who have to buy our fruit at normal prices, using commercial Pectin can be a no-brainer. 
Pectin does basically help to guarantee you good jam results, which can be important if you consider how expensive fruit is and how awful Pectin would be if it all went to waste in a preserve that went wrong.
Some people feel that Pectins that are added at the end of the cooking are better, as then no Pectin gets destroyed while the fruit is being boiled.

SUMMARY
Pectin may improve blood sugar and blood fat levels, kill cancer cells, promote a healthy weight, and improve digestion. 
However, more research in humans is needed.

Pectin is soluble in cold water. Once dissolved Pectin forms a viscous solution. 
When used in powder form, Pectin must be dispersed rapidly as Pectin easily forms lumps encased in a thin gel layer. 
This outer layer makes the lumps very difficult to dissolve and eliminate from your final product. 
The best ways to utilize pectin in Pectins powdered form is by shearing Pectin into your mixture using a standing blender, or by combining Pectin with other soluble powders, like sugar or salt, before whisking Pectin into your liquid ingredients. 
Pectin dissolves much more slowly in high-sugar solutions, so those can also be whisked into a syrup, which can then be diluted and gelled.
Pectin used for cooking is divided into two categories, high-methoxyl (HM) and low-methoxyl (LM). 

HM pectin is most commonly used to create fruit preserves. 
It requires the presence of sugar and specific levels of acidity. 
The amount of acid in your base solution will directly affect the setting time of the pectin. 
There are two types of HM pectin: rapid-set and slow-set. 
Rapid-set HM pectin is often used for jellies that have ingredients suspended inside the gel structure, such as chunky marmalades or hot pepper jelly, while slow-set HM pectin is often used for clear jellies like apricot or grape.
LM pectin requires the presence of calcium to activate the gelling process. 
Gelation is affected by many factors. 

Advantages of commercial pectin
Commercially prepared pectin is a natural and safe product. 
Pectin is an extract from apples or citrus fruits and being tasteless Pectin doesn't change the flavor. 
Pectin just helps thicken, and offers many advantages:
Drastically shortens cooking time. 
This results in more product as there is lesser amount of evaporated water. 
These two advantages greatly offset the initial cost of pectin. 
Allows for making jellied products from fruits that are pectin poor. 
Juice from such fruits will not produce jelly, unless a commercial pectin is added. 
The final product displays a much lighter color as due to a shorter cooking process, there is no time for sugar to caramelize. 
Some pectins allow for using a small amount to no sugar.
The disadvantage of commercial pectin, at least for home production, is that each brand of pectin contains Pectins own proprietary instructions and recipes for making jellied products. 
This locks a customer to a particular brand of pectin and many home jam makers don't know how to make jellied products without added pectin anymore.

There are minimum levels of calcium needed to create a gel. 
Above that level, the gel strength will increase rapidly, until it reaches maximum saturation, after which point adding additional calcium will cause the gel strength to decline. 
A sequestrant can be used to control the availability of the calcium present; as sequestrant levels increase, the system will gel less easily and at lower temperatures. 
A general rule of thumb for pH is that as acidity decreases, pectin with a higher reactivity level will be needed to form a gel. 
LM pectin is often used to produce low- or no-sugar jellies. 
Pectins have a complementary relationship with dairy products and are able to utilize whey as a source of calcium, enhancing their innate capabilities for gelation, emulsification, and the ability to produce stable foams.

Pectin is a substance found in plant cell walls that is commonly used as a food ingredient. 
Pectin helps foods gel and stabilize. 
In baking, pectin is a polysaccharide that is used as a fat and/or sugar replacer to create lower calorie foods and bakery jams.

Pectin is a soluble fiber found in most plants. 
Pectin is most abundant in:
Apples
Plums
The peel and pulp of citrus fruits
In food, Pectin is most commonly used to thicken jams, jellies, and preserves.

Pectin is a natural fiber found in most plants. 
Fruits like apples and oranges are particularly high in pectin, with the highest concentrations in the skins, cores and seeds. 
Boiling two pounds of tart green apples (slightly under-ripe apples work best) with four cups of water and one tablespoon of lemon juice for half an hour, then straining through cheesecloth before boiling further to reduce the volume by half will result in an effective homemade liquid pectin.

Liquid vs Powdered – Use only the type called for in your recipe.  
Powdered and liquid pectin are not interchangeable in recipes.  
The preserving books seem to confirm that the reason they may not be interchangeable is that the liquid version is always added after boiling but most types of powdered are added to the raw fruit or juice.  
After looking in many cookbooks, most recipes call for liquid pectin.

Uses
Pectin can be used to form a gel and add texture. 
Pectin can add viscosity and mouthfeel to beverages and stabilize their ingredients. 
Pectin can even be used as a soluble fiber. 
Pectin can be used in jams, jellies, marmalades, gummy candies, yoghurt, syrup, fruit preparations, dairy drinks, beverages, bread, frozen desserts and many other applications.

Gelatin vs. Pectin
Both gelatin and pectin are used as thickening agents, although they come from different sources. 
Gelatin is obtained from collagen in beef bones, meaning Pectin's not vegan, unlike pectin. 
Gelatin also doesn't require sugar or heat to thicken, making Pectin suitable for use in savory dishes too. 

Pectin is found naturally occurring in various forms of plant life, where Pectin helps to bind cells together. 
In spite of the fact that Pectin is widely occurring, there are only a few specific sources used to manufacture pectin for food purposes. 
Traditionally apple peels and cores were the primary source of pectin for making jellies and preserves. 
The liquid extract was preserved with sulfur dioxide and sold in bulk. 
As the commercial industry grew, so did the need for a more stable and easily transportable source of pectin. 
Citrus peels, a by-product of the juice industry, became a major resource for manufacturing solid pectin products. 
Pectin derived from apple and citrus sources are admirably suited to our culinary purposes.

The human body cannot digest pectin in its natural form. 
But an altered form of pectin, known as modified citrus pectin (MCP), has properties that allow it to be digested.

Pectin may have a potential role in cancer care. 
In a small study of men with prostate cancer for whom standard treatment had failed, MCP appeared to slow the growth of their cancer.
Larger, better designed studies are needed before any conclusions are drawn about MCP's potential as an anticancer agent.
Pectin has also been used to try to treat heavy metal toxicity, which can result from exposure to lead, mercury, arsenic, and other elements. 
Some people believe that MCP can help the body excrete such poisonous substances. 
But little unbiased research exists to support such claims.

Why do people take MCP?
People take MCP for a variety of reasons. 
Some research suggests that pectin, like other soluble fibers such as those found in oatmeal and in psyllium husks, can help lower LDL "bad" cholesterol. 
But the effect is a small one. 
If you have high cholesterol, soluble fibers such as pectin may help to lower Pectin, but they usually can't do the job on their own.

Much of the information we know about pectin is based on animal studies. 
Pectin has also been used to control diarrhea, and some evidence points to its effectiveness for treating very young children. 
The FDA, though, decided in 2003 that the available evidence does not support such a use. 
The following year Pectin banned the use of pectin in over-the-counter diarrhea medications.

SUMMARY
Pectin supplements may cause gas or bloating in some people. 
If you are allergic to apples or citrus, avoid these supplements.

Pectin is an important polysaccharide with applications in foods, pharmaceuticals, and a number of other industries. 
Its importance in the food sector lies in its ability to form gel in the presence of Ca2+ ions or a solute at low pH. 
Although the exact mechanism of gel formation is not clear, significant progress has been made in this direction. 
Depending on the pectin, coordinate bonding with Ca2+ ions or hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions are involved in gel formation. 
In low-methoxyl pectin, gelation results from ionic linkage via calcium bridges between two carboxyl groups belonging to two different chains in close contact with each other. 
In high-methoxyl pectin, the cross-linking of pectin molecules involves a combination of hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions between the molecules. 
A number of factors--pH, presence of other solutes, molecular size, degree of methoxylation, number and arrangement of side chains, and charge density on the molecule--influence the gelation of pectin. 
In the food industry, pectin is used in jams, jellies, frozen foods, and more recently in low-calorie foods as a fat and/or sugar replacer. 
In the pharmaceutical industry, Pectin is used to reduce blood cholesterol levels and gastrointestinal disorders. 
Other applications of pectin include use in edible films, paper substitute, foams and plasticizers, etc. 
In addition to pectolytic degradation, pectins are susceptible to heat degradation during processing, and the degradation is influenced by the nature of the ions and salts present in the system. 
Although present in the cell walls of most plants apple pomace and orange peel are the two major sources of commercial pectin due to the poor gelling behavior of pectin from other sources. 
This paper briefly describes the structure, chemistry of gelation, interactions, and industrial applications soft pectin.

How to add pectin to your diet
One way to add pectin to your diet is to eat more foods that are high in this fiber, such as apples.
Nearly all fruits and vegetables contain some pectin, so eating a variety of plant foods is an excellent way to boost your intake.

However, although most jams and jellies are made with pectin, eating more jam or jelly is not a good way to include more pectin in your diet. 
Jams and jellies contain only small amounts of the fiber and are high in sugar and calories. 
Thus, they should be eaten in moderation.

In addition, you can purchase pectin in supplement form, usually as capsules. 
These supplements are often made from apples or citrus peels.

SUMMARY
Eating more fruits and vegetables or taking a supplement are good ways to boost your pectin intake. 
Jams and jellies should be eaten in moderation, as they are high in sugar and calories.

Amidated LM pectin (LMA) is pectin that has been treated with ammonia, which moderates the bonds formed between the amide groups and the calcium ions. 
LMA is also more tolerant of fluctuations in the levels of calcium present in the base solution. 
Amidated LM pectin requires less calcium than conventional LM pectin to gel. 
Pectin is more thermally reversible than untreated LM pectin and has the ability to re-form after shearing.
From a culinary standpoint, we like pectin because Pectin creates gels with a smooth, creamy texture and great flavor release. 
Pectin can be used to create fruit and vegetable terrines, water gels, and low-sugar and low-fat applications.
All that and Pectin’s a vegetarian product. 
We’ve included a couple of recipes using LM pectin and LMA pectin so that you can begin experimenting with the possibilities.

The bottom line
Pectin is a soluble fiber with a powerful gelling ability.
Pectin’s commonly used to thicken and stabilize jams and jellies.
Pectin has many potential health benefits, more research in humans is needed to better understand how it affects health.
Eating a variety of fruits and vegetables is a great way to boost your pectin intake.

SUMMARY
Pectin is a soluble fiber found in fruits and vegetables, especially apples and citrus peels. 
Pectin’s a strong gelling agent used to thicken jams and jellies.

Biology
In plant biology, pectin consists of a complex set of polysaccharides (see below) that are present in most primary cell walls and are particularly abundant in the non-woody parts of terrestrial plants.
Pectin is a major component of the middle lamella, where it helps to bind cells together, but is also found in primary cell walls. 
Pectin is deposited by exocytosis into the cell wall via vesicles produced in the golgi.
The amount, structure and chemical composition of pectin differs among plants, within a plant over time, and in various parts of a plant. 
Pectin is an important cell wall polysaccharide that allows primary cell wall extension and plant growth.

During fruit ripening, pectin is broken down by the enzymes pectinase and pectinesterase, in which process the fruit becomes softer as the middle lamellae break down and cells become separated from each other.
A similar process of cell separation caused by the breakdown of pectin occurs in the abscission zone of the petioles of deciduous plants at leaf fall.
Pectin is a natural part of the human diet, but does not contribute significantly to nutrition. 
The daily intake of pectin from fruits and vegetables can be estimated to be around 5g if approximately 500g of fruits and vegetables are consumed per day.
In human digestion, pectin binds to cholesterol in the gastrointestinal tract and slows glucose absorption by trapping carbohydrates. 
Pectin is thus a soluble dietary fiber. 

In non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice pectin has been shown to increase the incidence of diabetes.
A study found that after consumption of fruit the concentration of methanol in the human body increased by as much as an order of magnitude due to the degradation of natural pectin (which is esterified with methyl alcohol) in the colon.
Pectin has been observed to have some function in repairing the DNA of some types of plant seeds, usually desert plants.
Pectinaceous surface pellicles, which are rich in pectin, create a mucilage layer that holds in dew that helps the cell repair Pectins DNA.
Consumption of pectin has been shown to slightly (3-7%) reduce blood LDL cholesterol levels. 
The effect depends upon the source of pectin; apple and citrus pectins were more effective than orange pulp fibre pectin.
The mechanism appears to be an increase of viscosity in the intestinal tract, leading to a reduced absorption of cholesterol from bile or food.
In the large intestine and colon, microorganisms degrade pectin and liberate short-chain fatty acids that have positive influence on health (prebiotic effect).

Pectin is a complex carbohydrate that is found in and around the cell walls of plants. 
Pectin helps to bind those cells together while working to regulate the flow of water in between the cells. 
Pectin has come to be a kitchen staple in canning and has been commonly used for over a century, ensuring jelling and thickening for a perfect consistency. 
With this vegetarian pectin, Regal Foods offers a quality product that appeals to a wide range of customers at a great value. 
Pectin's a perfect choice for any establishment interested in making Pectins own jams and jellies!

Chemistry
Pectins, also known as pectic polysaccharides, are rich in galacturonic acid. 
Several distinct polysaccharides have been identified and characterised within the pectic group. 
Homogalacturonans are linear chains of α-(1–4)-linked D-galacturonic acid.
Substituted galacturonans are characterised by the presence of saccharide appendant residues (such as D-xylose or D-apiose in the respective cases of xylogalacturonan and apiogalacturonan) branching from a backbone of D-galacturonic acid residues.
Rhamnogalacturonan I pectins (RG-I) contain a backbone of the repeating disaccharide: 4)-α-D-galacturonic acid-(1,2)-α-L-rhamnose-(1. From many of the rhamnose residues, sidechains of various neutral sugars branch off. 

The neutral sugars are mainly D-galactose, L-arabinose and D-xylose, with the types and proportions of neutral sugars varying with the origin of pectin.
Another structural type of pectin is rhamnogalacturonan II (RG-II), which is a less frequent, complex, highly branched polysaccharide.
Rhamnogalacturonan II is classified by some authors within the group of substituted galacturonans since the rhamnogalacturonan II backbone is made exclusively of D-galacturonic acid units.
Isolated pectin has a molecular weight of typically 60,000–130,000 g/mol, varying with origin and extraction conditions.
In nature, around 80 percent of carboxyl groups of galacturonic acid are esterified with methanol. 
This proportion is decreased to a varying degree during pectin extraction.

Pectins are classified as high- vs. low-methoxy pectins (short HM-pectins vs. LM-pectins), with more or less than half of all the galacturonic acid esterified.
The ratio of esterified to non-esterified galacturonic acid determines the behaviour of pectin in food applications - HM-pectins can form a gel under acidic conditions in the presence of high sugar concentrations, while LM-pectins form gels by interaction with divalent cations, particularly Ca2+, according to the idealized ‘egg box’ model, in which ionic bridges are formed between calcium ions and the ionised carboxyl groups of the galacturonic acid.
In high-ester/high-methoxy pectins at soluble solids content above 60% and a pH-value between 2.8 and 3.6, hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions bind the individual pectin chains together. 
These bonds form as water is bound by sugar and forces pectin strands to stick together. 
These form a 3-dimensional molecular net that creates the macromolecular gel. 

The gelling-mechanism is called a low-water-activity gel or sugar-acid-pectin gel.
While low-ester/low-methoxy pectins need calcium to form a gel, they can do so at lower soluble solids and higher pH-values than high-ester pectins. 
Normally low-ester pectins form gels with a range of pH from 2.6 to 7.0 and with a soluble solids content between 10 and 70%.
The non-esterified galacturonic acid units can be either free acids (carboxyl groups) or salts with sodium, potassium, or calcium. 
The salts of partially esterified pectins are called pectinates, if the degree of esterification is below 5 percent the salts are called pectates, the insoluble acid form, pectic acid.
Some plants, such as sugar beet, potatoes and pears, contain pectins with acetylated galacturonic acid in addition to methyl esters. 
Acetylation prevents gel-formation but increases the stabilising and emulsifying effects of pectin.
Amidated pectin is a modified form of pectin. 

Here, some of the galacturonic acid is converted with ammonia to carboxylic acid amide. 
These pectins are more tolerant of varying calcium concentrations that occur in use.
To prepare a pectin-gel, the ingredients are heated, dissolving the pectin. Upon cooling below gelling temperature, a gel starts to form. 
If gel formation is too strong, syneresis or a granular texture are the result, while weak gelling leads to excessively soft gels.
Amidated pectins behave like low-ester pectins but need less calcium and are more tolerant of excess calcium. 

Also, gels from amidated pectin are thermo-reversible; they can be heated and after cooling solidify again, whereas conventional pectin-gels will afterwards remain liquid.
High-ester pectins set at higher temperatures than low-ester pectins. 
However, gelling reactions with calcium increase as the degree of esterification falls. 
Similarly, lower pH-values or higher soluble solids (normally sugars) increase gelling speeds. 
Suitable pectins can therefore be selected for jams and jellies, or for higher-sugar confectionery jellies.

Sources and production
Pears, apples, guavas, quince, plums, gooseberries, and oranges and other citrus fruits contain large amounts of pectin, while soft fruits, like cherries, grapes, and strawberries, contain small amounts of pectin.
Pectin also has several health benefits in humans. 
Included among these are Pectins ability to reduce low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels, thereby lowering cholesterol levels, and its ability to slow the passage of food through the intestine, relieving diarrhea. 
Pectins can also activate cell death pathways in cancer cells, indicating that pectins may play an important role in preventing certain types of cancer.

Typical levels of pectin in fresh fruits and vegetables are:
Apples, 1–1.5%
Apricots, 1%
Cherries, 0.4%
Oranges, 0.5–3.5%
Carrots 1.4%
Citrus peels, 30%
Rose hips, 15% 

Pectin is a soluble fiber present in most plants, but concentrated in the peel and pulp of citrus fruits such as lemons, oranges, and grapefruits, as well as apples. 
Modified Citrus Pectin (MCP) is obtained by changing pectin so Pectin may be better absorbed by the body.
Lab studies suggest pectin and MCP have various properties, but human studies are limited. 
Preliminary data suggest pectin and MCP may be helpful for treating diarrhea and lowering cholesterol. 
Pectin causes side effects such as abdominal cramps and diarrhea, and may interfere with the absorption of some types of supplements.

The main raw materials for pectin production are dried citrus peels or apple pomace, both by-products of juice production. 
Pomace from sugar beets is also used to a small extent.
From these materials, pectin is extracted by adding hot dilute acid at pH-values from 1.5 – 3.5. 
During several hours of extraction, the protopectin loses some of its branching and chain length and goes into solution. 
After filtering, the extract is concentrated in a vacuum and the pectin is then precipitated by adding ethanol or isopropanol. 
An old technique of precipitating pectin with aluminium salts is no longer used (apart from alcohols and polyvalent cations, pectin also precipitates with proteins and detergents).
Alcohol-precipitated pectin is then separated, washed, and dried. 
Treating the initial pectin with dilute acid leads to low-esterified pectins. 
When this process includes ammonium hydroxide (NH3(aq)), amidated pectins are obtained. 
After drying and milling, pectin is usually standardised with sugar, and sometimes calcium salts or organic acids, to optimise performance in a particular application.

Uses of Pectin:
The main use for pectin is as a gelling agent, thickening agent and stabiliser in food. 
The classical application is giving the jelly-like consistency to jams or marmalades, which would otherwise be sweet juices. 
Pectin also reduces syneresis in jams and marmalades and increases the gel strength of low-calorie jams. 
For household use, pectin is an ingredient in gelling sugar (also known as "jam sugar") where Pectin is diluted to the right concentration with sugar and some citric acid to adjust pH. 
In some countries, pectin is also available as a solution or an extract, or as a blended powder, for home jam making.
For conventional jams and marmalades that contain above 60% sugar and soluble fruit solids, high-ester pectins are used. 
With low-ester pectins and amidated pectins, less sugar is needed, so that diet products can be made. 

Water extract of aiyu seeds is traditionally used in Taiwan to make aiyu jelly, where the extract gels without heating due to low-ester pectins from the seeds and the bivalent cations from the water.
Pectin is used in confectionery jellies to give a good gel structure, a clean bite and to confer a good flavour release. 
Pectin can also be used to stabilise acidic protein drinks, such as drinking yogurt, to improve the mouth-feel and the pulp stability in juice based drinks and as a fat substitute in baked goods.
Typical levels of pectin used as a food additive are between 0.5 and 1.0% – this is about the same amount of pectin as in fresh fruit.
In medicine, pectin increases viscosity and volume of stool so that it is used against constipation and diarrhea. 
Until 2002, Pectin was one of the main ingredients used in Kaopectate a medication to combat diarrhea, along with kaolinite. 
Pectin has been used in gentle heavy metal removal from biological systems.
Pectin is also used in throat lozenges as a demulcent.

Pectin (E 440i) and amidated pectin (E 440ii) were re-evaluated in 2017 by the former EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient sources added to Food (ANS). 
As a follow-up to this assessment, the Panel on Food Additives and Flavourings (FAF) was requested to assess the safety of pectins (E 440i,ii) for their uses as food additives in food for infants below 16 weeks of age. 
In addition, the FAF Panel was requested to address the issues already identified during the re-evaluation of the same food additive. 
The process involved the publication of a call for data to allow the interested business operators to provide the requested information to complete the risk assessment. 
Based on the information submitted in response to the call for data, the FAF Panel considered it feasible to amend the current specifications, in particular for the toxic elements arsenic, lead, cadmium, mercury and for sulfur dioxide and to introduce new specifications for aluminium and microbiological criteria. 
Studies on neonatal piglets, clinical studies and post-marketing data were made available during the call for data. 
Due to the low internal validity of the clinical studies, the Panel concluded that a reference point could not be derived from them, but the results of the adequate piglet study could serve to derive a reference point. 
When calculating the margin of safety for pectins exposure, this was below 1 for some scenarios. 
At the maximum permitted levels (MPLs), an internal methanol dose would be produced that could lead to adverse health effects in infants below 16 weeks of age. 
The FAF Panel recommended a reduction of the MPL of pectin (E 440i) and amidated pectin (E 440ii) in food categories 13.1.5.1 and 13.1.5.2, in order to reduce the exposure to both the additives themselves and to methanol.

In cosmetic products, pectin acts as a stabiliser. 
Pectin is also used in wound healing preparations and speciality medical adhesives, such as colostomy devices.
Sriamornsak revealed that pectin could be used in various oral drug delivery platforms, e.g., controlled release systems, gastro-retentive systems, colon-specific delivery systems and mucoadhesive delivery systems, according to its intoxicity and low cost. 
Pectin was found that pectin from different sources provides different gelling abilities, due to variations in molecular size and chemical composition. 
Like other natural polymers, a major problem with pectin is inconsistency in reproducibility between samples, which may result in poor reproducibility in drug delivery characteristics.
In ruminant nutrition, depending on the extent of lignification of the cell wall, pectin is up to 90% digestible by bacterial enzymes. 
Ruminant nutritionists recommend that the digestibility and energy concentration in forages be improved by increasing pectin concentration in the forage.
In cigars, pectin is considered an excellent substitute for vegetable glue and many cigar smokers and collectors use pectin for repairing damaged tobacco leaves on their cigars.
Yablokov et al., writing in Chernobyl: 
Consequences of the Catastrophe for People and the Environment, quote research conducted by the Ukrainian Center of Radiation Medicine and the Belarusian Institute of Radiation Medicine and Endocrinology, concluded, regarding pectin's radioprotective effects, that "adding pectin preparations to the food of inhabitants of the Chernobyl-contaminated regions promotes an effective excretion of incorporated radionuclides" such as cesium-137. 
The authors reported on the positive results of using pectin food additive preparations in a number of clinical studies conducted on children in severely polluted areas, with up to 50% improvement over control groups.
During the Second World War, Allied pilots were provided with maps printed on silk, for navigation in escape and evasion efforts. 
The printing process at first proved nearly impossible because the several layers of ink immediately ran, blurring outlines and rendering place names illegible until the inventor of the maps, Clayton Hutton, mixed a little pectin with the ink and at once the pectin coagulated the ink and prevented it from running, allowing small topographic features to be clearly visible.

How to Cook With Pectin
The type of pectin being used will determine how Pectin is added to a recipe. 
High methoxyl pectin needs to be cooked to a high temperature (220 F) in combination with acid and sugar to form a gel, while low methoxyl pectin can be activated at room temperature. 
Therefore, HM pectin will be added to the hot fruit mixture early on. 
LM pectin is often mixed with a little sugar and added to the hot fruit later in the recipe. 
Liquid pectin is poured into the pot of hot fruit mixture almost at the end of cooking.
Make sure not to overcook the recipe once the pectin is added, as boiling beyond the gel point, or not stirring enough, will help break down the pectin.

What Does Pectin Taste Like?
Pectin should not add any flavor to a recipe. 
However, depending on the brand, Pectin could contribute a little bitterness. 
Homemade pectin will taste like the fruit Pectin is made from.

Pectin, which is often added to yogurt, is found in the cell walls of plants. 
Lemons, limes, oranges and grapefruits are common sources of pectin used in yogurt products. 
Pectin improves the taste and texture of yogurt by serving as a stabilizer and gelling agent and increasing the shelf life of yogurt drinks

Pectins are complex polysaccharides that contain acidic sugars and are major determinants of the cohesion, adhesion, extensibility, porosity and electrostatic potential of plant cell walls. 
Recent evidence has solidified their positions as key regulators of cellular growth and tissue morphogenesis, although important details of how they achieve this regulation are still missing. 
Pectins are also hypothesized to function as ligands for wall integrity sensors that enable plant cells to respond to intrinsic defects in wall biomechanics and to wall degradation by attacking pathogens. 
This update highlights recent advances in our understanding of the biosynthesis of pectins, how they are delivered to the cell surface and become incorporated into the cell wall matrix and how pectins are modified over time in the apoplast. 
Pectin also poses unanswered questions for further research into this enigmatic but essential class of carbohydrate polymers.

Pectin, any of a group of water-soluble carbohydrate substances that are found in the cell walls and intercellular tissues of certain plants. 
In the fruits of plants, pectin helps keep the walls of adjacent cells joined together. 
Immature fruits contain the precursor substance protopectin, which is converted to pectin and becomes more water-soluble as ripening proceeds. 
At this stage the pectin helps ripening fruits to remain firm and retain their shape.
As a fruit becomes overripe, the pectin in Pectin is broken down to simple sugars that are completely water-soluble. 
As a result, the overripe fruit becomes soft and begins to lose Pectins shape.

Pectin is a very long and branched chain of sugars found as a major building block in plants that helps them stay firm. 
Pectin is the molecule responsible for the tight connection between each cell, and is found in highest concentration in the skin of fruits. 
Pectin is pectin that is broken down as fruit ripens, causing a softening of the flesh. 
Pectin is also the gelling ingredient that makes fruit jams and jellies become solid.

Legal status
At the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee Report on Food Additives and in the European Union, no numerical acceptable daily intake (ADI) has been set, as pectin is considered safe.
In the United States, pectin is generally recognised as safe for human consumption.
In the International Numbering System (INS), pectin has the number 440. 
In Europe, pectins are differentiated into the E numbers E440(i) for non-amidated pectins and E440(ii) for amidated pectins. 
There are specifications in all national and international legislation defining its quality and regulating its use.

History
Pectin was first isolated and described in 1825 by Henri Braconnot, though the action of pectin to make jams and marmalades was known long before. 
To obtain well-set jams from fruits that had little or only poor quality pectin, pectin-rich fruits or their extracts were mixed into the recipe.
During the Industrial Revolution, the makers of fruit preserves turned to producers of apple juice to obtain dried apple pomace that was cooked to extract pectin. 
Later, in the 1920s and 1930s, factories were built that commercially extracted pectin from dried apple pomace and later citrus peel in regions that produced apple juice in both the US and Europe.
Pectin was first sold as a liquid extract, but is now most often used as dried powder, which is easier than a liquid to store and handle.


8-) XANTHAN GUM

Xanthan gum= Corn sugar gum = Gum xanthan = Xanthan


Xanthan gum is a polysaccharide with many industrial uses, including as a common food additive. It is an effective thickening agent and stabilizer to prevent ingredients from separating. 
Xanthan gum can be produced from simple sugars using a fermentation process, and derives its name from the species of bacteria used, Xanthomonas campestris.

Xanthan gım is humectant, texture enhance and viscosity builder in food, cosmetics, pharma and other industrial applicatins.
Xanthan Gum
CAS Registry Number: 11138-66-2
E-Number:E415
Chemical Formula: (C35H49O29)n
E number: E415 (thickeners)

Properties
Chemical formula: C35H49O29 (monomer)
Molar mass: 933.748 g·mol−1

Xanthan gum is made from a bacteria found on the leaf surfaces of green vegetables, including broccoli, brussels sprouts, cauliflower, cabbage, kale, rutabaga and turnip. 
The bacteria is fermented (much like cheese or wine), then dried and ground into powder.

XANTHAN GUM is classified as :
Binding
Emulsifying
Emulsion stabilising
Gel forming
Skin conditioning
Surfactant
Viscosity controlling

CAS Number: 11138-66-2
EINECS/ELINCS No: 234-394-2
COSING REF No:    80699
PHARMACEUTICAL EUROPEAN NAME: gummi xanthanum
Chem/IUPAC Name: Xanthan gum


Xanthan Gum is a polysaccharide that can be used as a natural thickening agent. It has the ability to increase viscosity of liquids.

Xanthan Gum is a widely used in the food and pharmaceutical industries as an additive and as an anti-settling agent. 
Xanthan Gum is extremely stable over a wide range of pH’s and can also be found in some personal care products such as creams, lotions, and gels.

Xanthan gum exhibits extraordinary and useful properties, for example high viscosity at low concentrations, little change in viscosity at varying temperatures, and excellent stability over a wide pH range. 
Xanthan gum also provides good freeze-thaw stability and shows remarkable suspension characteristics.


Xanthan gum is a high, molecular weight polysaccharide common in food products with process controls and rigorous quality standards throughout production to guarantee consistent, reliable product performance.

• Provides stability
• Improves or modifies textural qualities
• Enhances pouring characteristics and cling


Xanthan gum is a polysaccharide obtained from the aerobic fermentation of simple sugars by the Xanthomonas campestris bacteria. The powder is used as a stabilizer and thickening agent in many food products.

In baking, it is widely used in gluten-free baked goods as a partial substitute for wheat flour. It is also a:

Humectant
Texture enhancer
Viscosity builder


Application Areas:
Supplements
Cosmetics
Baked goods and pastry fillings
Ice cream and sherbet
Industrial products
Jams, jellies and sauces
Lotions
Medicines
Pudding
Salad dressings
Toothpastes
Yogurt

Xanthan gum stabilizes and thickens foods to provide the right texture and flavor delivery.
Xanthan gum was first discovered in the early 1960s, and was approved for use in foods in 1969.
Xanthan gum is used in salad dressings, sauces, beverages, dairy products, syrups, toppings, baked goods, confectioneries and candies, breadings, batter, and low fat spreads.
Xanthan gum provides thickening and suspension. For example, in a salad dressing that contains spices, xanthan gum helps to suspend the spices as well as maintain a smooth and consistent texture.
Since xanthan gum is similar in structure to fibers, consuming large quantities can have a laxative effect. If someone consumes large amounts of any fiber, side effects such as gas and bloating will likely be experienced. The good news is that xanthan gum is used at such low levels in food products – less than 0.3% in most cases – that side effects are unlikely.

Xanthan gum is a complex exopolysaccharide composed of glucose, mannose and glucuronic acid. It is predominantly used as a stabilising and thickening agent within many industries including food & beverage, cosmetics and pharmaceutical as well as within industrial applications and many common cleaning agents.

Countries around the world have approved xanthan gum as a safe food additive. Xanthan gum is approved for food use globally, including in Canada, Mexico, Brazil, the European Union, China, Japan and Korea. Xanthan gum’s safety has also been reviewed and endorsed by the World Health Organization and Food and Agriculture Organization (WHO/FAO).

Xanthan Gum (E415) is widely used for its thickening and stabilizing effect on emulsions and suspensions. 
Xanthan gum forms a gel structure in water which is shear thinning and may be used in combination with other rheology modifiers, particularly Guar gum as the two combine to give greatly increased effects.


Xanthan gum can be dispersed into hot or cold liquids, and many grades of gum are available. The powder has a strong tendency to form lumps when added to water and a number of dispersion and hydration methods are used to try and overcome this. These vary according to the scale of production, other ingredients used, etc. but include:

​Slow addition of the powder into the vortex in an agitated vessel. Once dispersed mixing continues to allow the product to hydrate.
The gum may be premixed with other powdered ingredients such as sugars which reduces the formation of agglomerates by separating the particles.
Similarly the product may be dispersed into non-aqueous phase liquids such as oils. This is then added to the aqueous phase allowing the gum to hydrate.


The Problem with Mixing Xanthan Gum
Dispersion of gums and thickeners using conventional agitators can give rise to several problems: 

Agglomerates can easily form, even when the above steps are taken to reduce the risk. Agitators do not produce sufficient shear to rapidly break these down.
Potential full yield is difficult to obtain using traditional methods.
Many formulations contain unnecessarily high levels of gum to compensate for poor yield, increasing raw material costs.
Once viscosity increase has started, agitation of the solution and therefore powder dispersion becomes increasingly difficult.
Long mixing times are required to complete dispersion/hydration. This can degrade the gel.
Premixing powders or non-aqueous phase liquid with the gum adds to process time and costs.
Unhydrated gum can gradually hydrate during storage or subsequent processing, leading to undesired changes in product viscosity.
It is not possible to create high percentage gum solutions with traditional methods. Solutions of this type may be required in certain applications where water is limited in the formulation. 

Xanthan gum is a popular food additive. It’s created by fermenting bacteria, adding alcohol, and drying it to form a powder. It’s typically vegan-friendly.

What are the benefits of xanthan gum?

It improves food texture.
It thickens liquids.
It might lower blood sugar (in some circumstances).
It may have laxative effects.


Xanthan gum is used as a stabiliser, emulsifier, thickener, suspending agent and bodying agent in food applications such as salad dressings, sauces, instant products, desserts, bakery dairy products, and fruit juices as well as in the formation of various low-calorie foods. 
Cosmetic and pharmaceutical applications of xanthan gum include the use in tooth pastes, lotions, shampoos and formulations such as tablets. 
Typical industrial applications of xanthan gum is the use in cleaners, paints, ceramic glazes, inks and oil drilling fluids.

WHAT OTHER NAMES IS XANTHAN GUM KNOWN BY?
Bacterial Polysaccharide, Corn Sugar Gum, Goma Xantana, Gomme de Sucre de Maïs, Gomme de Xanthane, Gomme Xanthane, Polysaccharide Bactérien, Polysaccharide de Type Xanthane, Polysaccharide Xanthane, Xanthan, Xanthomonas campestris.

Xanthan gum is used as a binder, stabilizer and emulsifier in food products. It is not found in nature and has to be manufactured. 
According to the USDA, it's made by taking a type of carbohydrate, such as glucose or sucrose, and fermenting it with bacteria.

Specifically, xanthan gum is a polysaccharide and a soluble fiber


Like guar gum, xanthan gum is a food additive that’s often used to thicken or stabilize a final product. It’s particularly common in gluten-free baked goods, since it provides extra elasticity to dough that would otherwise be missing.

Xanthan gum is the product of a bacterial fermentation process. It’s produced when the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris is placed in a growth medium that includes sugars and other nutrients. (1) The resulting compound is then purified, dried out, powdered, and sold as a food thickener.

In addition to its common use in gluten-free baked goods, it shows up in the ingredients list for salad dressings, some supplements and medicines, ice cream, yogurt, pudding, and some sauces.


Xanthan Gum is used in the food industry as a thickener, stabilizer and emulsifier for a number of different foods. Its unique ability to hold food together makes it the ideal substitute for gluten in gluten-free baking.


Xanthan gum is a white to tan colored powder used in many food products. It is commonly used in condiments such as salad dressings and sauces, jams and fruit fillings to add viscosity and help stabilize the products by preventing ingredients, such as oils, from separating from the mixture. It is also used in ice cream to keep the texture smooth and prevent the formation of ice crystals. Xanthan gum can be used as a gluten replacement as it helps give gluten free dough a sticky consistency.

How is Xanthan gum made?

Xanthan gum is made from the fermentation of carbohydrates (sugars). The bacteria strain Xanthomonas campestris is fed with carbohydrate and metabolizes the sugars into a liquid solution. The solution is mixed with alcohol (ethanol or isopropanol) which causes the gum to separate from the water. The gum is then rinsed, dried and ground.

The carbohydrate used for the xanthan gum can be derived from cane sugar, lactose (dairy), corn or wheat. In the United States, xanthan gum is most often derived from corn because it is a cheap, subsidized crop. However, because corn is typically GMO, other types of carbohydrate are used in the USA to make non-GMO xanthan gum. In South America, cane sugar is often used due to the low sugar prices, while in Europe wheat sweeteners are commonly used.

Xanthan gum is a polysaccharide widely used for its unique ability to control the rheological properties of a wide range of food products. Xanthan gum dissolves readily in hot or cold water, provides uniform brine distribution, is stable in acidic and alkaline solutions and has synergistic interactions with other hydrocolloids such as locust bean gum and guar gum.

Xanthan gum for innovative textures.
Reliable thickening for innovative textures.
Naturally occurring polysaccharides from higher plants and seaweeds have been in use for a long time. 
Microbial polysaccharides however have only been discovered relatively recently. 
Xanthan gum was the second microbial polysaccharide to be commercialized. 
Its success in the 1950s triggered further interest in the metabolism of extra-cellular polysaccharides by micro-organisms. 
As a result, more gums were discovered and patented. Xanthan gum is a bacterial polysaccharide produced industrially on a large scale.


Applications Category    

Applications
Dairy    
Mixes for dessert creams, dessert creams, creams and whipped creams, Frozen desserts

Restructured products: Meat, fruits, vegetables, fish
Convenience food: Dressings and sauces
Other: Personal care, pharmaceuticals, household products, cleaners, agricultural, paints & coatings, oral care


Xanthan gum can be widely used in more than twenty industrail fields, such as food,pharmaceutial, fine chemical, agriculture, oil drilling and explotation and so on.


Properties of Xanthan gum
High stabilising and suspending properties
High viscosity at low concentration
Soluble in hot and cold water
High pseudoplasticity (shear-thinning)
Excellent freeze/thaw stability
Very resistant to pH variations
Highly resistant to temperature variations
Highly resistant to enzymatic degradation
Very low caloric value
Compatible with all commercial thickeners and stabilisers.

Xanthan gum is used in cosmetics as an emulsion stabilizer, film-forming agent or binder. Xanthan gum is obtained by the fermentation of a carbohydrate (for example glucose) with the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris. It is authorized in Bio.

A 2016 study of the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) on microbial polysaccharide gums, of which Xanthan gum is a part, concludes that the ingredient is safe.


Xanthan Gum is a natural gum polysaccharide created through fermentation of sugar (glucose or sucrose) by Xanthomonas campestris bacteria. 
Xanthan Gum is used in cosmetics as a thickener or rheology modifier and emulsion stabilizer. Our Xanthan Gum Clear is a higher purity, cosmetic grade made without hydration retardants for quicker thickening. It produces the clearest gels.  Our Xanthan Gum Clear in solution with have greater viscosity and clarity than our Xanthan Gum Soft, but with more stringing effect.
Xanthan gum produces a large increase in the viscosity of a liquid with the addition of a very small amount of gum. 
Generally 1%, but as little as 0.1% can be used in many applications. Xanthan Gum is an excellent natural source thickener for lotions, creams, liquid soap, shower gels, body washes and shampoos.
Features
•    Natural source thickener
•    High viscosity at low use
•    Produces clear gels
•    Synergistic with other gums, including GuarCat™
•    Compatible with 70% isopropyl alcohol
Xanthan Gum Clear is NOT manufactured with built in hydration delay. To incorporate without agglomeration, create a vortex in the water with your mixer (paddle, stick blender, etc.) and sprinkle the xanthan gum into the vortex. Alternately, the xanthan gum can be pre-dispersed in glycerin or propylene glycol and then immediately added to the water phase with mixing. Once the xanthan gum is fully hydrated, the resulting solution can be heated if necessary for the inclusion of other ingredients. 

Xanthan gum is a polysaccharide that is widely used as an effective and approved thickening agent and stabilizer for various food products.


Actually the way that xanthan gum is manufactured is quite interesting:

First, it is produced when glucose, sucrose or lactose is fermented by the bacteria Xanthomonas campestris, which infects many cruciferous plants (like cauliflower and cabbage) and causes diseases, such as bacterial wilt and black rot.
Then, it is precipitated (made into a solid) by isopropyl alcohol.
After being dried, it is ground into fine powder so it can be added to liquid to form gum.

History
Xanthan gum was discovered by Allene Rosalind Jeanes and her research team at the United States Department of Agriculture, and brought into commercial production by CP Kelco under the trade name Kelzan in the early 1960s.
It was approved for use in foods in 1968 and is accepted as a safe food additive in the USA, Canada, European countries, and many other countries, with E number E415, and CAS number 11138-66-2.

Xanthan gum derives its name from the species of bacteria used during the fermentation process, Xanthomonas campestris.
This is the same bacterium responsible for causing black rot to form on broccoli, cauliflower, and other leafy vegetables.

Uses
Xanthan gum, 1%, can produce a significant increase in the viscosity of a liquid.

In foods, xanthan gum is common in salad dressings and sauces. Xanthan gum helps to prevent oil separation by stabilizing the emulsion, although it is not an emulsifier. 
Xanthan gum also helps suspend solid particles, such as spices. Xanthan gum helps create the desired texture in many ice creams. 
Toothpaste often contains xanthan gum as a binder to keep the product uniform. 
Xanthan gum also helps thicken commercial egg substitutes made from egg whites, to replace the fat and emulsifiers found in yolks. 
It is also a preferred method of thickening liquids for those with swallowing disorders, since it does not change the color or flavor of foods or beverages at typical use levels.
In gluten-free baking, xanthan gum is used to give the dough or batter the stickiness that would otherwise be achieved with gluten. 
In most foods it is used at concentrations of 0.5% or less. 
Xanthan gum is used in wide range food products, such as sauces, dressings, meat and poultry products, bakery products, confectionery products, beverages, dairy products, others.

In the oil industry, xanthan gum is used in large quantities to thicken drilling mud.
These fluids carry the solids cut by the drilling bit to the surface. 
Xanthan gum provides great "low end" rheology. 

When circulation stops, the solids remain suspended in the drilling fluid. 

The widespread use of horizontal drilling and the demand for good control of drilled solids has led to its expanded use. 
Xanthan gum has been added to concrete poured underwater, to increase its viscosity and prevent washout.

In cosmetics, xanthan gum is used to prepare water gels.

Xanthan gum is also used in oil-in-water emulsions to enhance droplet coalescence.

Xanthan gum is under preliminary research for its potential uses in tissue engineering to construct hydrogels and scaffolds supporting three-dimensional tissue formation.[8]


Xanthan gum serves two primary purposes:

As a thickening agent: Xanthan gum is added to toothpaste and some other products to keep them uniformly thick. 
Xanthan gum is also used in industry, for example, helping to thicken drilling oil.
As an emulsifier: Its ability to bind moisture means it can prevent products from separating. 
For this reason, xanthan gum is an ingredient in some oil-based salad dressings and cosmetics.


Shear thinning
The viscosity of xanthan gum solutions decreases with higher shear rates. This is called shear thinning or pseudoplasticity. 
This means that a product subjected to shear, whether from mixing, shaking or chewing will thin. 
When the shear forces are removed, the food will thicken again. 
In salad dressing, the addition of xanthan gum makes it thick enough at rest in the bottle to keep the mixture fairly homogeneous, but the shear forces generated by shaking and pouring thins it, so it can be easily poured. 
When it exits the bottle, the shear forces are removed and it thickens again, so it clings to the salad.

Amounts used
The greater the ratio of xanthan gum added to a liquid, the thicker the liquid will become. 
An emulsion can be formed with as little as 0.1% (by weight). 

Increasing the amount of gum gives a thicker, more stable emulsion up to 1% xanthan gum. 
A teaspoon of xanthan gum weighs about 2.5 grams and brings one cup (250 ml) of water to a 1% concentration.[6][10]

To make a foam, 0.2–0.8% xanthan gum is typically used. Larger amounts result in larger bubbles and denser foam. Egg white powder (0.2–2.0%) with 0.1–0.4% xanthan gum yields bubbles similar to soap bubbles.

Health
Evaluation of workers exposed to xanthan gum dust found evidence of a link to respiratory symptoms.

Note that Xanthan gum is not regulated in Europe. In the United States, the FDA limits its use to 6% of the total ingredients in cosmetics.

FUNCTIONS OF XANTHAN GUM:
Binding : Allows the cohesion of different cosmetic ingredients
Emulsifying : Promotes the formation of intimate mixtures between immiscible liquids by modifying the interfacial tension (water and oil)
Emulsion stabilising : Promotes the emulsification process and improves the stability and shelf life of the emulsion
Gel forming : Gives the consistency of a gel to a liquid preparation
Skin conditioning : Keeps the skin in good condition
Surfactant : Reduces the surface tension of cosmetics and contributes to the even distribution of the product when it is used
Viscosity controlling : Increases or decreases the viscosity of cosmetics


Safety
According to a 2017 safety review by a scientific panel of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), xanthan gum (European food additive number E 415) is extensively digested during intestinal fermentation, and causes no adverse effects, even at high intake amounts.
The EFSA panel found no concern about genotoxicity from long-term consumption.
The EFSA concluded that there is no safety concern for the general population when xanthan gum is consumed as a food additive.

Preparation
Xanthan gum is produced by the fermentation of glucose and sucrose.
The polysaccharide is prepared by the bacteria being inoculated into a sterile aqueous solution of carbohydrate(s), a source of nitrogen, dipotassium phosphate, and some trace elements.
The medium is well-aerated and stirred, and the xanthan polymer is produced extracellularly into the medium. 
After one to four days, the polymer is precipitated from the medium by the addition of isopropyl alcohol, and the precipitate is dried and milled to give a powder that is readily soluble in water or brine.[13]

It is composed of pentasaccharide repeat units, comprising glucose, mannose, and glucuronic acid in the molar ratio 2:2:1.

A strain of X. campestris has been developed that will grow on lactose - which allows it to be used to process whey, a waste product of cheese production. 
This can produce 30 g/L of xanthan gum for every 40 g/L of whey powder. Whey-derived xanthan gum is commonly used in many commercial products, such as shampoos and salad dressings.

Detail of the biosynthesis
Synthesis originates from glucose as substrate for synthesis of the sugar nucleotides precursors UDP-glucose, UDP-glucuronate, and GDP-mannose that are required for building the pentasaccharide repeat unit.
This links the synthesis of xanthan to carbohydrate metabolism. The repeat units are built up at undecaprenylphosphate lipid carriers that are anchored in the cytoplasmic membrane.[citation needed]

Specific glycosyltransferases sequentially transfer the sugar moieties of the nucleotide sugar xanthan precursors to the lipid carriers. 
Acetyl and pyruvyl residues are added as non-carbohydrate decorations. 
Mature repeat units are polymerized and exported in a way resembling the Wzy-dependent polysaccharide synthesis mechanism of Enterobacteriaceae. 
Products of the gum gene cluster drive synthesis, polymerization, and export of the repeat unit.


Xanthan gum is a popular food additive that’s commonly added to foods as a thickener or stabilizer.
Xanthan gum is a food additive created by a sugar that’s fermented by a bacteria. 
It’s a soluble fiber and commonly used to thicken or stabilize foods.

It’s created when sugar is fermented by a type of bacteria called Xanthomonas campestris. 
When sugar is fermented, it creates a broth or goo-like substance, which is made solid by adding an alcohol. It is then dried and turned into a powder.

When xanthan gum powder is added to a liquid, it quickly disperses and creates a viscous and stable solution. 
This makes it a great thickening, suspending and stabilizing agent for many products.

It was discovered by scientists in 1963. 
Since then, it has been well researched and determined safe. 
Therefore, the FDA has approved it as a food additive and placed no limitations on the amount of xanthan gum a food can contain.

Xanthan gum is found in food, personal care and industrial products.

Food Products
Xanthan gum can improve the texture, consistency, flavor, shelf life and appearance of many foods.

It also stabilizes foods, helping certain foods withstand different temperatures and pH levels. 
Additionally, it prevents foods from separating and allows them to flow smoothly out of their containers.

It’s used frequently in gluten-free cooking since it can provide the elasticity and fluffiness that gluten gives traditional baked goods.

The following are some common foods that contain xanthan gum:

Salad dressings
Bakery products
Fruit juices
Soups
Ice creams
Sauces and gravies
Syrups
Gluten-free products
Low-fat foods
Personal Care Products
Xanthan gum is also found in many personal care and beauty products. It allows these products to be thick, but still flow easily out of their containers. It also allows solid particles to be suspended in liquids.

The following are some common products that contain xanthan gum:

Toothpaste
Creams
Lotions
Shampoo
Industrial Products
Xanthan gum is used in many industrial products due to its ability to withstand different temperatures and pH levels, cling to surfaces and thicken liquids, all while maintaining good flow.

Common industrial products containing xanthan gum include:

Fungicides, herbicides and insecticides
Tile, grout, oven and toilet bowl cleaners
Paints
Fluids used in oil drilling
Adhesives like wallpaper glue
SUMMARY:
Xanthan gum is included in many foods, personal care products and industrial products because of its stabilizing and thickening properties.


Xanthan Gum May Lower Blood Sugar
Several studies have found that xanthan gum can lower blood sugar when consumed in large doses (4, 5Trusted Source, 6).

It’s believed that it turns fluids in your stomach and small intestine into a viscous, gel-like substance. This slows digestion and affects how quickly sugar enters your bloodstream, decreasing blood sugar spikes after eating (4).

One 12-week study had nine men with diabetes and four without diabetes eat a daily muffin. For six weeks of the study, the men ate muffins without xanthan gum. For the other 6 weeks, they ate muffins containing 12 grams of it.

The participants’ blood sugars were tested regularly, and both fasting and after-meal blood sugar levels in the men with diabetes were significantly lower when consuming the muffins with xanthan gum (5Trusted Source).

Another study in 11 women found that blood sugars were significantly lower after consuming rice with added xanthan gum, compared to consuming rice without it (6).

SUMMARY:
Xanthan gum may be able to lower blood sugar by slowing digestion and affecting how quickly sugar can enter the bloodstream.

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Other Health Benefits
Xanthan gum has been linked to other potential health benefits, though these benefits are unlikely to occur without taking supplements.

Some potential health benefits of xanthan gum include:

Lower cholesterol: A study had five men consume 10 times the recommended amount of xanthan gum per day for 23 days. Subsequent blood tests found that their cholesterol decreased by 10% (7Trusted Source).
Weight loss: People have noted increased fullness after consuming xanthan gum. It may increase fullness by delaying stomach emptying and slowing digestion (4, 5Trusted Source).
Cancer-fighting properties: A study in mice with melanoma found that it significantly slowed the growth of cancerous tumors and prolonged life. No human studies have been completed, so the current evidence is weak (8Trusted Source).
Improved regularity: Xanthan gum increases the movement of water into the intestines to create a softer, bulkier stool that’s easier to pass. Studies have found that it significantly increases the frequency and amount of stool (9Trusted Source).
Thickens liquids: It is used to thicken liquids for those who have difficulty swallowing, such as older adults or people with neurological disorders (10Trusted Source).
Saliva substitute: It is sometimes used as a saliva substitute for individuals suffering from dry mouth, but studies on its effectiveness have found mixed results (11Trusted Source, 12Trusted Source).
SUMMARY:
Larger doses of xanthan gum may have some benefits, including lower cholesterol, increased fullness and cancer-fighting properties. Nevertheless, more human studies are needed.

Xanthan Gum Can Cause Digestive Issues
For most people, the only potential negative side effect of xanthan gum appears to be an upset stomach.

Many animal studies have found that large doses can increase the frequency of stools and cause soft stools (13Trusted Source, 14Trusted Source).

In human studies, large doses of xanthan gum were found to have the following effects (9Trusted Source):

Increased frequency of bowel movements
Increased stool output
Softer stools
Increased gas
Altered gut bacteria
These side effects do not appear to occur unless at least 15 grams are consumed. This amount would be difficult to reach through a typical diet (9Trusted Source).

Moreover, xanthan gum’s ability to alter gut bacteria may be a good thing, as many other soluble fibers alter gut bacteria. They are known as prebiotics and promote the growth of good bacteria in the gut (15Trusted Source).

However, more research is needed to understand xanthan gum’s potential as a prebiotic.

SUMMARY:
Xanthan gum can have a laxative effect if consumed in large amounts. On a positive note, it may also act as a prebiotic and encourage the growth of healthy bacteria in the gut.


Some People May Need to Avoid or Limit It
While xanthan gum is safe for most, there are a few people who should avoid it.

People With Severe Wheat, Corn, Soy or Dairy Allergies
Xanthan gum is derived from sugar. The sugar can come from many different places, including wheat, corn, soy and dairy (16).

People with severe allergies to these products may need to avoid foods containing xanthan gum unless they can determine what source the xantham gum came from.

Premature Infants
Simply Thick, a xanthan gum-based thickener, was added to formula and breast milk for premature infants.

In several cases, the infants developed necrotizing enterocolitis, which is a life-threatening disease that causes the intestines to become inflamed, damaged and start to die (17Trusted Source).

While Simply Thick is safe for use in adults, infants should avoid it since their guts are still developing.

Those Taking Certain Medications or Planning Surgery
Xanthan gum can lower blood sugar levels (5Trusted Source).

This can be dangerous for people who take certain diabetes medications that can cause low blood sugar. It can also be dangerous for people who are planning to have surgery soon.

These people are fine to consume some foods with xanthan gum, but they should avoid large amounts of it until its effect on blood sugar is better understood.

SUMMARY:
Premature infants and people with extreme allergies need to avoid xanthan gum. Also, those at risk of low blood sugar levels should avoid large doses of it.

Is It Safe to Consume?
For most people, eating foods that contain xanthan gum appears to be completely safe.

While many foods contain it, it only makes up about 0.05–0.3% of a food product.

Moreover, a typical person consumes less than 1 gram of xanthan gum per day. Amounts 20 times that have been proven to be safe (18Trusted Source).

In fact, the Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives assigned it an acceptable daily intake of “not specified.” It gives this designation when food additives have a very low toxicity, and levels in foods are so small that they do not pose a health hazard (18Trusted Source).

But people should avoid inhaling xanthan gum. Workers who handled it in powder form were found to have flu-like symptoms and nose and throat irritation (19Trusted Source).

So even though you may eat many foods containing it, your intake is so small that you’re unlikely to experience either benefits or negative side effects.

SUMMARY:
Many foods contain xanthan gum, but it’s found in such small amounts that it does not have a large impact on your health.

The Bottom Line
Xanthan gum is a popular additive for thickening, suspending and stabilizing. It’s found in many foods and products, and appears to be safe for most people.

It may even have health benefits when consumed in larger amounts, though these higher intake levels can also increase the risk of digestive problems.

Importantly, higher intake levels are difficult to achieve through a regular diet and would likely have to be achieved through the use of xanthan gum supplements.

While many studies have proven the safety of xanthan gum in food, few human studies have looked at its use as a supplement.

In the meantime, feel safe eating foods that contain xanthan gum. It seems to be harmless at worst.

Xanthan gum thickens food and other products, and also prevents ingredients from separating.
Non-food products, such as oil and cosmetics, also contain xanthan gum.
Xanthan gum may help lower or stabilize blood sugar.
As with any food or food additive, some people may not tolerate it.


XANTHAN GUM IN PAINT APPLICATION: 
Xanthan gum is a high-molecular weight polysaccharide that forms very thick solutions with low concentrations, which remain uniquely stable over a wide pH and temperature range. 
Even more interesting is its pseudoplastic behaviour, which allows thickened xanthan gum solutions to be easily pumped, poured or sprayed. 
These properties have made xanthan gum a top choice in the food industry for thickening applications such as dressings or sauces. 
This aspect also makes xanthan gum an attractive thickener for paint applications, where its high viscosity in the low-shear range can produce excellent results in the stabilisation of formulations and sag resistance.


From traditional thickeners to innovations Cellulosics, especially hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC), have historically been the primary class of thickeners used in waterborne paints. 
They show effective resistance to sag and settling, and generally have good compatibility with other additives and pigments. 
However, high sag resistance has led to issues with levelling because the paints thicken too quickly. 
In addition, paints thickened with HEC have a tendency to cause spattering when applied via roller. 
The use of a lower-molecular weight (MW) HEC addresses these problems. 
However, such an HEC produces excessively shear-thinning solutions, which can cause difficulty when applying the paint.
Associative thickeners are a class of rheological modifiers that minimise some of the issues with cellulosics. 
A broad range of associative thickeners exists: alkali swellable emulsions (ASEs), hydrophobically modified ASEs (HASEs) and hydrophobically modified ethoxylated urethane (HEUR) are some of the most common types. 
Paints formulated with associative thickeners tend to be less shear thinning than those thickened with cellulosics. 
As a result, a thicker wet film is applied, which alleviates issues with levelling. 
However, the mechanism behind the thickening behaviour is complicated and small changes to formulas, particularly with pigments, can cause undesired outcomes.
Many modern latex paint formulas, especially high-gloss formulations, will use combinations of rheological modifiers. 
Typically, these are associative thickeners in combination with HEC. 
This ensures a good balance between the lowshear and high-shear viscosity ranges, and improved compatibility with pigments. 
Previous work with xanthan gum in paint formulations suggested benefits over cellulosics. 
Higher viscosity in the low-shear range suggests improved stabilisation and xanthan gum may be inherently less prone to spattering. 
Given that it is common practice to use a combination of thickeners, we compared the performance of xanthan gum to HEC in combination with a commercially available associative thickener (HEUR). 
Through our research, we also identified a new grade of xanthan gum that is especially well-suited for paint applications. 
Xanthan Gum – made naturally by fermentation HEC and other cellulose thickeners are produced by chemically treating cellulose. 
Although cellulose is a very common biopolymer, it can have disadvantages if used as thickener. 
The cellulose extracted from natural sources does not demonstrate the desired thickening properties. 
Therefore, it has to be dissolved or chemically activated to make the polymer chain accessible to chemical modifications. 
The strong hydrogen bonding between the chains requires special solvent systems. 
The latter often include the addition of salts, strong acids and bases or organic solvents that have a negative impact on the environment. 
The activation of the cellulose is done under high pH conditions, which leads to a derivate called alkaline cellulose.
Once the cellulose polymer has been activated, chemical groups can be introduced. 
In the case of HEC, alkaline cellulose is treated with ethylene oxide. 
For other cellulose thickeners, chloromethane, propylene oxide, chloroacetic acid or combination thereof are used. 
After the so-called hydrophilisation (etherification reaction), the cellulose derivatives are then purified.
 While cellulose is naturally derived, it requires chemical treatment to obtain the properties desired. 
This can have a negative impact on the application or the customer’s expectations if the latter is looking for a more natural paint formulation. 
Xanthan gum is obtained by the fermentation of glucose from, e.g. corn starch. 
During this process, bacteria produce the thickener directly in its final form. 
The xanthan gum is separated from the fermentation brew by precipitation using an alcohol, which can be recovered after the solids are dried.
Xanthan gum is obtained as free-flowing powder. When dissolved in an aqueous phase, it can be immediately used as a thickener without any further chemical treatment. 
Due to the nature of fermentation, xanthan gum is not at risk of being contaminated by hazardous chemicals, which reduces the environmental impact. 
Usually technical grades, readily dispersible grades or grades with reduced pseudoplasticity can be used for waterborne paint formulations. 
The different grades are obtained by variations in the manufacturing process. There are also grades available that show improved salt tolerance or fast hydration in aqueous media

Summary 
Xanthan gum has shown excellent rheological properties in architectural paint formulations and demonstrated high stabilisation of pigment particles. 
Good compatibility with other thickeners and ingredients allow for use in a variety of formulas, from flat paints to semi-gloss, depending on the requirements of the application. 
Xanthan gum is not only suitable for roller and brush application but also for spray applications. 
Its shear-thinning property enables an easy application, e.g. by a homogenous spray mist formation and a defined spray pattern, without drawbacks in sag resistance. 
Using the xanthan gum grade XG 1 provides further benefits for paint formulators, delivering a similar rheology to classical water-soluble polymers like HEC with less spatter and enhanced stabilisation of pigment particles. 
For increased in-can stability, xanthan gum grades with high low-shear viscosity can reduce the occurrence of syneresis.

Xanthan Gum provides exceptional rheology control in face masks Xanthan gum is an exceptional rheology control agent that is very effective even at low concentrations. 
It provides different flow properties depending on concentration and co-solutes, allowing the texture and rheology of any product to be tuned and controlled to meet specific needs.
 Xanthan gum is a viscoelastic material which can behave more like an elastic solid or more like a viscous fluid, depending on the concentration. 
It possesses pseudoplasticity, meaning viscosity decreases with increasing external stress, and provides a yield stress controlling stability and resistance to flow. 
Water retention is an important feature in sheet masks to prevent drying and to ensure a refreshing sensation during use. 
With its high water retaining capacity, xanthan gum ensures optimum moisture retention for a long-lasting fresh skin sensation.


The estimated size of the worldwide ice cream market is around 15 billion litres. 
The market is distributed unevenly across the globe because the consumption pattern varies significantly between countries and regions. 
The highest consumption is found in the USA at around 26 litres per capita and year, for instance, while in Europe this rate is around 10 litres. 
(1) Ice cream does not occur in nature. 
It is a created food item that is not consumed for its nutritional value but only for pleasure and as semi-luxury food. 
Ice cream is a product that is only consumed frozen – yet nobody wants it to be icy. 
If the consumer does not store the ice cream at a constant deep-freezing temperature, the very small and uniform ice crystals will grow into larger crystals and give the ice cream a coarse, icy structure 
(2). The consumer will then not consider the product to be edible anymore. 
Ice cream is made up of a complex matrix of frozen foam, emulsified fat globules and suspended ice and lactose crystals. 
This matrix is highly susceptible to temperature variations. 
Reducing this sensitivity will help to maintain the quality of the ice cream during storage and thus improve the shelf life of the ice cream. 
A significant improvement can be achieved by using hydrocolloids to bind water and thereby control the growth of ice crystals. 
Additionally, hydrocolloids can be used to modify the melting properties and the mouthfeel of the ice cream. 
According to a market analysis of hydrocolloids used in ice cream, 13% of approximately 14,000 total new ice cream launches (2012–2014) contain xanthan gum. 
(3) 75% of the newly launched ice creams were milk-based. Xanthan gum (XG) is often used in combination with guar gum (GG), locust bean gum (LBG) and carrageenan, but pectin, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and tara gum (TG) are also used as stabilising agents.

WHAT OTHER NAMES IS XANTHAN GUM KNOWN BY?
Bacterial Polysaccharide, Corn Sugar Gum, Goma Xantana, Gomme de Sucre de Maïs, Gomme de Xanthane, Gomme Xanthane, Polysaccharide Bactérien, Polysaccharide de Type Xanthane, Polysaccharide Xanthane, Xanthan, Xanthomonas campestris.

WHAT IS XANTHAN GUM?
Xanthan gum is a sugar-like compound made by mixing aged (fermented) sugars with a certain kind of bacteria. It is used to make medicine.

Xanthan gum is used for lowering blood sugar and total cholesterol in people with diabetes. It is also used as a laxative.

Xanthan gum is sometimes used as a saliva substitute in people with dry mouth (Sjogren's syndrome).

In manufacturing, xanthan gum is used as a thickening and stabilizing agent in foods, toothpastes, and medicines. Xanthan gum is also an ingredient in some sustained-release pills.


Increasing viscosity of liquid. Keeping emulsions homogenized and particles suspended for long periods. Stabilization of oil soluble flavours in water based beverages. Valued for its ability to withstand a range of temperature and pH. Due to its heat stability it is used in canning and pasteurized products. Due to its shear thinning character xanthan is used in salad dressings; meaning that at high shear its viscosity drops and under low shear it keeps its viscosity. In gluten-free baking, xanthan reinforces gluten-free flour mixtures by adding "stickiness". Excessive xanthan will create an undesirable "snotty" texture. This can be overcome by using it in combination with guar gum obtained from guar beans.
Xanthan hydrates quickly at all temperatures, so it has a strong tendency to clump. One popular dispersion method is to disperse in oil (either on a 1:1 or 1:2 ratio of xanthan to oil) followed by vigorously whisking and, optionally, straining to remove any remaining clumps. Another method is to thoroughly mix xanthan with a small amount of sugar, preferably in a mortar, prior to dispersion. This delays the hydration enough to allow the gum to disperse before it has a chance to form lumps. As when working with other hydrocolloids, vigorous whisking or mixing with a hand blender works very well to aid dispersion.


Preparation Tips
Xanthan Gum
Name

xanthan (E415)

Origin

polysaccharide obtained by fermentation of Xanthomonas campestris

Texture

high viscosity, shear-thinning; thermoreversible soft elastic gels with locust bean gum or konjac

Clarity

clear, mostly transparent

Dispersion

cold or hot water; dispersion can be improved by mixing with sugar (10x) or glycerol, alcohol or vegetable oil.

Hydration (dissolution)

cold or hot water; does not hydrate at high sugar concentrations (>65%).

pH

1-13

Setting

Melting

Promoter

Inhibitor

Tolerates

acids/bases, salts, heating, enzymes, up to 60% ethanol

Viscosity of solution

high (independent of temperature)

Typical concentration (% by weight)

0.1-0.25% thin running sauce, 0.7-1.5% thick sauces, 0.5-0.8% foams; [0.07-1%].

A 1% concentration is 1 gram xanthan gum per 100 grams of liquid; or 1 teaspoon per cup.

Volume-weight conversion

1 teaspoon (5 cc) is 2.5-3.2 g.

Synergies

guar, locust bean gum, konjac, tara

Syneresis


Xanthan gum is a biopolymer.

Xanthan gum
Xanthan gum is produced as a secondary metabolite by a fermentation process, based on the culture, in aerobic conditions, of the micro-organism Xanthomonas campestris.

Xanthan gum is a hetero-polysaccharide with a very high molecular weight (between one and several million). Its main chain is composed of glucose units.

The side chain is a trisaccharide, consisting of alpha-D-mannose that contains an acetyl group, beta-D-glucuronic acid, and a terminal beta-D-mannose unit linked with a pyruvate group.

The monosaccharides present in xanthan gum are: beta-D-glucose, alpha-D-mannose and alpha-D-glucoronic acid in a ratio of 2:2:1.

The beta-D-glucoses are (1->4) linked to form the backbone. Alternate glucoses have a short, three-sugar branch consisting of a glucuronic acid sandwiched between two mannose units. Thus, the overall repeating structure is the pentasaccharide.

Structure of xanthan gum repeating unit

xanthan gum repeating unit

The terminal mannose can have a pyruvate group attached and the mannose adjacent to the main chain may have an acetyl group attached to C6. In general, about one branch in two has a pyruvate group, but the ratio of pyruvate to acetate varies depending on the substrain of Xanthomonas campestris used and the conditions of fermentation. The glucuronic and pyruvic acid groups give xanthan gum a highly negative charge. These acid groups are neutralized using sodium, potassium or calcium ions for food products.

In their solid state xanthan gum molecules have a helical structure. The branches fold in, to lie along the backbone.

Xanthan gum is a thickening agent. Its rigid helical structure can be melted, leading to a disorganized state with lower viscosity. The organized state is stabilized by the presence of electrolytes. The transition temperature is above 100° C in the presence of small quantities of salt.

The presence of anionic side chains on the xanthan gum molecules enhances hydration and makes xanthan gum soluble in cold water.

Xanthan gum is one of the most successful hydrocolloids due to its unique functionality, particularly in difficult environments like acid, high salt and high shear stress.

Temperature and acid stability
Solutions of xanthan gum are generally not affected by changes in pH value. Xanthan gum will dissolve in most acids or bases.

Viscosity control
The viscosity of xanthan gum is stable at low pH values and at high temperatures for a long period of time.

Salt tolerance
Viscosity is not affected by the addition of large amounts of salt; for example, in a 250 liter sodium chloride brine, only a slight increase in viscosity can be observed.

Freeze/thaw stability
Thanks to its water binding capacity, xanthan gum solutions exhibit good freeze/thaw stability.

Compatibilities
Xanthan gum is cold soluble, providing high viscosity and pseudoplastic behavior at low concentration. It can be directly dispersed in oil or a sugar solution to avoid introduction of air bubbles in water or when water is not directly available in the formulation. Dissolution takes place during processing. In order to facilitate handling, dust-free and granulated versions assist dispersion or dissolution needs.

Xanthan gum has a synergistic effect in combination with locust bean gum and konjac (gel formation) as well as with guar gum (higher viscosity). Thanks to the unique rheological and synergistic properties of its aqueous solutions, xanthan gum is used in many applications as a suspending agent and emulsion stabilizer, a foam enhancer or an improver of dough volume.

Manufacture
The strain is preserved in a freeze-dried state. It is activated by inoculation into a nutrient medium containing a carbohydrate, a nitrogen source and mineral salts. After growth, the cultures are used to inoculate successive fermenters right through to the industrial scale.

Throughout the fermentation process, pH, aeration, temperature and agitation are monitored and controlled.

Once the carbohydrate is exhausted, the broth is sterilized. Then, the fermenter is emptied, cleaned and sterilized before the next fermentation takes place.

Xanthan gum is recovered by precipitation in alcohol (isopropyl or ethanol). The coagulum obtained is separated, rinsed, pressed, dried and ground before quality control.

Xanthan gum, or yellow gum, is a monospore polysaccharide produced by fermentation of Pseudoxanthomonas. It is composed of X.campestris with carbohydrates as the main raw material. It is a kind of acidic extracellular heteropolysaccharide synthesized by aerobic fermentation bioengineering technology. With the help of aerobic fermentation bioengineering technology, the 1,6-glycosidic bonds in brassica oleracea Xanthomonas black rot are firstly cut and the branched chains are opened. Eventually, 1,4-bonds are pressed to form xanthan gum. Xanthan gum solution has the characteristics of low concentration and high viscosity (the viscosity of 1% aqueous solution is equivalent to 100 times that of gelatin). Therefore, it is an efficient thickener.

Xanthan gum can also be used in the production of bread, ice cream, dairy products, meat products, jams, jellies, and beverages. Click for more info about xanthan gum food additive.

2. What is the harm of xanthan gum?

Xanthan gum is a legal additive with high safety. Although it has no nutrition, it is not harmful to people after ingestion. It will basically not be absorbed by the body but will be excreted from the body with normal excretion.

In terms of its classification, xanthan gum is divided according to two standards: industrial purity for printing and dyeing and edible purity. Industrial xanthan gum usually has low purity and many impurities, which will naturally cause certain harm. Although thickeners are typically used to reduce production costs, there is still the possibility of price deception.  A small amount of Xanthan gum jelly mixed in food is basically harmless to the human body. But if you eat too much, it will undoubtedly endanger human health. So, how much xanthan gum does the merchant add to the porridge? This is the key issue.

Xanthan Gum
A highly functional and popular ingredient, xanthan gum is the go-to agent across food, personal care and industrial sectors to meet specific thickening, stabilization and suspension formula goals.

Xanthan gum is a soluble fiber created by fermenting sugar using the bacteria Xanthomonas campestris. When added to liquid, it quickly disperses and creates a viscous and stable solution. This unique combination of properties allows xanthan gum products to perform beyond the limits of many other commercially available thickeners and stabilizers.

Xanthan gum, or just xanthan, is a very versatile ingredient and has many uses both in modernist and traditional cooking. It is also very easy to use and work with. Xanthan gum is great for thickening liquids, especially in small amounts, to turn them into flavorful sauces. It also can be used to create light foams and froths. Xanthan gum is excellent when used to stabilize emulsions or to suspend particles in liquids and is very effective at keeping purees from separating.

Xanthan gum has a very neutral flavor so it mixes well with foods without masking their flavor. It provides an improved mouthfeel for many preparations, slightly thickening a liquid similar to how traditionally reducing a liquid does. Xanthan also adds a desirable texture that fat usually contributes, making it ideal in low-fat preparations.

Xanthan gum is gluten free and is often used as a substitute in baking and thickening. It also helps baked goods to retain more moisture than they would have otherwise. When mixed into batters or tempura xanthan gum adds good cling, allowing the batter to stick more easily to the food. Also, xanthan gum does not lose its properties when microwaved.


Written by Jason Logsdon
How to Use Xanthan Gum
More Modernist Ingredients • Xanthan Gum
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Xanthan gum header
Disclosure : Some of the links in this post are affiliate links so if you click on the link and purchase the item, I will receive a commission.
Xanthan gum, or just xanthan, is one of the easiest ingredients to work with. It is used extensively to thicken liquids, make light foams, strengthen vinaigrettes, and is a great ingredient to use to turn thin liquids into rich sauces.


 Table of Contents
What is Xanthan Gum Used For?
Where to Buy Xanthan Gum?
What is Xanthan Gum?
How Do You Add Xanthan to a Liquid?
How Much Xanthan Gum to Use
Thickening with Xanthan Gum
Xanthan Gum Foams
Xanthan Gum Emulsions
Holding Purees Together with Xanthan
Xanthan Gum Bubbles
Suspending Particles with Xanthan Gum
What is Xanthan Gum Used For?Top 
Xanthan gum, or just xanthan, is a very versatile ingredient and has many uses both in modernist and traditional cooking. It is also very easy to use and work with. Xanthan gum is great for thickening liquids, especially in small amounts, to turn them into flavorful sauces. It also can be used to create light foams and froths. Xanthan gum is excellent when used to stabilize emulsions or to suspend particles in liquids and is very effective at keeping purees from separating.

Xanthan gum has a very neutral flavor so it mixes well with foods without masking their flavor. It provides an improved mouthfeel for many preparations, slightly thickening a liquid similar to how traditionally reducing a liquid does. Xanthan also adds a desirable texture that fat usually contributes, making it ideal in low-fat preparations.

Xanthan gum is gluten free and is often used as a substitute in baking and thickening. It also helps baked goods to retain more moisture than they would have otherwise. When mixed into batters or tempura xanthan gum adds good cling, allowing the batter to stick more easily to the food. Also, xanthan gum does not lose its properties when microwaved.

Watermelon soup pickled rind
Where to Buy Xanthan GumTop 
We always recommend ModernistPantry.com, they have great service and are really good to work with (because of this, we do have an affiliate relationship with them). They also have the Texturas brand, if you prefer that.

What is Xanthan Gum?Top 
Xanthan gum is produced through the fermentation of glucose with a bacteria found in cabbage, known as Xanthomonas campesteris. It typically comes as a white powder.

How Do You Add Xanthan to a Liquid?Top 
Blueberry foam in drink and cocktail
It can hydrate and disperse at any temperature, and does so quickly, making it one of the few ingredients you can add slowly and instantly see the result. Xanthan gum has a very neutral flavor so it mixes well with foods without masking their taste.

To add xanthan gum sprinkle it on the liquid and then blend or whisk. it until it is fully combined, I prefer to use an immersion blender in most cases. You can also improve the dispersion of xanthan gum by first mixing it with sugar, then adding it to the liquid. This is similar to making a slurry out of flour and cold water before adding it to gravy to prevent clumping. The sugar will prevent the xanthan gum from hydrating until it has been dispersed enough in the liquid for the sugar percent to go down.

Xanthan gum will pretty much work in liquid of any temperature. However, if the liquid is very sugary then it can have trouble hydrating. Typically, if the sugar is less than 55% to 60% it will work fine.

How Much Xanthan Gum to Use?Top 
The amount of xanthan gum used will depend on the technique you are using it for.

Amount of Xanthan for Thickening
As a thickening agent, the amount of xanthan gum you will use depends on how thick you want the liquid to be. In general, you will use a 0.1% weight ratio for light thickening up to a 1.0% ratio for a very thick sauce. Be warned though, adding too much xanthan gum can result in a texture and mouthfeel resembling mucus.

Amount of Xanthan Used to Make a Foam
To make a xanthan gum foam a ratio between 0.2% and 0.8% is typically used. The more xanthan gum you use the larger the bubbles that can occur and the denser the foam will be.

Amount of Xanthan to Create Bubbles
For bubbles, resembling soap bubbles, a typical ratio is 0.1% to 0.4% xanthan gum and 0.2% to 2.0% Versawhip or egg white powder.

Amount of Xanthan to Use in an Emulsion
When making an emulsion, the more xanthan gum you add, the stronger the emulsion will be. However, it will also thicken the emulsion, which may or may not be desirable. To start binding an emulsion a ratio of around 0.1% can be used. If you want to also thicken the emulsion you can add up to around 0.7% of xanthan gum.
Note: See How to Measure Modernist Ingredients for more information on ratios.
How to Thicken With Xanthan GumTop 
One of the primary uses of xanthan gum is to thicken liquids. This can range from very minor thickening to creating very thick syrups depending on the other ingredients and the amount of xanthan gum used.

Liquids thickened with xanthan gum take on several nice properties. The texture of the liquid takes on a "clingy" feel, similar to reduced liquid or fatty sauces. This helps increase the flavor of the liquid as well as help it stick to and coat food.

Sous vide asparagus with turkey
Another benefit of thickening with xanthan gum is that it greatly increases particle suspension. This means if you have herbs, spices, or other items in the liquid then the addition of xanthan gum will help keep them in suspension instead of settling to the bottom or rising to the top. This makes it ideal to use for holding vinaigrettes together or keeping purees from separating.

When used as a thickener in low dosages, xanthan gum produces a weak gel with high viscosity. This gel will also be thixotropic or shear thinning with a high pour-ability. This means that when the gel is at rest it maintains its shape but when stirred or mixed it begins to flow again as a liquid and then resets once the agitation stops.

Thickening with xanthan gum is very easy, simply blend the xanthan gum into the liquid you want to thicken. The liquid will thicken very quickly.

For thicker sauces that have been sitting you can stir or whisk them briefly to make them flow better. Once they have been plated they will regain their previous viscosity as long as they haven't been heated to too high of a temperature.

Most thickened liquids will keep for a day or two in the refrigerator.

A standard ratio is 0.1% to 0.3% for thin sauces and 0.3% to 1% for thick sauces. The higher the amount of xanthan gum used the thicker the sauce will be. Be careful though because xanthan gum can start to take on a weird mouthfeel at higher percentages.


Xanthan gum helps oil and water mix in salad dressings, for instance, and it allows the product to pour easily from the bottle, but also cling to lettuce leaves in large, round droplets. It suspends herbs and spices evenly in soups, and keeps the tiny air bubbles in whipped cream from popping. It's also a popular replacement for wheat gluten in gluten-free bread.


Xanthan Gum is a common ingredient found in both cosmetics and food products. It’s a thickening agent used to create gels. Essential Wholesale uses xanthan gum derived from the bacterial fermentation of wood pulp polysaccharides, not corn, and is certified non-GMO as per NOP rules of the USDA. It is manufactured using ethanol, not isopropyl alcohol.


he gum gets its name from Xanthomonas campestris, the aforementioned bacterium that is infamous in agriculture for turning broccoli, cauliflower and cabbage into rotten, black goop. Xanthan gum is essential to Xanthomonas' success. The bacteria produce the slimy substance by attaching ring-shaped sugar molecules together in a specific, very stable configuration. The end result is a compound resistant to heat, dryness, ultraviolet rays, and destructive enzymes, which keeps the bacteria safe while they eat our veggies. It also causes plant tissues to wilt, making them easier to infect.

In the 1950s, U.S. Department of Agriculture researchers discovered how to turn this broccoli-devouring threat to our advantage. Today, Xanthomonas does its dirty work in giant fermenting vats, where the companies that make xanthan gum feed the bacteria glucose or other carbohydrates, wait for them to cook up the gum, and then heat the mixture, killing the microscopic "chefs". The gum is purified from the dead bacteria and plant matter, and then added to your salad dressing, ice cream and many other products.

Xanthan Gum (E415) is widely used for its thickening and stabilising effect on emulsions and suspensions. Xanthan gum forms a gel structure in water which is shear thinning and may be used in combination with other rheology modifiers, particularly Guar gum as the two combine to give greatly increased effects.


Xanthan Gum is a thickening agent used in a range of food, cosmetics, pharmaceutical and industrial businesses. 
Most produced Xanthan Gum is sold as an off-white to cream powder, to either an 80 or 200 Mesh with no distinct odour or taste.

In terms of production, the fermentation of sucrose and glucose results in the production of Xanthan Gum. 
The fermentation occurs due to bacteria, with an aeration stage until you get a xanthan polymer. 
It is then precipitated, dried and milled to its final product.

The most common application for Xanthan Gum is as a thickener in the food industry. 
You can find this in applications ranging from salad dressings and sauces to confectionary and Gluten-Free Baking. 
As with most thickeners, bakeries use this to simulate the thickness and mouthfeel of traditional baked goods. 
Some other products such as ice cream, soups, fruit Juices, gravies and syrups also use Xanthan Gum to create a thicker, richer texture to the final product.

Beyond the food and beverage industries, cosmetics use it in moisturisers, shampoos, balms and toothpaste to create a thick, uniform final product. 
Finally, Industrial Drilling businesses have been using Xanthan Gum to thicken drilling mud and increase their work's speed and performance. 
Additionally, you can also find it within paints, grouts, and adhesives.

Xanthan gum is produced by biotechnological processes. The polymer, which is produced by the bacteria Xanthomonas campestris, is classified under the name B-1459 (Jeanes et al., 1961). It can compete with and effectively replace other natural gums. Many other species of Xanthomonas have been reported to produce extracellular polysaccharides (Lilly et al., 1958) and in general extracellular polysaccharides are produced by many species of microorganisms. After their production, they do not form covalent bonds with the microorganism’s cell walls, being secreted instead into the culture media (Wilkenson, 1958). Xanthan gum is produced in the USA, Europe and Japan. The favored production method is fermentation because it does not depend on variable factors such as weather and a product of more consistent quality is obtained, the price of which is less sensitive to political or economic shifts. The gum is recognized as a harmless food additive for, among other purposes, thickening when its usage follows reasonable and practical manufacturing practices (Kovacs and Kang, 1977; Hart, 1988). In the early 1960s, the Kelco Company in San Diego, California began producing xanthan gum under the trade name Kelzan, and its use was approved by the FDA in 1969 (Anon., 1969; Urlacher and Dalbe, 1992).

Keywords
Whey Protein Concentrate Xanthomonas Campestris Food Hydrocolloid Xanthan Production Meat Batter Origin
Xanthan gum is by far the most widely used gum in the food industry. It is obtained from the fermentation of simple sugars by Xanthomonas campestris. This process was discovered in the 1950s, by scientists from the US Department of Agriculture. In 1960, the industrial production of xanthan gum began. By 1964, it became commercially available, and in 1969 the FDA approved its use as a food additive. Shortly after, it was approved in Europe in 1974.

Function
Xanthan gum has several functions in baked goods:

Thickening agent: due to its ability to form highly viscous solutions even at low concentrations and in a wide temperature range (0-100 oC/32-212 oF).
Stabilizing agent: provides oil-water emulsions and freeze-thaw stability by producing a web that avoids aggregations.
Gelling agent: it can form gels when mixed with locust bean or tara gum.
Dough improver: improves dough properties such as elasticity, and gas retention during proofing and baking.
Texturizer in gluten-free baked goods.
Shelf-life improver
Nutrition
Xanthan gum is not digested by the human body, and so it doesn’t provide any calories. Some health benefits associated with xanthan gum consumption include: reduction in blood sugar and cholesterol levels. It may aid in weight management.

Commercial production
Xanthan gum is produced commercially by the following process:

Fermentation: glucose, sucrose or starch are placed in a batch reactor with Xanthomonas campestris culture and are allowed to ferment. It’s critical to maintain pH at or above 5. Optimum temperature for this step is 28 °C (82.5°F).
Pasteurization: the fermented solution is pasteurized .
Recovering: isopropyl alcohol is added to recover the polysaccharide, and  precipitate it by solvent addition.
Drying: precipitated xanthan gum is air dried, or spray dried to approximately 11% moisture.
Milling: the obtained powder is milled to the desired particle size.
Packing: the powder is packed and sealed for distribution.
Several grades of xanthan gum are commercially available. The most commonly used is the white fine powder.

Application
Xanthan gum is used in several baked goods, such as: cookies, cakes, bread, biscuits and muffins. It improves several quality parameters, mainly storage stability under freezing conditions. These attributes are due, in part, to xanthan’s ease of dissolution in hot and cold water, its compatibility with salts and resistance to enzymes present in food systems.

Application
Xanthan gum is used in several baked goods, such as: cookies, cakes, bread, biscuits and muffins. It improves several quality parameters, mainly storage stability under freezing conditions. These attributes are due, in part, to xanthan’s ease of dissolution in hot and cold water, its compatibility with salts and resistance to enzymes present in food systems.

Bakery system    Level    Effect


Wet batters    0.05%    
Reduction of sedimentation
Gas retention improvement
Shear and freeze-thaw stability
Even coating and good cling


Pancake batter    0.05%    
Spread control improvement
Volume enhancement.
Higher gas retention

Baked goods    0.05%    
Improvement in volume and moistness
Higher crumb strength
Less crumbling
Greater resistance to handling damage

Refrigerated dough    0.05%    
Improved volume and texture
Enhanced moisture retention during refrigeration
Pie or baked goods filling    –    
Texture improvement
Enhanced flavor release
Extended shelf life stability
Freeze-thaw stability


Xanthan Gum vs. Guar Gum
Xanthan gum is a guar gum substitute and vice versa. If you’re comparing guar gum vs. xanthan gum, guar gum is also used as a thickening and stabilizing agent in many common products.

Both are commonly added to flour mixes to add structure to baked goods. If you’re wondering how to use xanthan gum and guar gum, some sources say that guar works better in cold food, such as ice cream, while xanthan is better in baked goods.

Xanthan Gum is a long chain polysaccharide, which is made by mixing fermented sugars (glucose, mannose, and glucuronic acid) with a certain kind of bacteria. It is mainly used to thicken and stabilize emulsions, foams, and suspensions.
Xanthan gum is widely used as a food additive to control the rheological properties of a wide range of food products. In manufacturing, xanthan gum is used as a thickening and stabilizing agent in toothpastes and medicines. It is used to make medicine for lowering blood sugar and total cholesterol in people with diabetes

Xanthan Gum is a gum obtained by microbial fermentation from the xanthomonas campestris organism. it is very stable to viscosity change over varying temperatures, ph, and salt concentrations. it is also very pseudoplastic which results in a decrease in viscosity with increasing shear. it reacts synergistically with guar gum and tara gum to provide an increase in viscosity and with carob gum to provide an increase in viscosity or gel formation. it is used in salad dressings, sauces, desserts, baked goods, and beverages at 0.05–0.50%.

In foods, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics as stabilizer and thickening agent. For rheology control in water-based systems. In oil and gas drilling and completion fluids.


xanthan gum (corn starch gum) serves as a texturizer, carrier agent, and gelling agent in cosmetic preparations. It also stabilizes and thickens formulations. This gum is produced through a fermentation of carbohydrate and Xanthomonas campestris.


Xanthan gum is a polysaccharide produced by a pure-culture aerobic fermentation of a carbohydrate with Xanthomonas campestris. The polysaccharide is then purified by recovery with propan-2-ol, dried, and milled.


Xanthan gum is widely used in oral and topical pharmaceutical formulations, cosmetics, and foods as a suspending and stabilizing agent. 
It is also used as a thickening and emulsifying agent. It is nontoxic, compatible with most other pharmaceutical ingredients, and has good stability and viscosity properties over a wide pH and temperature range. Xanthan gum gels show pseudoplastic behavior, the shear thinning being directly proportional to the shear rate. The viscosity returns to normal immediately on release of shear stress.
Xanthan gum has been used as a suspending agent for conventional, dry and sustained-release suspensions. 
When xanthan gum is mixed with certain inorganic suspending agents, such as magnesium aluminum silicate, or organic gums, synergistic rheological effects occur. 
In general, mixtures of xanthan gum and magnesium aluminum silicate in ratios between 1 : 2 and 1 : 9 produce the optimum properties. 
Similarly, optimum synergistic effects are obtained with xanthan gum : guar gum ratios between 3 : 7 and 1 : 9.
Although primarily used as a suspending agent, xanthan gum has also been used to prepare sustained-release matrix tablets. 
Controlled-release tablets of diltiazem hydrochloride prepared using xanthan gum have been reported to sustain the drug release in a predictable manner, and the drug release profiles of these tablets were not affected by pH and agitation rate. Xanthan gum has also been used to produce directly compressed matrices that display a high degree of swelling due to water uptake, and a small amount of erosion due to polymer relaxation. It has also been used in combination with chitosan, guar gum, galactomannan, and sodium alginate to prepare sustained-release matrix tablets. Xanthan gum has been used as a binder, and in combination with Konjac glucomannan is used as an excipient for controlled colonic drug delivery. Xanthan gum with boswellia (3 : 1) and guar gum (10 : 20) have shown the best release profiles for the colon-specific compression coated systems of 5- fluorouracil for the treatment of colorectal cancer. 
Xanthan gum has also been used with guar gum for the development of a floating drug delivery system.
It has also has derivatized to sodium carboxymethyl xanthan gum and crosslinked with aluminum ions to prepare microparticles, as a carrier for protein delivery. 
Xanthan gum has been incorporated in an ophthalmic liquid dosage form, which interacts with mucin, thereby helping in the prolonged retention of the dosage form in the precorneal area. When added to liquid ophthalmics, xanthan gum delays the release of active substances, increasing the therapeutic activity of the pharmaceutical formulations. 
Xanthan gum alone or with carbopol 974P has been used as a mucoadhesive controlled-release excipient for buccal drug delivery. 
Modified xanthan films have been used as a matrix system for transdermal delivery of atenolol. Xanthan gum has also been used as a gelling agent for topical formulations incorporating solid lipid nanoparticles of vitamin A or microemulsion of ibuprofen. 
A combined polymer system consisting of xanthan gum, carboxy methylcellulose and a polyvinyl pyrolidone backboned polymer has been used for relieving the symptoms of xerostomia. Xanthan gum can also be used as an excipient for spray-drying and freeze-drying processes for better results. It has been successfully used alone or in combination with agar for microbial culture media.
Xanthan gum is also used as a hydrocolloid in the food industry, and in cosmetics it has been used as a thickening agent in shampoo. 
Polyphosphate with xanthum gum in soft drinks is suggested to be effective at reducing erosion of enamel

Xanthan gum is widely used in oral and topical pharmaceutical formulations, cosmetics, and food products, and is generally regarded as nontoxic and nonirritant at the levels employed as a pharmaceutical excipient.
The estimated acceptable daily intake for xanthan gum has been set by the WHO at up to 10 mg/kg body-weight.
No eye or skin irritation has been observed in rabbits and no skin allergy has been observed in guinea pigs following skin exposure. No adverse effects were observed in long term feeding studies with rats (up to 1000 mg/kg/day) and dogs (up to 1000 mg/kg/day). No adverse effects were observed in a three-generation reproduction study with rats (up to 500 mg/kg/day).
LD50 (dog, oral): >20 g/kg
LD50 (rat, oral): >45 g/kg
LD50 (mouse, oral): >1 g/kg
LD50 (mouse, IP): >50 mg/kg
LD50 (mouse, IV): 100–250 mg/kg

Xanthan gum is a stable material. Aqueous solutions are stable over a wide pH range (pH 3–12), although they demonstrate maximum stability at pH 4–10 and temperatures of 10–60°C. Xanthan gum solutions of less than 1% w/v concentration may be adversely affected by higher than ambient temperatures: for example, viscosity is reduced. Xanthan gum provides the same thickening, stabilizing, and suspending properties during long-term storage at elevated temperatures as it does at ambient conditions. In addition, it ensures excellent freeze–thaw stability. Solutions are also stable in the presence of enzymes, salts, acids, and bases. Vanzan NF-ST is especially designed for use in systems containing high salt concentrations as it dissolves directly in salt solutions, and its viscosity is relatively unaffected by high salt levels as compared with general purpose grades.
The bulk material should be stored in a well-closed container in a cool, dry place.

Xanthan gum is a stable material. 
Aqueous solutions are stable over a wide pH range (pH 3–12), although they demonstrate maximum stability at pH 4–10 and temperatures of 10–60°C. 
Xanthan gum solutions of less than 1% w/v concentration may be adversely affected by higher than ambient temperatures: for example, viscosity is reduced. 
Xanthan gum provides the same thickening, stabilizing, and suspending properties during long-term storage at elevated temperatures as it does at ambient conditions. 
In addition, it ensures excellent freeze–thaw stability. 
Solutions are also stable in the presence of enzymes, salts, acids, and bases. 
Vanzan NF-ST is especially designed for use in systems containing high salt concentrations as it dissolves directly in salt solutions, and its viscosity is relatively unaffected by high salt levels as compared with general purpose grades.
The bulk material should be stored in a well-closed container in a cool, dry place.

As a food additive, Xanthan gum has been accepted by many countries. This kind of polysaccharide remarkably improves the texture, taste, appearance through controlling the rheology action of the product, improve its commercial value; in beverage, cake and pastry, jelly, canned food, sea food, meat product processing and other industries, it has become important stabilizer, suspending agent, emulsifier, thickening agent, adhesion agent and processing material with high added-value and quality. It can be concretely summarized into following aspects. 

1.Acid-resisting salt-tolerant thickening stabilizer 

Be applicable to various kinds of juice beverage, fruit juice concentrate, food with seasoning (such as soybean sauce, oyster sauce, salad sauce). The stabilization effect of Xanthan gum is obviously batter than other gum. It is with extremely strong heat stability so that ordinary high temperature sterilization has no effect to it. 

2.Emulsifier 

As an emulsifier, it is applied in various kinds of protein drink, milk beverage, etc to prevent oil-water stratification and improve protein stability, prevent protein sediment. It is also used as foaming agent and foam stabilizer based on its emulsifying capacity. 

3.Filling agent

As stable high viscosity filler, it can be applied in processing of various kinds of dessert, bread, biscuit, candy, etc. Under the condition that the traditional flavor of the food is not changed, it can make the food with more preferable shape preserving property, longer expiration period and batter taste. It is beneficial to the food diversification and industrialization scale production. In the production process of various kinds of frozen foods, xanthan gum it is with function for preventing water loss, delaying aging and prolonging quality guarantee period. 

4.Emulsion stabilizer

As an emulsion stabilizer, it is applied in frozen foods. In ice cream, sorbet, xanthan gum can adjust the viscosity of mixture and make its composition uniform and stable and its tissue soft and smooth. Since the relation between the viscosity of xanthan gum and temperature has plasticity and shearing property, during the processing, its viscosity is reduced and the resistance is decreased, so that it is in favor of processing; however, during the aging stage, viscosity is recovered so that it is beneficial to improving expansion rate, preventing the generation of large ice particles in ice cream tissue and making the taste of ice cream more fine and smooth. Meanwhile, it also improves the freeze-thaw stabilization of the product. 

5.Application in flour product 

In flour product, xanthan gum is a kind of additive worth being promoted. In the producing process of fine dried noodles, noodles and instant noodles, the added xanthan gum can improve gluten power of dough; the dough sheet extruded is with toughness and is reduced broken rate after drying, meanwhile it also improve taste and make it chewy, fresh and smooth; for frying cooking, it also can save oil and reduce cooking cost.  

6.Other application

Except for the applications above, xanthan gum is also widely used in processing of meat food, fruit and vegetable fresh-keeping cans and other foods. 

 

Application of Xanthan Gum in Petroleum Industry

A huge market for xanthan gum is petroleum industry. In the performance of Viscosity, thickening, salt resistance and contamination resistance, xanthan gum is far better than other polymer; especially in the well drilling of sea, beach, high halide layer and permafrost layer, xanthan gum has remarkable effect in sludge treatment, completion fluid, and tertiary oil recovery, and has significant function for accelerating drilling speed, preventing the well collapse, protecting oil and gas fields, preventing the blowout, enhancing oil recovery rate substantially, etc. As a kind of ideal additive, this product has very favorable development prospect. 

 

1.Drilling Industry

Drilling fluid is the working fluid applied in drilling process. During the drilling process, drilling fluid acts important function. People usually refer it to as “blood of drilling”. xanthan gum is one of its main components. Its functions are adding viscosity and shearing force, improving the suspending power of drilling fluid which is essential in using functions of the drilling fluid. 

 

2.Oil exploitation industry

Since the xanthan gum is with good viscosity, rheological property, water-solubility, and chemical stability and also with strong performance for mechanical degradation resistance, it can be used as displacing agent of oilfield exploitation. Many kinds of polymer can be used as mobility control agent in oil exploitation. Among these kinds of agent, xanthan gum is identified as the agent with most utilization potentiality. Xanthan gum contains many essential conditions required for improving oil recovery rate.

 


anthan gum, also known as yellow gum, xanthan gum, and xanthan, is a monospora polysaccharide produced by the fermentation of Pseudomonas, from the cabbage black rot, Xanthomonas campestris, with carbohydrate as the main The raw material is subjected to aerobic fermentation bioengineering technology to cut off the 1,6-glycosidic bond, and after opening the branch, an acidic extracellular heteropolysaccharide composed of a linear chain is synthesized by a 1,4-bond.

Xanthan gum is an extracellular microbe produced by fermentation of saccharides by Xanthomonas. Due to its special structure and colloidal properties, it has many functions and can be widely used in various fields of the national economy as an emulsifier, stabilizer, gel thickener, sizing agent, and film forming agent.

Xanthan gum is a light yellow to white flowable powder with a slight odor. Soluble in cold, hot water, neutral solution, freeze-resistant and thawed, insoluble in ethanol. Dispersed in water, emulsified into a stable hydrophilic viscous colloid.

Xanthan gum is currently thickened, suspended, emulsified and stabilized in the world. The most superior bio-adhesive. The amount of pyruvate groups at the molecular side chain end of xanthan gum has a great influence on its performance. Xanthan gum has the general properties of long-chain polymers, but it contains more functional groups than general polymers and exhibits unique properties under certain conditions. Its conformation in aqueous solution is diverse and does not exhibit different characteristics under conditions.

1. Suspension and emulsification

Xanthan gum has a good suspension effect on insoluble solids and oil droplets. The xanthan gum sol molecule can form a super-bonded ribbon-like spiral interpolymer, which constitutes a weak gel-like network structure, so it can support the morphology of solid particles, droplets and bubbles, showing strong emulsion stabilization and high suspension. ability.

2. Good water solubility

Xanthan gum dissolves quickly in water and has good water solubility. It can also be dissolved especially in cold water, which can save complicated processing and is easy to use. However, due to its strong hydrophilicity, if the water is directly added without stirring, the outer layer absorbs water and expands into a micelle, which prevents moisture from entering the inner layer and affects the action. Therefore, it must be used correctly. The dry powder of xanthan gum or the dry powder auxiliary materials such as salt and sugar are mixed well, and then slowly added to the water being stirred to be used as a solution.

3. Thickening

The xanthan gum solution has a low concentration and high viscosity (1% aqueous solution has a viscosity equivalent to 100 times that of gelatin) and is an efficient thickener.

4. Pseudoplasticity

The aqueous solution of xanthan gum has a high viscosity under static or low shearing action, and exhibits a sharp drop in viscosity under high shear, but the molecular structure does not change. When the shear force is removed, the original viscosity is immediately restored. The relationship between shear and viscosity is completely plastic. The pseudoplasticity of xanthan gum is very prominent, and this pseudoplasticity is extremely effective for stabilizing suspensions and emulsions.

5. Stability to heat

The viscosity of the xanthan gum solution does not change greatly with the change of temperature. The viscosity of the general polysaccharide changes due to heating, but the viscosity of the aqueous solution of xanthan gum does not change between 10 and 80 ° C, even at low concentrations. The aqueous solution still exhibits a stable high viscosity over a wide temperature range. 1% xanthan gum solution (containing 1% potassium chloride) is heated from 25 ° C to 120 ° C. Its viscosity is only reduced by 3%.

6. Stability to acids and bases

The xanthan gum solution is very stable to acid and alkali. The viscosity is not affected between pH 5-10, and the viscosity is slightly changed when the pH is less than 4 and greater than 11. In the range of PH3-11, the maximum viscosity is less than 10%. Xanthan gum can be dissolved in various acid solutions, such as 5% sulfuric acid, 5% nitric acid, 5% acetic acid, 10% hydrochloric acid and 25% phosphoric acid, and these xanthan gum solutions are quite stable at normal temperature. The quality of the parts will not change for several months. Xanthan gum is also soluble in sodium hydroxide solution and has thickening properties. The resulting solution is very stable at room temperature. Xanthan gum can be degraded by strong oxidants such as perchloric acid and persulfuric acid, and the degradation accelerates with increasing temperature.

7. Stability of the salt

The xanthan gum solution is miscible with many salt solutions (potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, etc.) and the viscosity is not affected. At higher salt concentrations, the solubility is maintained even in saturated salt solutions without precipitation and flocculation, and its viscosity is hardly affected.

8. Stability of enzymatic hydrolysis

The stable double helix structure of xanthan gum makes it highly resistant to oxidation and enzymatic hydrolysis. Many enzymes such as protease, amylase, cellulase and hemicellulase can not degrade xanthan gum.

Application

Stabilizers, thickeners and processing aids for a variety of purposes in the industry, including canned and bottled foods, bakery foods, dairy products, frozen foods, salad dressings, beverages, brews, confectionery, pastries Flower accessories, etc. When making food, it is easy to flow, easy to pour and pour, easy to pipe, and reduce energy consumption.

Recommended application amount

Product  dosage (%)  effect

Fruit juice drink 0.1-0.3 thickening suspension, smooth taste, natural flavor

Ice cream 0.1-0.3 microporous, no ice, shorten aging time, make the product organization delicate

Soy sauce, oyster sauce 0.05-0.1 Good salt tolerance, increased consistency, suitable for making sauce, enhancing wall hanging and adhesion

Frozen Confections 0.1-0.2 Combines water, produces consistency and fineness, prevents dehydration

Baked goods 0.5-1.5 Fruit filling, suitable for all kinds of fillings

Gel 0.5-1.5 Confectionary Gel, Seasoning, Jelly Forming

Soft drink 0.01-0.3 Suspension, foaming agent, no delamination, thickening

Salad seasoning 0.1-0.3 Conducive to molding, prevent water precipitation

Instant noodles 0.2-0.3 Increases toughness, improves chewing, saves fuel, and maintains moisture

Sausage 0.2-0.3 Conducive to molding, improve enema, maintain moisture and oil

Canned meat 0.1-0.2 Convenient for seasoning and freezing of soup

Cheese 0.2-0.5 Accelerates the pores and prevents syneresis

Cake 0.1-0.3 Increases micropores, softness, and extended shelf life

Bread 0.1-0.2 Soft, ideal for brown bread with coarse fiber

Dehydrated food 0.2-0.4 speeds up recovery and maintains color and taste

Medicine, make-up 0.2-1.0 Stabilizer, suspending agent, moisturizer, thickening, adhesion, lubrication

Toothpaste 0.4-0.6 Easy to make toothpaste paste, improve toothpaste brushing performance, good dispersibility, smooth mouthfeel

Canned pets 0.1-0.3 makes the minced meat easy to solidify

Fish and shrimp feed 0.5-2.0 binder, used for fish and shrimp seedling feed, fish medicine

Petroleum Industry 0.2-0.4 has good flow deformation and is the highest quality drilling mud stabilizer

Cut tobacco 0.1-0.3 Prevents tobacco breakage, tobacco flavor emulsification and moisturizing adhesive, suitable for tobacco sheets

Printing and dyeing 0.5-1.5 Vehicle, adhesive, convenient for pigment dispersion, coloring and color enhancement

Ceramic 0.3-1.0 Suitable for suspension stabilizers for ceramic glazes

Pesticides 0.1-0.3 Suitable for pesticide suspensions and various liquids with good stability

Colloidal Explosives 0.5-2.0 Slurry, Colloid, Waterproof Explosives

Water-soluble paint 0.2-0.3 Suitable for water-soluble paints, latex paints, good stability, easy to spray

Other food industry 1.0-2.0 has good toughness and luster, no break, no skin

Xanthan gum is a polysaccharide with a wide variety of uses, including as a common food additive. It is a powerful thickening agent, and also has uses as a stabilizer to prevent ingredients from separating.

It can be produced from a range of simple sugars using a fermentation process, and derives its name from the strain of bacteria used in this: Xanthomonas campestris.

Product name:Xanthan gum
CAS No:11138-66-2
Grade: Food/Industrial/Medicine grade
EINECS No.: 234-394-2
Form: Powder
MF: (C35H49O29)n


Xanthan Gum Food Grade:
Food Grade 80mesh
Food Grade 200mesh

Xanthan Gum Pharmaceutical / Medicine Grade:
Pharmaceutical Grade 40 mesh
Pharmaceutical Grade 80 mesh
Pharmaceutical Grade 200 mesh

Functions and Applications

1. It helps to prevent oil separation by stabilizing the emulsion, although it is not an emulsifier.

2. Xanthan gum also helps suspend solid particles, such as spices.    

3. Xanthan gum helps create the pleasant texture in many ice creams, along with guar gum and locust bean gum.    

4. Xanthan gum is also a preferred method of thickening liquids for those with swallowing disorders, since it does not change the color or flavor of foods or beverages.

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